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Proceedings of the 

American Railway Engineering 

Association 

Volume 84 (1983) 

(for detailed index see Bulletin 693, pa^e 459) 

Bulletin 689. Seplember-Oclober 1982 Page 

Special Reports 

Fraser River Canyon Feature • 

The Design of Ventilation Systems for Long Railway Tunnels— 

A Case Study for the Canadian National Railway 2 

Applying Modern Fracture Mechanics to Improve the Control 

of Rail Fatigue Defects in Track 19 

Published as Information 

Ties and Wood Preservation (3) 56 

Yards and Terminals (14) 57 

Economics of Railway Systems Engineering (32) 59 

Memoirs ' -^ 

Bulletin 690, November-December 1982 

Special Feature 
25 ° Curves on Chessie's Laurel Bank Grade 76 

Manual Recommendations 

Rail (4) "^^ 

Timber Structures (7) 81 

Concrete Structures and Foundations (8) 93 

Highway-Railway Programs (9) 94 

Concrete Ties (10) ^"^ 

Yards and Terminals (14) 98 

Steel Structures (15) '^ 

Economics of Plant, Equipment and Operations (16) 104 

Clearances (28) '^ 

Portfolio Recommendations 
Track (5) "2 

Published As Information 

Ties and Wood Preservation (3) " ^ 

Buildings (6) "^ 

Environmental Engineering (13) '23 

Economics of Railway Construction and Maintenance (22) 129 

Memoirs 

Bulletin 692, May 1983 

Cutting Through (Cover Feature) ''*^ 

Address by President Haacke, 1983 Technical Conference 149 

Headquarler's Report by Executive Director L. T. Cerny 153 

Treasurer's Statement by W. S. Lovelace '57 

Luncheon Address by J. C. Kenefick '59 

Reports From 1983 Technical Conference 

Line Relocations on the U. P '^^ 



Rail Grinding Tests Carried Out on CP Rail 167 

Du Pont Safety Management and Safety on the Railroad 197 

Summary of Second International Heavy Haul Conference Papers 203 

Special Reports 

Ballast Performance Evaluation with Box Tests 207 

Distribution of Temperature Stresses along the Continuously 

Welded Rails (CWR) 243 

A Method for Determining the Track Modulus using a Locomotive 

or Car on Multi-Axle Trucks 269 

Track Design to Prevent Long Pitch Rail Corrugation 289 

Published as Information by Committees 

Timber Structures (7) 301 

Economics of Railway Construction and Maintenance (22) 303 

Maintenance of Way Work Equipment (27) 308 

Memoirs 317 

Bulletin 693, October 1983 

New Rail Line Through the Rockies (Cover Feature) 319 

Concrete Ties on Mexican Railways 323 

The Introduction of British Rail's Stoneblowing Technique as an 

Alternative to Tamping 329 

Crosslevel Safety Performance Index 347 

Maintenance Effects on Ballast Physical State 367 

AAR Releases Report on Empirical Rail Wear Models 389 

Published as Information by Committees 

Ties and Wood Preservation (3) 393 

Track (5) 400 

Buildings (6) 403 

Yards and Terminals (14) 417 

Systems Engineering (32) 429 

Memoir 453 

Auditors' Report 455 

Index to Proceedings, Volume 84, 1983 459 



AMERICAN RAILWAY 
ENGINEERING ASSOCIATION 

p A BULLETIN 689 
VOL. 84 (1 983) 

CWClVEO SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 1982 

I I i ^ lyOt ROOM 403 

2000 L St. N.W. 

J. E. STALLMEy^ft Washington, d.c. 2oo36 

CONTENTS 

Fraser River Canyon Feature ^ 

Design of Ventilation Systems for Long Railway Tunnels 2 

Improved Control of Rail Fatigue Defects in Track 19 

Published as Information (Comm. 3, 1 4, 32) 55 

Memoirs ^^ 

1^1 M 




BOARD OF DIRECTION 
1982-1983 

President 

R. E. Haacke, District Engineer, Union Pacific Railroad, 724 Pittock Bldg., Portland, OR 
97205 

Vice Presidents 

H. L. Rose, Assistant Vice President — Maintenance of Way & Structures, Southern Railway, 

99 Spring St., S.W., Atlanta, GA 30303 
V. R. Terrill, Vice President — Engineering, Boston & Maine Corporation, High Street, 

North Billerica, MA 01862 

Past Presidents 

Mike Rougas, Chief Engineer, Bessemer & Lake Erie Railroad, P. O. Box 68, Monroeville, 

PA 15146 
Wm. Glavin, Vice President — Administration, Grand Trunk Western Railroad, 131 W. 

Lafayette Blvd., Detroit, MI 48226 

Directors 

B. J. Gordon, Chief Engineering Officer, Consolidated Rail Corporation, 6 Penn Center 
Plaza, Philadelphia, PA 19104 

J. C. HoBBS, Chief Engineer, Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac Railroad, P.O. Box 
11281, Richmond, VA 23230 

J. R. Masters, Chief Engineer — Maintenance, Burlington Northern Railroad, 176 E. 5th St., 
St. Paul, MN 55101 

P. R. Richards, Chief Engineer, Canadian National, Box 8100, Montreal, Que., H3C 3N4 

G. Rodriguez, Chief Engineer, Ferrocarriles Nacionales de Mexico, Av. Central 140, 8 Piso, 
Ala "B", Mexico 3, D.F., Mexico 

W. E. Brakensiek, Assistant Chief Engineer, Missouri Pacific Railroad, 210 N. 13th St., Rm. 
1211, St. Louis, MO 63103 

J. D. Jardine, Assistant Chief Engineer, Canadian Pacific Limited, Windsor Station, Mon- 
treal, Quebec H3C 3E4 

D. E. TuRNEY, Jr., Assistant Chief Engineer — Maintenance, Norfolk & Western Railway, 8 
N. Jefferson St., Roanoke, VA 24042 

H. G. Webb, Assistant Chief Engineer, Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway, 80 E. Jackson 
Blvd., Chicago, IL 60604 

R. E. Frame, Chief Engineering Officer, Family Lines Rail System, 500 Water St., Jack- 
sonville, FL 32202 

M. D. Kenyon, Assistant Chief Engineer, Denver & Rio Grande Western Railroad, Box 
5482, Denver, CO 80217 

A. L. Maynard, Director — Engineering Material Control, Chessie System, Box 1800, Hunt- 
ington, WV 25718 

W. B. Peterson, Chief Engineer, Soo Line Railroad, Box 530, Minneapolis, MN 55440 

Treasurer 

W. S. Lovelace, Asst. Vice President — Engrg. & Research, Southern Railway, P.O. Box 
1808, Washington, D.C. 20013 

HEADQUARTERS STAFF 

Executive Director 

Louis T. Cerny, 2000 L St., N.W., Washington, DC 20036 

Manager — Headquarters 

Judi Meyerhoeffer, 2000 L St., N.W., Washington, DC 20036 

Director of Engineering 

W. Arthur Grotz, Jr., 2000 L St., N.W., Washington, DC 20036 

Published by the American Railway Engineering Association, Bi-Monthly, January-February, April-May, June-July, 

September-October and November-December at 

2000 L St., N.W., Washington, DC 20036 

Second class postage at Washington, D.C. and at additional mailing offices 

Subscription $45 per annum 

Copyright ® 1982 

American Railway Engineering Association 

All rights reserved. 

(ISSN 0003-0694) 

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in an information or data retrieval system, or transmitted, in any 

form, or by any means — electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise — without the prior written permission 

of the publisher. 



American Railway 
Engineering Association 

Bulletin 689 

September-October 1982 

Proceedings Volume 84 (1983) 



Published by the 

American Railway Engineering Association 

2000 L St., N.W. 

Washington, D.C. 20036 



Subscription $45 per annum. 

Copyright « 1982 

by the 

American Railway Engineering Association 

(ISSN 0003-0694) 

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in an information or data retrieval 

system, transmitted in any form, or by any means — electronic, mechanical photocopying, 

recording, or otherwise — without the prior written permission of the publisher. 

Second class postage at Washington, D.C. and at additional mailing offices. 

The American Railway Engineering Association is not responsible for 

any statement made or opinion expressed in authored papers. 

Printed in The United States of America. 



Contents 

special Reports 

Fraser River Canyon Feature 1 

The Design of Ventilation 

Systems for Long Railway Tunnels — 

A Case Study for the Canadian 

National Railway 2 

Applying Modern Fracture 

Mechanics to Improve the Control 

of Rail Fatigue Defects in Track 19 

Published as Information 

Ties and Wood Preservation (3) 56 

Yards and Terminals (14) 57 

Economics of Railway 

Systems Engineering (32) 59 

Memoirs 73 

Cover photo: Westbound Canadian Pacific train heads south in Fraser River Canyon north of Yale, 
British Columbia, Canada. 



OFFICERS 1982-1983 




R. E. Haacke 

Preside III 

District Engineer 

Union Pacific Railroad 




H. L. Rose 

.S>. Vice President 

Assi V.P.. MoW & Structures 

Southern Railway 



V. R. Terrill 

Jr. Vice President 

Vice President-Engineering 

Boston & Maine Corp. 



Mike Rougas 

Past President 

Chief Engineer 

Bessemer & Lake Eric 




Wm. Glavin 

Past President 

Vice President-Administration 

Grand Trunk Western 



W. S. Lovelace 

Treasurer 

Assistant Vice President 

Engineering and Research 

Southern Railway System 



L. T. Cerny 

Executive Director 

American Railway 

Engineering Association 



DIRECTORS 1982-1983 






B. J. Gordon 

1980-1983 

Chief Engineering Officer 

Consolidated Rail Corp. 



J. C. HOBBS 

1980-1983 
Chief Engineer 
RF&P Railroad 



J. R. Masters 

1980-1983 

Chief Engineer-Maintenance 

Burlington Northern 






P. R. Richards 

1982-1983 

Chief Engineer 

CN Rail 



G. Rodriguez 

1981-1983 

Chief Engineer 

Nde M 



W. E. Brakensiek 

1981-1984 

Assistant Chief Engineer 

Missouri Pacific 






J. D. Jardine 

1981-1984 

Assistant Chief Engineer 

Canadian Pacific Ltd. 



D. E. TuRNEY, Jr. 

1981-1984 

Asst. Chief Engr.-Maint. 

Norfolk and Western 



H. G. Webb 

1981-1984 

Assistant Chief Engineer 

Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe 






R. E. Frame 

1982-1985 

Chief Engineering Officer 

Family Lines 



M. D. Ken YON 

1982-1985 

Asst. Chief Engineer 

Denver & Rio Grande Western 



A. L. Maynard 

1982-1985 

Dir. Engrg. Mat. Cntl. 

Chessie System 



W. B. Peterson 

1982-1985 

Chief Engineer 

Soo Line 






5^5 • ^wT 





The Fraser River Canyon 



For the cover feature in this Bulletin we return to western Canada, this time to the 
spectacular Fraser River Canyon between Yale and Lytton in British Columbia. This canyon 
is used by both the Canadian National and Canadian Pacific transcontinental mainlines and 
has more rainfall, and thus more trees than most of the Thompson River Canyon (see AREA 
Bulletin 684, cover and pg. 63), which becomes nearly desert-like west of Kamloops. 

The photo above shows where the Canadian Pacific and Canadian National lines trades 
sides at Cisco. The Canadian National bridge in the background is 812 feet long and 220 feet 
high and consists of six deck plate girder spans and one 425 foot arch span. This is the bridge 
that was involved in the derailment-fire covered in AREA Bulletin 668 (June-July 1978. pg. 
625). In the foreground is the Canadian Pacific bridge, 528 feet long and 142 feet high using 
three through truss spans. 

The ruggedness of the canyon coupled with the rapid growth of heavy traffic on both lines 
has led to considerations of various alignment improvements, some involving tunnels of 
unprecedented length, as indicated in the following article. 



The Design Of Ventilation Systems For 

Long Railway Tunnels — A Case Study 

For The Canadian National Railway 

R.G. Charlwood,* J.R. Huggett,* J.R. Pringle* 



Summary 



This paper outlines the conceptual design of the permanent ventilation systems prepared 
for several long railway tunnels. The design formed part of a feasibility study carried out by 
Klohn Leonoff Ltd. to evaluate the tunnels required to facilitate double tracking of the 
Canadian National Railway between Edmonton and Vancouver. The tunnels considered vary 
in length from 3.7 miles to 27 miles. The longer tunnels, are not currently under consideration 
for construction but were identified as possible alternative schemes. Two of the shorter tunnels 
are considered likely candidates for construction. 

Innovative methods were proposed to ventilate the longer tunnels by using a system of 
intermediate air shafts, gates and fans. The design considerations for the major components 
of the ventilation system are briefly addressed and the problems of accessabihty of equipment 
in remote areas, and the design of tunnel gates are described. 

Problems associated with train operation in the tunnels are discussed, with particular 
reference to the effect of flushing time on overall train cycle times. Various methods of 
reducing cycle times for given flush times are discussed, and graphical techniques currently 
under development are used to determine optimum solutions. Consideration is also given to 
the transient locomotive cooling problems associated with entry to and exit from the tunnels. 

Finally, consideration is given to methods to determine the capacity of a railway line 
which passes through several ventilated tunnels, in order to determine the optimum operating 
mode for such a network. 

1. Introduction 

The Canadian National Railway network in Western Canada includes a main Une from 
Edmonton, Alberta, to Vancouver, British Columbia, as shown on Fig. 1. The economic 
growth of Western Canada is resulting in major increases in rail traffic to the west coast ports. 
The existing single line track may reach capacity in the next few years. In order to meet the 
projected increase in freight traffic, the Canadian National Railway is planning a plant expan- 
sion program to double track the line between Edmonton and Vancouver. The present route 
passes through the mountainous Cordilleran Region which includes the Thompson River 
Valley and Fraser Canyon, and contains 29 single track tunnels. 

Klohn Leonoff Ltd. of Richmond, Vancouver, British Columbia, were commissioned in 
1979 by the Canadian National Railway to evaluate the tunneling requirements necessary to 
facilitate double tracking. The tunnel study was divided into two parts. The first evaluated 
tunnel requirements along the existing alignment. The second evaluated very long tunnels, 
which would facilitate double tracking and also shorten the existing route by 90 miles. 

The location of the tunnels investigated in the first part were mainly between Hope and 
Kamloops in the Yale and Ashcroft Subdivisions as shown on Fig. 2. The long tunnels 
considered in the second part were in two locations. In one area, a tunnel through the Selkirk 
Range of the Rocky Mountains was envisaged, to shorten the present route via Red Pass and 
Valemont as shown on Fig. 3. In the second area a new route was investigated as shown on 
Fig. 4 to bypass the difficult terrain in the Thompson River Valley and Fraser Canyon in order 



'Klohn Leonoff Ltd. 



Paper by R.G. Charlwciod. JR. Huggctt. J.R. Pringlc 




FIGURE 1: KEY PLAN 



\ 




From Kamloopt 


WHITE 
CANYON 

TUNNEL 






Lyt 


ton -4 




^ 


WHITE CANYON /JACKASS 
atrFftSS TUNNEL 



Hells Gote -^•-=: 


::::—- hells gate tunnel 




Yale -J 


~~^^ STOUT tunnel I 



Hope 



PORTAL 
VENTILATlL^ SHAFT 



FIGURE 2: LOCATION OF PROPOSED 
TUNNELS ALONG EXISTING 
ROUTE 



Bulletin 689 — American Railway Engineering Association 




A VENTILATION SHAFT 



FIGURE 3: LOCATION PLAN OF RED PASS 
BYPASS ALTERNATIVE ROUTES 



Cache Creek 



THOMPSON RIV 



Camloops 



1, Mol 


^tton Nicola 

Merritt j^ 

Glenwalkerjr-~^su 


^/_JIJ TUNNEL A 1 






If NICOLA 

< 

IFACE UNE 






I _^\ \H TUNNEL B (EnsI) 1 




Hells Gate 


If \L,.,.. 







..":- 


SCALE 

Princeton 

• 

LEGEND 

O PORTAL 
A VENTILAT 


i„«. 


Yale 


» ^^■'■IJNNEL B(West)| 




■r 


Hope 


ON SHAFT 



FIGURE 4: LOCATION PLAN 

HOPE TO KAMLOOPS 
ALTERNATIVE ROUTE 



Paper by R.G. Charlwood, J.R. Huggett. J.R. Pringic 



to reduce costly railway maintenance and shorten the route. This route included a system of 
tunnels and surface line from Kamloops to Hope, via Merritt. These tunnels, if constructed, 
would far exceed the length of any existing diesel operated railway tunnels. 

The long tunnels are not under active consideration by the Canadian National Railway. 
The study was intended to point out other options that existed. At present the most likely 
tunnels to be constructed during the first phase of work are the White Canyon and Hells Gate 
Tunnels together with various other shorter unventilated tunnels. 

The operation of diesel powered trains through long tunnels presents two major venti- 
lation problems which impact directly on train scheduling. These are: (a) ensuring an adequate 
supply of cooling air to the locomotives; and (b) maintaining acceptable air quality in the 
tunnel. This paper describes the preliminary design concepts, which were developed for 
ventilating the longer tunnels and presents some new and original concepts, which were 
considered for the longest tunnels. The paper also describes further development work which 
is being undertaken by Klohn Leonoff Ltd. 

2. Details of Proposed Tunnels 

The tunnel evaluation to facilitate double tracking along the existing route included four 
possible tunnels which would require a permanent ventilation system. 

Details of these tunnels are as follows: 



Tunnel Name 


Length 
(miles) 


Grade (%) 

( + ve 
westbound) 


Approximate 

Elevations 

(ft.) 


Subdivisions 


Mileage 


White Canyon/ 
Jackass 
Bypass 


13.1 


+ 0.3 
-0.3 


500 


Ashcroft 


91.3 to 109.8 


White Canyon 


3.7 


+ 0.3 
-0.3 


500 


Ashcroft 


91.0 to 94.7 


Hells Gate 


4.8 


-0.3 


500 


Yale 


3.6 to 9.8 


Stout 


5.3 


-0.2 


500 


Yale 


19.0 to 24.8 



The proposed locations of the tunnels are shown on Fig. 2. Two of the tunnels are 
alternate schemes to bypass the White Canyon, where individual duplication of the existing 
tunnels and double tracking of the surface line appeared to be impractical. 

The evaluation of possible long tunnels to shorten the route between Edmonton and 
Vancouver identified four tunnels which would require permanent ventilation. 

These tunnels which are shown on Fig's. 3 and 4 are as follows: 

Grade (%) Approximate 
Length* ( + ve Elevations 

Tunnel Name (miles) westbound) (ft.) Subdivisions Mileage 

Rainbow/Valemont 17.5 +0.69 2825 to 3405 Albreda 32.8 to 78 

'Multiple lengths indicate tunnels with more than one continuous underground section. 



6 


Bulletin 689 — American Railway Engineering 


Association 






Tunnel Name 


Ler 
(mi 


igth 
les) 


Grade (%) Approximate 

( + ve Elevations 
westbound) (ft.) Subdivisions 


Mileage 


Lucerne/Clemina 
Kamloops/Nicola 
Glenwalker/Hope 




21.6 

5.5 

27 

23.1 
14.8 
10.7 


-0.84 and 2750 to 3560 
+0.34 

+0.72 1160 to 2190 
-0.82 195 to2300 


Albreda 

Ashcroft 
Yale 

Ashcroft 
Yale 


25 to 95 



Of these tunnels the first two are alternates for the bypass of the Red Pass area and only 
one would require construction. The remainder are part of a possible new route between 
Kamloops and Hope via Merritt. 

Although all of these tunnels are very long, the construction and ventilation problems are 
eased somewhat in the case of the Lucerne/Clemina and the Glenwalker/Hope tunnels, which 
both daylight for short stretches. The most demanding tunnel is 27 miles long. 



3. Design Criteria 

A ventilation system is required in long tunnels where diesel powered trains are operating 
to ensure an adequate supply of cooling air to the locomotives and to maintain acceptable air 
quality in the tunnel. 

The design train represents the expected heaviest loading on the ventilation system and 
forms the basis for the design of all major items of machinery and equipment required. The 
critical parameters of the design train are horsepower, type and location of the locomotive 
units and the speeds that can be achieved with the specified train and tonnage. The Canadian 
National Railway specified that the design train would be one hundred thirty 100 ton cars 
powered by four 3,000 H.P. locomotives traveling in the westbound direction. Eastbound 
trains were assumed to be more lightly loaded and therefore, present less demanding cooling 
requirements. The locomotive units were assumed to be grouped in a single lead consist with 
no satellite locomotive. Where possible, tunnels should be capable of carrying trains at the 
prevailing zone speeds either side of the tunnel or as controlled by the grade. 

Cooling air to the locomotives is required to ensure that the air temperature at the 
radiator air intake does not exceed the critical value (approximately 118° F). Above this critical 
temperature the engine starts to overheat and will eventually notch back to a lower throttle 
setting or shut down. Available test data indicates that the temperature distribution is highly 
stratified in the tunnel, and it may be appropriate, particularly with the heavier unit trains to 
use locomotives modified for tunnel operation. These draw in radiator cooling air at a lower 
elevation than standard locomotives, permitting operation in a higher average tunnel air 
temperature environment. However, further investigation of this option must consider the 
restrictions that it would place on the railway operation, loss of engine efficiency and other 
issues. 

Adequate air quality prior to the entry of a train to the tunnel is maintained by use of 
flushing fans following the previous train passage. The air quality determination is a complex 
problem requiring consideration of the following operating scenarios: 

1. Normal Train Passage 



Paper by R.G. Charlwood, JR. Huggett. J.R. Pringle 



(a) Air quality for the crew in the lead locomotive. 

(b) Air quality for the crew in the caboose. 

2. Breakdown, Maintenance and Emergency Conditions 

(a) Long term corrosion problems. 

(b) Maintenance — air quality for wayside workers. 

(c) Train breakdown. 

(d) Fire — for evacuation of crews and to assist in fire fighting. 

For preliminary design purposes a nominal flush time of 15 minutes was used as an initial 
design criteria for both east and westbound trains. The impact of this key design parameter 
was then reviewed in terms of the system operation by calculating train passage and ventilation 
flushing cycle times for various scenarios. The review involved the application of special 
graphical techniques and is discussed in Section 6 of this paper. 

4. Design Concept 

A summary of the long tunnels used for vehicle passage which have been constructed 
around the world is shown in Fig. 5. The tunnels which have been considered in this study are 
shown in relation to existing tunnels. 

A more detailed study of long railway tunnels in North America, in which diesel powered 
trains operate, revealed three tunnels of significant length in which ventilation systems are 
operated. These were as follows: 













Date of 












ventilation 




Operating 




Length 




system 


Name of Tunnel 


Railway 


Location 


(miles) 


Grade 


installation 


Flathead 


Burlington 
Northern 


Montana 


7.00 


+ 0.46 


1970 


Cascade 


Burlington 
Northern 


Washington 


7.79 


+ 1.57 


1955 


Moffatt 


Denver and 
Rio Grande 
Western 


Colorado 


6.21 


+ 0.X and 
-0.3 


1928 



Present diesel operating experience of such tunnels is therefore limited to a maximum 
length of 7.79 miles at the Cascade Tunnel. All three tunnels utilize similar ventilation systems 
with ventilation fans and gates located at one portal. The portal gate is used to seal one end 
of the tunnel against air loss, thereby forcing cooling air to the locomotive by piston action. 
The cooling process is also supplemented by fan operation as necessary. In addition, the gate 
facilitates the flushing process by directing the air flow provided by the fans along the length 
of the tunnel. 

The eight tunnels requiring ventilation were chosen on the basis that only tunnels in 
excess of 2 miles need be considered. This assumption was bised on a review of research and 
experience (Ref. 5). Four of the tunnels have a length less than 8 miles and the ventilation 
system can therefore be based on existing operating experience at the Flathead, Cascade and 
Moffatt tunnels. 



Bulletin 689 — American Railway Engineering Association 




FIGURE & LONG TUNNELS 

* - INDICATES DOUBLE TRACK CROSS SECTION 



Paper by R.G. C'harlwood, J.R. Huggett, J.R. Pringic 



The approach to the ventilation design ot the four longest tunnels was to divide them into 
segments of no longer than 8 miles by the installation of intermediate shafts and gates. The 
segments lengths were dictated largely by the availability of suitable shaft locations. 

The need for supplementary cooling air was based on previous operating experience 
which indicated the self-cooling speed, using the piston effect from a closed door if necessary, 
would not be achieved by westbound design trains on ascending grades greater than 0.6%. For 
the higher grades, in the range 0.69% to 0.84% 125,000 cfm, supplementary cooling air was 
estimated to be required. For eastbound trains which are less heavily loaded, it was assumed 
that even on ascending grades greater than 0.6%, adequate cooling could be provided by the 
closed door piston effect alone, without using fans. It was therefore found that the cooling 
requirements had minimal impact on the overall ventilation system design. The fans were sized 
for flushing with allowance made for delivering cooling air where necessary. 

For all tunnels requiring ventilation, equipment sizes and flush times were calculated for 
single track tunnels constructed by conventional drill and block methods. An assessment of the 
impact of tunnel boring machines on the ventilation was also made. In addition, consideration 
was given to the feasibility of providing double tracked tunnels for the long bypass routes, but 
it was concluded that the preferred method of providing double tracking was to drive two 
parallel single track tunnels. The ventilation concepts in these cases would be essentially the 
same as for single tunnels, except that one pair of fans would be used for both tunnels. 
Switching of fans to the required tunnel would be achieved through a manifold at the intake 
portal with duct crossovers. 

5. Cooling Requirements in Long Tunnels 

Previous studies of the cooling requirements of diesel locomotives in long analytical 
railway tunnels have generally limited themselves to the study of the steady state conditions. 
This assumes that the train is operating at a constant speed with full cooling air being available. 

However, the cooling requirements during the entry and exit stages of train passage may 
prove to be the critical case for consideration. Fig. 6 shows an idealization of the response of 
the locomotive cooling system during the passage of the train through a single segment tunnel. 
This illustrates the response of the lead locomotive and a remote locomotive if used on an 
alternative consist. The critical cooling problem is an exit from the tunnel. In order to ensure 
that a door is fully open before the train exits and to allow the train to stop in the event of door 
failure, the actuator for the door drive is positioned some 3000 feet before the door. This 
means that when the full piston cooling effect of the closed door is terminated, the satellite 
locomotive is still over 6300 feet from the exit portal. 

It can be seen from Fig. 6 that when the door opens the radiator air intake temperature 
will rise and some overheating may occur depending on train speed, hp., etc. The character- 
istics of the locomotive together with a consideration of the track geometry may then be the 
difference between success and failure of the train to operate satisfactorily. If the locomotive 
is operating at throttle 8, when the cooling water temperature reaches a critical value some 
locomotive manufacturers offer an option which allows the locomotive to notch back the 
throttle setting to number 6 automatically instead of total shutdown. Total shutdown is 
undesirable since the sudden drop in power and operating speed will lead to increased cooling 
demands for other units and may cause these units to also shutdown, thereby potentially 
stalling the train before it is out of the tunnel. The delay in notch back can also be extended 
by the use of high pressure radiator caps. 

The track geometry is important since if the grade increases outside the tunnel even more 
power is required as the train exits the tunnel. Ideally, the grade should decrease outside the 
tunnel and thus, compensate for loss of some power during exit. 



10 



Bulletin 689 — American Railway Engineering Association 





Mo»i muin op eroting temp.- 2I0*F 
(Maximum air intak* t<mp.= 118 F ) 

Critical Uad loco 



Critical ramot* loco 



Sttady ttati phait detarminad 
by inlat air tamp.<ll8*F 



FIGURE 6: DEALIZED LOCOMOTIVE COOLING SYSTEM RESPONSE DURING TUNNEL PASSAGE 



6. System Description 

The schematics of each proposed tunnel ventilation system are shown on Fig. 7.1 and Fig. 
7.2. A conceptual portal and shaft system layout is shown in Figure 8. Fan sizes were standard- 
ized for all tunnels in pairs of 500,000 cfm capacity each. These are the largest production sizes 
currently available and result in nominal flush times of about 15 minutes for the individual 
tunnel segments, with both fans operating in parallel. The mean air velocities are approxi- 
mately 2,800 ft/minute and are compatible with normal train speeds, where the injected air is 
chasing the train. Flushing times were calculated on the basis of removing 125% of the tunnel 
volume of air in order to allow for mixing of contaminated and injected air during flushing. 

The exhaust shafts would have a dividing wall to provide separate air flow circuits for each 
tunnel segment. Gates would be provided at the base of the shaft to seal each circuit. During 
detail design, consideration should be given to providing equipment such as fans, motors and 
gates in duplicate, since at high traffic volumes the need for system reliability and minimum 
maintenance downtime will become paramount. The standardization of fan and motor sizes 
throughout the system would help to achieve these goals. 

It may be desirable to provide a capability to flush noxious gases in either direction by 
providing two sets of fans, one at each end of a tunnel segment. The installation of fans and 
equipment at the top of the intermediate air shafts may present environmental, operational 
or maintenance problems due to the exposed and possibly remote location of the shafts. 
Access may well be difficult and further, more detailed studies may show that the fans should 
be located within and at the base of the air shafts so that access and maintenance can be 
conducted from within the tunnel. 



Paper by R.G. Charlwood, J.R. Huggett, J.R. Pringle 



WEST EAST 



WHITE CANYON / JACKASS 
BYPASS TUNNEL 

Length 13.1 miles 



WHITE CANYON TUNNEL 

Length 3.7 mitet 



■•■ — / 



-^^ 



4.8 8.3 



^y 



3.7 



HELLS GATE TUNNEL 

Length 4.8 miles 

STOUT TUNNEL 

Length 5.3 miles 



4.8 



y" 



5.3 



FIGURE 7.1: SCHEMATIC LAYOUT 
OF 
VENTILATION SYSTEMS 



LEGEND. 



INTAKE FAN 
DOUBLE GATES 



EXHAUST PORTAL ^ INTAKE PORTAL 



RAINBOW / VALEMOUNT TUNNEL 

Length 17.5 miles 



LUCERNE / CLEMINA TUNNEL 

Length 27 miles 



VALEMOUNT 



^■^ 


f^ 


r"-^ 
r ^ 


- — •■■ 




■■ — •■■'1 



5.3 6.9 5.3 



CLEMINA 11 



¥- 



RAINBOW 



.M^ 



5.5 y/\ 7.7 6.7 7.2 



TUNNEL A 

Length 27 mllei 

TUNNEL B 

Length 48.5 



V 



V- 



6.75 6.75 6.75 675 



:^^^^,:,^^i^^^.^^M^ 



10.7 y/\. 6.9 7.9 y\^ 7.7 7.7 7.7 

DAYLIGHT DAYLIGHT 

FIGURE 7.2: SCHEMATIC LAYOUT OF VENTILATION SYSTEMS 



12 



Bulletin 689 — American Railway Engineering Association 




Paper by R.G. Charlwood, J.R. Huggett. J.R. Pringlc 13 



The installation of tunnel gates has already been the subject of some detailed investiga- 
tion as part of other studies (Ref. 1). A number of provisional design criteria were identified 
for the purpose of designing the gates and drive mechanisms. In order of importance these 
were: 

a) Reliability — to maintain high volume traffic flows 

b) Fail Safe Operation — the gate will open automatically in the event of mechanical or 

electrical failure 

c) Maintenance — minimize disruptions and cost 

d) Opening Speed — maximize traffic flow 

e) Air Pressure — minimize gate pressures, 35 inches/WG may be required for piston air 

cooling 

f) Frangible Section — required for operator safety 

The frangible section is required to prevent serious damage to trains, operators and gate 
structures in the unlikely event of impact by a train. Klohn Leonoff are developing a vertically 
opening fabric gate design for the British Columbia Railway, which meets their low traffic 
frequency requirement. At the high train frequency expected for the CNR tunnels, a more 
robust rigid gate system would probably be required, possibly with double gates, one acting 
as a backup for the other in event of failure. Horizontal biparting gates may best satisfy the 
design criteria for rigid gates but have not been used before in similar tunnel applications. 
Some existing rigid vertical gates do not embody a completely satisfactory frangible section. 
A vertical gate jamming partly open, may present an obstruction at cab level, whereas a 
horizontally opening gate would always be struck first by the relatively strong locomotive 
drawbar structure, thus protecting the cab. 

Finally, the satisfactory operation of ventilation systems in remote areas will be de- 
pendant on the reliability of the power supply. It is anticipated that primary power for the 
CNR system would be available from nearby transmission lines. To ensure maximum re- 
liability, stand-by power should be available for emergency situations. This could be provided 
by on-site diesel generators. 

7. System Operation 

The capacity of the CNR lines passing through the long ventilated tunnels was assumed 
in terms of the overall cycle time required to flush the noxious gases from each tunnel segment, 
after the passage of a train, before allowing a second train to enter. Klohn Leonoff Ltd. 
developed graphical techniques for the determination of train cycle times for a variety of 
flushing times and operating modes. The illustrations presented (Fig. 9. 1 to 9.4) for Hells Gate 
Tunnel show the application of these diagrams to a tunnel composed of a single segment. Fig. 
10 shows the proposed Rainbow- Valemount tunnel in which there are several segments. The 
diagrams may also be used to study the interaction of one ventilated tunnel with another on 
a different part of the railway line. 

The maximum capacity of a railway line is achieved by minimizing the flushing time 
amongst other variables. Practical considerations of fan size and air velocity limit the extent 
to which flushing time can be decreased by merely increasing fan size. Investigations have 
revealed ways in which cycle time can be reduced without increasing fan size. These are; 

(a) Dividing the tunnels into segments by means of intermediate air shafts and gates 
thereby reducing the length of the flushing path. 

(b) Operating trains in a particular sequence that optimizes cycle time, e.g. the operation 



14 



Bulletin 689 — American Railway Engineering Association 




NOTES: 

1. Train speeds assumed 
40 mph in both direction! 

2. Flushing time assumed 
is 10 mins. 

3. Train length =1.15 miles 



(ii) caboose of Eostbound 



5. Train sequence: 

East, East, West, West 
(One direction flushing} 

39 9 e.Totol cycle time: 

SB.6mins.(4 Troins) 
35.9 



B.W-W cycle time: 
IS.Tminl. (I Train) 

22.6 LEGEND: 

21.2 

17.3 111 FAN FLUSHING 
15.6 

K^^ PISTON COOLING 



7,0 t::f'-1 



Train Movement Simulation for Hells Gate Tunnel; Case I 

FIGURE 9-1 

V.WEST 



FANS 
GATE 



£: 



EAST 



-0.3% 
2.6 miles 



* 0.3 % 
2.0 miles 




NOTES: 

I. Troin speeds assumed 

40 mph in both directions 

2. Flushing lime assumed 
is 10 mins. 

3. Troin length = 1.15 miles 

4. Flushing will stort when: 
54.6 (i) caboose of Westbound 

train leaves the tunnel. 
Ci) coboose of Eostbound 



5. Train sequence: 
Eost, West, East, West 
(One direction flushing) 

39-9 6. Total cycle time: 

68.6 mini. (4 Troins) 
36.0 
343 



Bi 

70 t:::::l 



FAN FLUSHING 
PISTON COOLING 



Train Movement Simulation for Hells Gate Tunnel: Case 2 

FIGURE 9-2 



Paper by R.G. Charlwood, J.R. Huggett. J.R. Pringle 



FANS 
GATE 



hsm 



•0.3% 

ZOmllas 




40 mph in both dif«c(ion* 

Z Fkilhing lime oilumed 
It 10 mini. 

3 Tfoin l«nfl1^ =1 15 m.lo 



S Troin ■equincgi 
6 Eo>l, Eosi, Wail, West 

S9 (T«o dirtctiwi flushing] 



35 9 7 E-E cycle time ■ 

tSemmi (I Troin) 
- 329 

312 e w-wc,cle irme. 

14 7 mm. (I Tfc) 



22 6 LEGEND: 

212 

Ijj [ j FAN FLUSHING 

15 6 

l'\':':'] NEGATIVE 
LiiiJ PISTON COOLINI 



Train Movement Simulation for Hells Gate Tunnel: Cose 3 

FIGURE 9-3 



GATE t-^"'--^^''-^^-^'^-'^'-^^^ 




2 ""— - 



Train Movement Simulation for Hells Gate Tunnel: Case 4 

FIGURE 9-4 



16 



Bulletin 689 — American Railway Engineering Association 



5rj 



134.4 -.-.:^:^,^., 




3. Train length = 1.15 milM 

4. Flushing at each section 



as.e 7 E-E cycle 



m 
□ 



Train Movement Simulation for Roinbow/Volemont Tunnel 

FIGURE 10 



of trains in pairs in the same direction allowing a second train to enter a segment of the tunnel 
while a first train is in a different tunnel segment. 

(c) Providing the ability to flush the tunnels in two directions and thereby flushing the 
gases behind the train. This requires fans at both portals. 

(d) Use of gas analysis and control systems to flush to pre-set concentration levels. 

The above situations can all be more fully investigated using the graphical techniques to 
determine the optimum solution. 

Cycle time is defined for single directional traffic as the time before entry into the tunnel 
of successive trains, e.g. Figure 9.1 shows an Eastbound cycle time of 15.6 minutes (for 10 
minute flush time). The corresponding Westbound cycle time is 18.7 minutes. 

The effect of altering train sequence on cycle time is shown by comparing Figure 9. 1 with 
9.2 or Figure 9.3 with 9.4. The effect of one or two direction flushing is demonstrated by 
comparing Figure 9.1 with 9.3 or Figure 9.2 with 9.4. In these cases total cycles times are 
computed for various sequences of four trains. The idea of one direction flushing implies the 
ability to remove the noxious gases in one direction only using fans at one portal by pushing 
the gases through a portal or exhaust shaft at the opposing end. Two direction flushing implies 
the ability to exhaust the gases in either direction. This would be achieved by providing fans 
at both ends of a segment. Only one set of fans would be used at a time, the other being 
isolated by closing the fan dampers. 



Paper by R.G. Charlwood, J.R. Huggett, J.R. Pringle 



17 



TABLE I 
SUMMARY OF FLUSHING TIMES AND FAN SIZES 







Section 


Flush 


Fan Capacity 






Length 


Time 


No./cfm each/ 


Name of Tunnel 


Section 


(miles) 


(minutes) 


H.P. each 


White Canyon/ 


West 


4.8 


11 


2/500,000/1250 


Jackass Bypass 


East 


8.3 


20 


2/500,000/2000 


White Canyon 


— 


3.7 


9 


2/500,000/1000 


Hells Gate* 


— 


4.8 


11 


4/500,000/800 


Stout 


— 


5.3 


12 


4/500,000/1000 


Rainbow/ 


West 


5.3 


12 


2/500,000/1400 


Valemont* 


Centre 


6.9 


16 


2/500,000/1800 




East 


5.3 


12 


2/500,000/1400 


Lucerne/ 


West 


5.5 


13 


2/500,000/1400 


Clemina 


East 1 


7.2 


17 


2/500,000/1800 




East 2 


6.7 


16 


2/500,000/1700 




East 3 


7.7 


18 


2/500,000/2000 


Tunnel A 


West 


6.75 


16 


2/500,000/1700 


Kamloops/ 


West Centre 


6.75 


16 


2/500,000/1700 


Nicola 


East Centre 


6.75 


16 


2/500,000/1700 




East 


6.75 


16 


2/500,000/1700 


Tunnel B 


West 


10.7 


25 


4/500,000/2700 


Glenwalker/ 


Centre 1 


6.9 


16 


2/500,000/1700 


Hope 


Centre 2 


7.9 


18 


2/500,000/2000 




East 1 


7.7 


18 


2/500,000/2000 




East 2 


7.7 


18 


2/500,000/2000 




East 3 


7.7 


18 


2/500,000/2000 



•See cycle time diagrams Figures 9.1 to 9.4 and Figure 10. 



The need for fans at both portals and two dimensional flushing to reduce cycle times is 
dictated by the fan characteristics. The flushing fans would be unable to operate against the 
pressure created ahead of a moving train without stalling. If the direction of flushing is 
opposed to train movement, flushing cannot begin till the trains have cleared the segment. 
However, reduction in flushing times can be achieved by pushing the noxious gases behind the 
train so that when the train clears the tunnel segment, a large portion of the polluted atmo- 
sphere has already been replaced. 

The train sequence alternatives investigated at present, for the Hells Gate Tunnel, have 
been limited to comparing the effect of trains passing through the tunnels in pairs, in the same 
direction, with trains passing in alternate directions. Significant improvements in cycle time 
can be achieved by tandem operation of trains. Two dimensional flushing would marginally 
reduce cycle times, but may not be justified in practice. Further savings could possibly be 
achieved by the addition of further intermediate shafts witn a penalty of increased system 
complexity. Similar conclusions are indicated by the analyses shown in Figure 10 for the 
Rainbow/Valemount Tunnel. 



18 Bulletin 689 — American Railway Engineering Association 



Finally, further development work is proceeding to extend the graphical techniques to 
investigate the interaction of one long tunnel with another in order to determine overall line 
capacity. 

8. Conclusions 

The principal conclusions arising from these studies to date are: 

(a) It is feasible to provide an adequate ventilation sysem for very long railway tunnels 
to allow the passage of diesel powered trains. 

(b) The primary consideration for the design of ventilation systems for these long tunnels 
is flushing time and its impact on train cycle times and traffic volumes. 

(c) Flushing time for very long tunnels can be reduced by the installation of intermediate 
air shafts and gates in order to divide the tunnel into smaller segments for flushing purposes. 

(d) Determination of cooling requirements for the locomotives should consider the tran- 
sient cooling problems associated with entry to and exit from the tunnels, in addition to the 
steady state condition. 

(e) Graphical techniques have been used to show that train cycle times can be signifi- 
cantly reduced by tandem operating of trains in the same direction and marginally by providing 
a flushing capability in both directions. 

(f) The capacity of a line containing more than one tunnel with a ventilation system 
requires a study of the interaction of one tunnel cycle with another in order to determine the 
optimum operating mode and capacity of the whole railway line. The graphical techniques may 
be extended to investigate this. 

9. Acknowledgements 

The authors wish to thank the Canadian National Railway for the opportunity to carry out 
this work and publish this paper. In addition we wish to acknowledge the contribution of other 
members of Klohn Leonoffs project team and the assistance of Mr. C. G. Nelson, Design 
Consultant. 

10. References 

1. Charlwood, R. C, Huggett, J. R., Salt, P. E.: "Tunnel Ventilation Systems for the British 
Columbia Railway", 4th International Symposium on the Aerodynamics and Ventilation of 
Vehicle Tunnels, York, England, 1982. 

2. Nelson, C. G.: "Design Criteria for Railway Tunnel Ventilation Systems", ASHRAE 
Transactions HA-77-3, No. 2, New York, 1978, pp. 374-391. 

3. Aisicks, E. G. and Danziger, N. H.: "Ventilation Research Program at Cascade Tunnel, 
Great Northern Railway". American Railway Engineering Association, Vol. 71, Bulletin 
622, September-October 1969. 

4. Daugherty, R. L.: "Piston Effect of Trains in Tunnels", Transactions of the ASME, Febru- 
ary 1942, pp. 77-84. 

5. Ostling, A. R.: "Ventilation Requirements of the Kaimai Tunnel", Mechanical and Elec- 
trical Division, Ministry of Works and Development, New Zealand, June 1977. 

6. a. International Symposium on the Aerodynamics and Ventilation of Tunnels. BHRA 

Fluid Engineering, Cranfield, England, 1973. 

b. International Symposium on the Aerodynamics and Ventilation of Tunnels. BHRA 
Fluid Engineering, Cranfield, England, 1976. 

c. The Aerodynamics and Ventilation of Vehicle Tunnels, A State-of-the-Art Review and 
Bibliography, BHRA, 1976. 

7. Personal Communication: C. G. Nelson. 



Applying Modern Fracture Mechanics to Improve the 
Control of Rail Fatigue Defects in Track 

O. Orringer and M.W. Bush* 

Introduction 

For the past four years, the AREA Ad Hoc Committee on Track Performance Standards 
has been developing a specification for control of rail defects in track. The development is a 
cooperative effort involving the Rail Safety Research Office of the Federal Railroad Admin- 
istration, the American Railway Engineering Association (AREA), the Transportation Test 
Center, and the Transportation Systems Center. The goal is a specification flexible enough to 
allow the individual railroad to focus its inspection and track forces on stretches of track where 
high defect rates, high traffic densities, and high operating speeds are prevalent. 

The framework of the specification has been shaped by an in-depth study of rail defect 
occurrence data. A major experiment to determine preliminary values for some of the key 
parameters in the specification has been developed and is being sponsored by the Committee. 
This experiment, the Defect Growth Rate Pilot Test (DGRPT), will start soon as the Facility 
for Accelerated Service Testing (FAST). It is recognized, however, that the DGRPT and 
similar experiments being conducted at the AAR Rolling Loads Laboratory operate in ideal- 
ized environments, and planning is now underway to develop the nature and extent of field 
testing which will be required to refine and confirm the ultimate specification for revenue 
service environments. 

The purpose of this paper is to report on the background and status of the specification 
development. The report is organized in five major sections. First, the background of rail 
mechanics and fatigue-life estimation is reviewed to make the point that, while fatigue-life 
prediction might ultimately provide some design guidelines, it is not a reliable source of 
information for track quality management. Second, some preliminary results are presented 
from the in-depth study of rail defect occurrence field data. Because of the complexity of this 
topic, it is covered in the following subtopics: accident distribution; dependence of defect rate 
on accumulated tonnage; defect rate versus derailment rate; distribution of defects in track; 
significant defect types; and defect detection. Third, the key observations of the in-depth study 
are summarized together with the Committee's current synthesis of results as a preliminary 
framework for the specification. Fourth, the subject of rail mechanics is taken up again, 
focusing on crack-growth life measurement and prediction. Crack growth rates can be used to 
determine time available to detect typical defects in track, and these detection times are an 
important part of the specification. Finally, some details of the DGRPT are presented to show 
how the experiment will support measurement and prediction of detection times. 

Mechanics of Stress and Fatigue in Rail 

Although it is not generally recognized today, the railroad industry was the pioneering 
force in the early development of engineering analysis of metal fatigue. A series of experi- 
ments on railroad car axles by Wohler in the mid-nineteenth century is the first published 
example of an engineering solution of a fatigue-cracking problem.' Subsequent studies of 
bearing fatigue by Palmgren* led to the first statement of the linear cumulative damage 
summation method of fatigue life prediction, later proposed independently by Miner' and 
popularly known as Miner's rule. The Palmgren-Miner rule is used to estimate fatigue life in 
the presence of alternating stresses with different amplitudes by forming the "damage sum": 

D=I,in,/N,) (1) 



"DOT Transportation Systems Center 



19 



20 



Bulletin 689 — American Railway Engineering Association 



where /?, is the actual number of service occurrences of the /th stress amplitude and Ni is the 
experimentally determined number of occurrences required to cause fatigue failure in a 
constant-amplitude test. The combined effects of different amplitudes are assumed to cause 
a failure when D s 1. Note also that N, is taken to be infinite {n,/N, = 0) for stress amplitudes 
below the material endurance-limit strength, S^. Figure 1 schematically illustrates these ideas. 

Studies begun by Winkler"* and Zimmerman' addressed the problem of calculating the 
bending stresses acting on rails in track subjected to wheel loads by treating the rail as a beam 
supported by a continuous elastic foundation. The American Railway Engineering Associ- 
ation further developed this approach in detail for U.S. railroad track, over the first third of 
the twentieth century, in the work of the Talbot Committee. The Talbot Committee develop- 
ments culminated in bending stress solutions for U.S. bolted-joint rails (BJR) and fatigue- 
design guidelines for keeping BJR stress below the material endurance limit.** 

The conservative approach to rail fatigue taken by the AREA led to design guideline 
easily applicable to U.S. service with easily obtainable data: the material fatigue life (5^ - A^) 
curve; the beam-on-elastic foundation model of the rail; and an inventory of static axle loads 
supplemented by a dynamic load factor for typical traffic. This approach would have remained 
valid in today's environment of continuously welded rail (CWR) and increased axle loads, 
except for the intervention of economic factors which have implicitly changed the rail fatigue- 
life objective. Most railroads today cannot afford to overdesign track to the point where every 
length of rail would consume its head-wear life before any fatigue defects appeared. Thus, rail 



*See also similar work by Timoshenko and Langer on the problem of rail bending stress 
analysis.^** 



STRESS 
AMPLITUDE, 
Sa 



ENDURANCE 
LIMIT, S^ 




TIME 



OCCURRENCES 



FIGURE 1. CONCEPT OF PALMGREN-MINER RULE FOR THE CASE OF 
FULLY REVERSED BENDING (ZERO MEAN) STRESS 



Paper by O. Orringer and M.W. Bush 



fatigue life, while still quite long on average, is finite and leads to early fatigue defect 
occurrences in significant numbers of rails before the end of head-wear life. 

The railroads recognized the finite fatigue-life problem in the 192Us and reacted to it by 
performing periodic inspections of track to detect and remove defects before they could break 
out and cause derailment.* At the same time, the fatigue resistance of rail was improved by 
adoption of controlled cooling in rail mills. Controlled cooling has eliminated the problem of 
hydrogen flakes, formerly a major source of unpredictable and rapid cracking. Other typos of 
defects have since arisen as significant problems in control-cooled rails. However, today's rail 
defect population is driven principally by traffic tonnage and other fatigue-stress effects. 

The AREA has also continued to pursue research in rail stress and dynamics as specific 
problems have been identified, for example, the stress amplitude peaks which flat wheels can 
cause." '"** Work during the past decade sponsored by both the AREA and the FRA has led 
to detailed descriptions of the effects of tie-ballast-subgrade support on rail bending 
stress.''" '■* the three-dimensional elastic stress pattern near the wheel/rail contact zone,'" 
direct measurements of some typical dynamic wheel/rail loadings,'" measurements of residual 
stress patterns locked into the rail head by wheel/rail contact deformations,'^'" and seasonal 
effects such as dynamic overload on concrete ties in frozen ballast'""" or large static-tension 
effects on bolt-bearing stresses in joints at the ends of CWR strings subjected to rapid 
freezing."' 

The recent research has led to detailed understanding of the patterns of stress in a rail in 
highly specific situations. Similarly detailed fatigue-life estimates are now possible to make. 
in principle, using the detailed rail stress descriptions. The complexity of this task is increased, 
however, by the need to deal accurately with the finite fatigue-life situation. Modifications of 
Miner's rule are available for this purpose. For example, Gatts has developed an endurance- 
limit degradation rule which tracks the reduction of endurance-limit strength caused by stress 
amplitudes above the limit," and Neubcr has de\eloped a rule to account for the effects of 
stresses which locally exceed the material yield strength.''*** The general environment of a 
few stress amplitudes above and many below the virgin endurance limit is a typical situation 
for rails, and local exceedances of yield strength are to be expected on the running surface and 
near the bolt holes in severely tensioned joints. In each case, the modified damage summation 
rule requires accounting for the sequence as well as the number of occurrences of different 
stress amplitudes. Recent work by Zarembski combined a Miner's rule analysis with the effect 
of rail head wear on local stresses to predict the occurrence of detail fractures."' Perlman 
et al. have pursued this concept, including an approximate stress sequence accounting based 
on the head wear effect and have shown that the fatigue life estimate is most sensitive to the 
parameters which are the least directly controllable by track design."" 

It is to be hoped that the results of the recent rail research will ultimately lead to improved 
guidelines for track design. However, it is unrealistic to expect such a general synthesis in the 
near future, and in any case, a transition to modified track design would be a gradual process. 
In the meantime, it remains necessary to control rail fatigue defects by means of detection and 



*These inspections are performed by means of continuous-search flaw-detection equipment, 
such as the magnetic-induction cars first introduced and operated by the Sperry rail Service. 
Flaw detection capability has since been expanded by production of railroad-owned detector- 
car fleets and by introduction of ultrasonic equipment. 

**See Johns and Davies" for a comprehensive review of both the early work and recent (up 
to 1976) research on rail stress and dynamics. 

***Neuber's original rule has since been found to lead to inconsistencies and has been 
modified bv others."^ 



22 Bulletin 689 — American Railway Engineering Association 



removal. It is then desirable to exercise the control with greater efficiency of resource use by 
taking advantage of the tendencies of rail defects to occur at specific places and/or times, to 
the extent that such tendencies can be verified. While the rail fatigue research discussed in the 
foregoing paragraphs can qualitatively explain many aspects of defect behavior, service 
fatigue-life estimates are still inaccurate because of the large variety of situations in track. 
Therefore, a reliable basis for controlling rail defects in track must be sought directly from 
field data and by experimental determination of key parameters, with rail mechanics playing 
a supporting role. 

Initial Review of Available Information and Preliminary Results of Field Data Studies 

In 1978-79, the AREA Ad Hoc Committee on Track Performance Standards reviewed 
the information then available on rail defect statistics and related matters. Interpretation of 
the information in the light of the members' experience provided some significant insights. 
The Committee determined, however, that the available data could not adequately support a 
specification and directed that in-depth studies of railroad field data be carried out to fill the 
gap- 

The in-depth studies were carried out in 1980-82 and are now approaching completion. 
These studies were based on field data supplied by four Class I railroads. The in-depth studies 
have been conducted at the line-segment level and have included detailed track-chart informa- 
tion, traffic density estimates, maintenance reports, and track geometry measurement data, 
as well as rail defect reports and accident statistics.* The in-depth study has covered approx- 
imately 8,200 track miles and 25,000 rail defects to date (see Table 1). 

Both the 1978-79 review and the 1980-82 in-depth study have contributed to the frame- 
work of a flexible specification for controlling rail defects. The in-depth study has also brought 
to light some previously unsuspected defect occurrence patterns (not yet fully understood) 
which may be of interest to specific railroads, even if they should not prove to be applicable 
to a general specification. The following are key observations from the initial review and 
preliminary results from the in-depth studies. 

Accident Distribution 

The Federal Railroad Administration has collected data on railroad accidents since 1967. 
Analyses of these data indicate that large numbers of low-cost derailments occur on low-speed 
track and small numbers of high-cost derailments occur on high-speed track. Damage ex- 
pressed in terms of total dollar cost tends to peak on medium-speed track. Figure 2 illustrates 
these trends with the statistics of derailments caused by rail defects for the year 1975."' These 
distributions reflect an approximation of operating speed because the reporting system is 
geared to FRA track class rather than posted speed. 

There is clearly a general trend, however, which indicates that the consequences of the 
low-speed derailments are primarily railroad economic losses. Taking note of this point in its 
review, the Committee concluded that it would eventually be possible to define a minimum 
applicable posted speed, which would be used to limit rail defect control specification coverage 
for safety purposes to medium and high-speed track. Subsequently, the in-depth study was 
focused on mainline track because most of the medium and high-speed derailments tend to 
occur on mainlines (see Figure 3). 



*The earlier studies were generally performed at the whole-railroad level, and were generally 
limited to defect and accident statistics. 



Paper by O. Orringer and M.W. Bush 



23 



5 Di f C ^ 

3C O 



i^^ 



h- d: 



5 o 



a: 



s'S 



^ .2 ^ I g 






^^ 






— 3^ 



— -^ O 



S'3 ^ 4 
S - ?; ?i 



Z H 



Z >• 



> >• E 



5J U 1> 



>•>->■ 



>• > > 



O (J 



• — o 

E ;^ 



^;S 



O S o 

z >i z 



>■ 



o 


^ 




n. 


t/5 




flj 


^ 


>, 


li 


o 


^t-; 




u. 


u 


c 


a: 


E 

o 



o 



Oi H t^ S < t^ 



|4| 



LU ^ 
h- ■ 

o 



H H i^ S a. 



24 



Bulletin 689 — American Railway Engineering Association 



200 



150 - 



100 - 



50 - 



i 
i 


V" • 

i 

i 


i 

i 


i 

.-v» 


_ 



2 3 i| 5 
FRA TRACK CLASS 



10 

8 
6 - 

4 - 
2 





|5^ 


rSS 




h1 

i 
1 


1 

1 





12 3 4 5 5 
FRA TRACK CLASS 



FIGURE 2. DISTRIBUTION OF ACCIDENTS CAUSED BY RAIL DEFECTS (DATA FROM 
1975; REF. 27) 



1,500 



1,000 



C=> I — 



^ 500 



- 


1 










m 
m 


MAINLINE 

YARD. SIDING, 
AND INDUSTRIAL 




m 













(MILLION 


HI 










m 

r/'.'..-{ 


y.?;"" 



1 2 3 iJ 5 
FRA TRACK CLASS 

FIGURE 3. DISTRIBUTION OF ALL TRACK-RELATED ACCIDENTS 
(DATA FROM 1975; REF. 27) 



Paper by O. Orringcr and M.W. Bush 



25 



Dependence of Defect Rate on Accumulated Tonnage 

Laboratory fatigue tests of small specimens of rail steel lead one to expect that a given 
lot of rail should experience a rising defect rate as traffic tonnage accumulates. Figure 4 
illustrates some typical laboratory data obtained by Barsom and Imhof."** The scatter by a 
factor of 20 to 50 in cycles to failure at stress amplitudes near the endurance limit is a typical 
phenomenon. Weibull has attributed fatigue-life scatter to the effects of submicroscopic defect 
with random severity and random distribution among material samples."" 

Following Weibull's approach to the analysis of fatigue data, one obtains at any given 
stress amplitude a cross-plot like the schematic illustration in Figure 5, which shows a curve 
of cumulative failures versus life in a population of test specimens or rails. Service usage of 
rails differs from the laboratory test, however, in that most rails are removed from track for 
head wear well before the average fatigue life of the whole population. The expectation of 
rising defect rate as tonnage accumulates thus stems from entry into the lower tail of the 
cumulative failure curve. The expected trend has been confirmed by Besuner et al."' in a study 
of rail failure statistics at six specific sites on two railroads. 

In its initial review, the Committee concurred with the previous findings that cumulative 
tonnage is a highly significant factor in rail fatigue and recommended that the specification be 
based on tonnage instead of calendar time. The Committee noted, however, that the existing 
defect-rate trend studies must first be supplemented by additional feedback from field data to 
cover the wide variety of situations in track. 

The authors have documented one aspect of this variety by means of an elementary 
analysis of the rail-in-service statistics reported annually by all railroads." The annual data on 




NUMBER OF CYCLES TO FAILURE 



FIGURE ^. ROTATING-BEAM FATIGUE RESULTS FOR CARBON- 
STEEL RAILS (FROM REF. 28) 



26 



Bulletin 689 — American Railway Engineering Association 



U Sft-N FATIGUE CURVE 




TYPICAL LABORATORY 

TEST DATA; 
O FAILURE 
{*- RUNOUT 



>^^fa. 



i 








\ CUMULATIVE 
FAILURE CURVE 

TYPICAL LAB 
TEST REGIME 





f|;>:>| 


.^ 




y 








■'.'■■■' 


••••iiisr^ 




^ 




RAIL REPLACEMENT 
FOR HEAD ttAR 




/ 


/ 


N 



TONNAGE 

ACCUMULATION 

IN TYPICAL RAILROAD 

SERVICE 

FIGURE 5, COMPARATIVE FATIGUE BEHAVIOR OF COMMON 

LABORATORY TEST SPECIMENS AND RAILS IN TRACK 



rail in service and rail newly laid on mainline track were first aggregated into ten-year bands,* 
as shown in Figure 6. A distribution for rail age was then constructed by assuming that: 

• Rail newly laid in a given decade was not subject to replacement until the second 
following decade, e.g., rails laid during 1936-45 did not enter the removal pool until 1956-65. 

• For each age band in the removal pool, the amount removed was proportional to the 
amount still in service. 

• Reductions of track mileage in service were taken entirely from the removal pool. 

Figure 7 illustrates the distribution of in-service rail age obtained under the foregoing 
assumptions. The result is only an estimate, obviously sensitive to errors of detail in the 
assumptions, and rail age is only an approximate indicator of accumulated tonnage. In spite 
of these limitations, the derived rail age distribution clearly indicates that accumulated ton- 
nage varies widely. The in-depth studies have confirmed this trend and have also shown that 
older lines tend to acquire a fine structure of accumulated tonnage variation (of the order of 
one to ten miles) as relay programs are completed. Figure 8 shows some typical examples of 
this fine structure. 

These results suggest that accumulated tonnage will be difficult to apply as a primary 
control parameter in a general specification for controlling rail defects. Each line segment 
would in effect be a special case in such an approach. Additional difficulty arises from the 



*Except for the oldest rail in the three-year band 1933-35. 



Paper by O. Orringer and M.W. Bush 



27 



200 



S 150 




LU IJD <3: 

_i ^ oo 
:e cc CD ■ 

_I C3 I— 



1100 



50 



:.>' 






200 



o en oo 

OO CJD O 





DISTRICT; 




1 EASTERN 


150 


_ ^ SOUTHERN 




1^ WESTERN 


100 


- 


50 


~" 


H 


^ 


- 




f - ' 




^^ 







RSS? 


" "•« 




•r^^ 


••>f 





1933 -35 -46 -56 
-35 -45 -55 -65 



1933 -36 -46 -56 -66 
-35 -45 -55 -65 -75 



FIGURE 6, BASIC DATA FOR ESTIMATING NATIONAL RAIL AGE DISTRIBUTK 
(FROM REF. 31) 




0- 10- 20- 30- OVER 
-10 -20 -30 -10 i)0 

RAIL AGE (YEARS) 



DISTRICT: 
■ EASTERN 

^ SOUTHERN 

IM WESTERN 



FIGURE 7. ESTIMATED NATIONAL RAIL AGE DISTRIBUTK 
AS OF 1975 



28 



Bulletin 689 — American Railway Engineering Association 



YR LAID 
RAIL WT 
BULT/WELU 



1929 


73-71 


30 


77 


59 


77 


52-56 


• 


90 


112 


90 


115 


» 


B 


W 


B 


M 


B 


W 


B 



-1930 
.90 



YR LAID 

RAIL WT 
B/W 



X 


25-32 


15-611 


12-25 


38-17 


Y 


Z 


72 


90 


72/90/100 


72 


90 


V 


U 


BOLTED 



X/1913-22 Y/50-51 Z/23-25 
V/100 W/90 



YR LAID 
RAIL WT 
B/W 



29 


73-71) 


30 


77 


59 


77 


52-56 


30 


90 


112 


90 


115 


90 


B 


W 


B 


U 


B 


W 


B 



YR LAID 

RAIL WT 
TRACKAGE 
TONNAGE 



10 


60 


50 


70 


X 


70 


20a70 


70 


50 


50 


135 


132 & 135 


110al36 


136 


131 


D/20-30 


SlNGLE/50 



YR LAID 

RAIL WT 
TRACKAGE 
TONNAGE 



10 


60 


50 


60 


50 


60 


50 


131 


135 


131-2 


136 


DOUBLE/20-30 



YR LAID 

RAIL WT 
TRACKAGE 
TONNAGE 



X 


1950 


10 


60 


119 


131 


136 


1* 


S/30-10 


D 
15 


D 

10-20 



-\ 25 MILES 



FIGURE 8, TYPICAL FINE STRUCTDRE IN OLDER LINE SEGMENTS 



Paper by O. Orringer and M.W. Bush 29 



absence of reliable accumulated tonnage data for older line segments and relay rail. The 
Committee concluded, therefore, that the defect rate per se should be investigated as a 
possible primary control parameter, while accumulated tonnage should be retained in a less 
specific supplemental role. 

Defect Rate Versus Derailment Rate 

It is natural to assume that, all other things being equal, track having a higher rail defect 
rate will also have a higher rate of derailments caused by rail flaws. The "other things" are 
numerous for railroad track, however, and they are rarely "equal" in practice. Hence, it is easy 
to reach apparently reasonable but actually specious conclusions about the defect-rate/ 
derailment-rate relationship by means of superficial statistical analyses. 

The first recent attempt to correlate defect and accident rates started with an assembly 
of the FRA national data for track-related accidents and FRA inspection reports of track 
defects."* Plots of these data suggest some correlation between the general accident and track 
defect rates at the whole-railroad level (see Figure 9). Subsequent attempts were made to 
extract a similar relation between derailments and rail defects. The data base contained 
relatively few rail defects, however, and these attempts failed. 

In its review, the Committee noted reasons why meaningful defect occurrence rates could 
not be determined at the whole-railroad level. For example, the apparent defect rate in a 
random sample depends on whether the sample was taken in single- or double-track territory 
and is highly sensitive to the mileage used to derive the rate. The Committee also noted that 
local derailment rates per mile per gross ton are heavily masked by averaging trackage and 
traffic density over an entire property. The Committee concluded, however, that the in-depth 
study at line-segment level might be able to suggest a maximum defect rate for safe operations 
by comparing line segments having high and low derailment rates. 

Some preliminary results from the in-depth study will be presented here to illustrate the 
difficulties involved in correlating defect and derailment occurrences. The four railroads under 
study reported an aggregate of 315 derailments caused by rail flaws for the years 1978-80. It 
has been possible to locate some of these derailments with respect to the line-segments under 
study by means of route maps. Table 2 breaks down these statistics and compares the number 
of accidents with the average annual defect rate for the line segments under study. The 
comparison has several deficiencies, however: 

• Traffic density has not been accounted for in detail, although the range for the line- 
segments in the study is known to be 1.3 to 60 MGT annually. 

• Differences in the frequency of detector-car inspection of different line segments have 
not yet been accounted for. 

• Many of the derailments assigned to the studied line-segments were located in densely 
populated areas; the locator information presently available is not precise enough to pinpoint 
these derailments, some of which may have occurred in yards or on line segments not included 
in the study. 

• Of the 173 derailments recorded as having occurred outside the mainlines studied on 
Railroad C, 65 have not been positively located with the available map information; some of 
these might subsequently be found to have occurred within the study area. 

In spite of the foregoing limitations, the results do suggest that studies at the line-segment 
level might be able to discriminate between defect rates bearing high and low derailment risks. 



*This study encompassed more than rail defects, e.g., track-geometry exceptions and derail- 
ments caused by track-geometry exceptions were included. 



30 



Bulletin 689 — American Railway Engineering Association 



^b 




1 1 


1 


1 !• 




20 


- 


• 


• 




- 


15 


• 




• 


• 


- 


10 


• 


• • 

• 


• 
• 




- 




••• 


• 


• 


EACH DATA POINT 
REPRESENTS ONE 




b ^ 


> 

• 
• 

• 


• • 

•P 1 


1 


RAILROAD 
1 1 





0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.25 
DEFECTS PER ROUTE MILE 



1.50 



FIGURE 9. ACCIDENT RATE VERSUS DEFECT RATE FOR ALL TRACK-RELATED 
CAUSE CODES (DATA FROM 1977; REF. 33) 



TABLE 2. Preliminary Comparison of Rail Defect Rates 
And Derailments From In-Depth Study 



Rail- 
road 



Data for Line-Segments Under Study 

Derailments Caused by 
Rail Defects (1978-80) 



Within 

City 

Limits 



Defects 
Per Track 

Mile 
Per Year' 



Definitely 

on 
Mainline 



Derailments 
Caused by 
Rail Defects 
But Outside 
Line-Segments 
Under Study 



Total 
Derailments 

Caused by 

Rail Defects 

(1978-80) 



A 
B 
C 
D 



0.4 
1.9 
1.2 
0.5 



2^ 
1 

19" 
1 





2 

25" 





67^ 

8 

173' 

18 



69 

11 

216 

19 



Notes: 

'Average defect rates calculated from Table 1 data. 

^Includes one winter break. 

'includes two winter breaks. 

■•Total of 44 derailments includes 6 caused by winter breaks. 

-^Includes 65 derailments not positively located; includes 7 winter breaks. 



Paper by O. Orringer and M.W. Bush 



Figure 10 indicates a potential relationship between the derailment rate and the rate of service 
defects.* Such a relationship is consistent with the ideas that service defects tend to be larger 
than defects found by detector cars, and that the risk of derailment increases as exposure of 
trains to larger defects increases. Note also that the number of derailments per service defect 
appears to be of the order of 1/100, i.e., the data suggest that many chance factors influence 
the outcome of train passages over service breaks. 

Figure 11 illustrates another potential relationship between service defects and detected 
defects.** Here the most important piece of information is negative: there are no cases in 
which a detector car failed to find a high defect rate where track conditions created a high 
service defect rate. Hence, it appears that defect rate as measured by the detector car is 
potentially a good indirect control parameter. (The ability of detector cars to provide con- 
tinuous coverage over long stretches of track makes the detected defect rate a desirable control 
parameter.) 

Although Figures 10 and 11 suggest potential relationships between defects and derail- 
ments, this aspect of the in-depth study does not yet cover the range of data necessary for 
establishing control parameter values. Most of the line segments plotted in these figures have 
relatively low defect and derailment rates, as can be seen by comparison with the following 
order-of-magnitude estimates. Regarding Figure 10. about 500 derailments caused by rail 



*Service defects consist of service breaks and defects detected by track forces. Figure 10 omits 
two line segments which had high service defect rates but no derailments. These two lines have 
extremely light traffic, however; 1.3 and 1.5 MGT per year. 

**The terminology "detected defects" is used here and in the sequel to refer to defects found 
by continuous detector car search. 



120 


1 


1 


I 


1 1 1 

(TWO YARD DERAILMENTS) 


■*■ ( 


100 


" 










80 


— 








— 


60 


- 








— 


40 


— 


• 


• 




— 


( 












20 
< 


• 

k: 1 


1 


1 


1 1 1 





4 6 8 10 

SERVICE DEFECTS PER 100 MGTM 



12 



FIGURE 10. DERAILMENT RATE VERSUS SERVICE DEFECT RATE AT THE LINE- 
SEGMENT LEVEL 



32 



Bulletin 689 — American Railway Engineering Association 



100- 



10 — 



0.1 



1 


1 1 


1 1 1 


1 


• 


• 




- 


• 


• 






— 






— 


• 


• 
• 






■"" • 


^^ 


DETECTED DEFECT RATE 


- 


• 


y/^ 


EQUAL TO SERVICE 




-.. /^ 




DEFECT RATE 


_ 


r- 






— 








— 


\ 






— 


S 1 


1 1 


1 1 1 





4 6 8 10 
SERVICE DEFECTS PER 100 MGTM 



FIGURE 11. DEFECTS FOUND BY DETECTOR CAR VERSUS SERVICE DEFECTS 
AT THE LINE-SEGMENT LEVEL 



defects occur annually on mainline track, '^ about Vs of these can be assigned to track classes 
3 through 6 based on the distribution of all track related accidents (Figure 2), and recent (1978) 
statistics compiled by the AAR give a total annual freight traffic of 858 billion gross-ton-miles 
(BGTM). Combining these figures yields: 



500 X 3/n Accidents/Year 
8.58 X 100 BGTM/Year 



== 22 Accidents/100 BGTM 



Regarding Figure 1 1 , recent surveys by Sperry Rail Service give about 0.7 detected defect/mile 
per year as a national average (see Table 4, for example) and there are roughly 150,000 miles 
of track in service in classes 3 through 6. Combining these figures with the nation's annual 
tonnage expressed in million-gross-ton-miles (MGTM) then yields: 



0.7 Defect/Mile/Year x 1.5 x 10' Miles 



8.58 X 1(F 



100 MGTM/Year 



12 Detected Defects/100 MGTM 



Thus, it is apparent that line-segments having derailment rates must be added to the study 
before final conclusions can be drawn. 

Distribution of Defects in Track 

At any given time specific defect-bearing rails will be randomly located in a line segment. 
If one assumes that all rails in the segment are equally likely to generate a defect, then it is 
possible to make useful statements about gross averages such as defect rate per mile for the 



Paper by O. Orringer and M.W. Bush 



33 



entire line segment. For example, such averages can be deduced from limited data samples 
with the aid of the Poisson probability distribution, which characterizes infrequent random 
occurrences governed by the equal-likelihood property.''' 

Figure 12 illustrates a result from an early study'' showing apparent Poisson behavior on 
one line segment. The statistical parameters plotted in the figure are: 



Skewness 



Kurtosis 



where 






1 



(2) 
(3) 

(4) 
(5) 



and where X, is the number of defects per mile averaged over ten miles of track in a line 
segment consisting of A^ ten-mile subsegments. If the data sample {N) were sufficiently large 
and the behavior truly possessed the Poisson characteristic, the result of the statistical analysis 
would plot close to the line: 



P, = P: - 3 



(6) 



FIELD DATA' 



< SIMULATION 



POISSON 
DISTRIBUTIONS 




KURTOSIS, 6, 



*EACH DATA POINT REPRESENTS ONE YEAR OF RAIL DEFECT DATA 
FIGURE 12. EARLY STUDY SHOWING APPARENT POISSON BEHAVIOR ON A LINE 



34 



Bulletin 689 — American Railway Engineering Association 



indicated in the figure. However, the field data from the line segment constitute a small sample 
(A^ = 20), and the results are consequently scattered away from the Poisson line. The "simu- 
lation" data points were obtained from a computer analysis which matched the field sampling 
characteristics and employed a verified Poisson data generator in a Monte Carlo simulation. 
The coincidence of the field and simulated scatter bands was interpreted as circumstantial 
evidence that the field data might possess the Poisson characteristic. 

In its review, the Committee expressed the opinion that defect distributions in track 
would not be likely to possess the Poisson characteristic over long distances because the 
assumption of ideally random defect generation contradicts the variety of track features which 
might influence the fatigue process. Accordingly, the Committee suggested that the in-depth 
study be used to more closely examine the properties of defect distributions in track. 

Preliminary results from the in-depth study have confirmed the Committee's opinion. At 
the line-segment level, defect distributions exhibit a "clustering" property, i.e. large numbers 
of defects tend to congregate in a few short stretches of track while the remainder of the track 
is virtually defect-free.^*' Based on the limited number of line segments studied, the average 
cluster occupies about six miles of track in a given year or eight miles if several years of defect 
data are consolidated; in the average line segment, about 50 percent of the track miles can be 
identified with clusters containing over 90 percent of the defects. Specific line segments can 
be either more or less strongly clustered than the average, however, as shown in Table 3. 
Figures 13 through 16 illustrate the different degrees of clustering found on different line 
segments. The data from the four most prominent clusters in Figure 14 have, been replotted 
in Figure 17 to illustrate the fact that defect clusters tend to persist at a given track location 
over many years. The significance of thse results lies not so much in the preHminary numbers 
which have been presented here, but in the idea that the clustering property might reduce the 
need for continuous search inspection and thus allow a railroad to adopt a more flexible 
inspection strategy. 



TABLE 3. Variation Of Clustering Property In Different Line Segments 







Total Track 


Total Track 


Percent Of 


Percent Of 






Miles In 


Miles Of 


Track Miles 


Total Defects 


Road 


Segment 


Segment 


Clusters 


In Clusters 


In Clusters 


A' 


a 


126 


40 


31 


99 




b 


156 


85 


54 


96 




c 


127 


100 


79 


100 




d 


358 


180 


50 


99 




e 


337 


120 


34 


97 


B^ 


f^ 


135 


85 


63 


95 


C^ 


g 


514 


240 


- 47 


99 




h^ 


220 


120 


54 


98 




J 


208 


50 


24 


92 


D^ 


k 


508 


290 


57 


94 



Notes: 

'Six years of data consolidated. 
-Four years of data consolidated. 
'2.5 years of data consolidated, 
^Analysis limited to bolt hole cracks. 



Paper by O. Orringer and M.W. Bush 



35 



15 _ 



12 - 




DEFECTS IN 5-MlLE 
BANuS FOR YEARS: 

M 1978-79 



n 



1976-77 



1971-75 



730 755 7i' .;:5 

MILEPOST 

FIGURE 13. EXAMPLE OF CLUSTERING ON RAILROAD "A" 





110 

MILEPOST 

DEFECTS IN 5-MILE BANDS FOR YEARS: 
1976 □ 1977 ^ 1978 ^ 1979 

FIGURE W. EXAMPLE OF CLUSTERING ON RAILROAD "B" 
(DATA LIMITED TO BOLT HOLE CRACKS) 



36 



Bulletin 689 — American Railway Engineering Association 




60 85 



1 I r 

DATA IN 5-MILE 
BANDS FOR: 

m OCT 79 - MAY 80 
n MAY 79 - OCT 79 
■ JAN 79 - MAY 79 



160 185 
MILEPOST 



210 



235 



260 



FIGURE 15. EXAMPLE OF CLUSTERING ON RAILROAD "C" 



12 



10 



- DATA IN 10-MILE 
BANDS FOR YEARS: 




MILEPOST 
FIGURE 16. EXAMPLE OF CLUSTERING ON RAILROAD "D" 



Paper by O. Orringer and M.W. Bush 



37 




45-50 



115-120 145-150 

MILEPOST NUMBER 



150-155 



FIGURE 17. EXAMPLE OF CLUSTER PERSISTENCE 



Line segments "c", "f", and "k" in Table 3 are only weakly clustered in the sense just 
described. However, cryptographic analyses incorporating the background data resources 
shown in Table 1 have recently been performed^^ and have revealed other potentially useful 
clustering characteristics. For example, 14 percent of the total defects on line segment "f" are 
associated with bridges and culverts. A similar phenomenon has been observed on railroad 
"C", where winter bolt hole breaks appear to concentrate at insulated joints.'' Again, the 
significance of this finding lies not in the preliminary numbers, but in the idea of using such 
indicators to guide track-force inspection strategy. 

SigniFicant Defect Types 

The earlier studies were found to contain some useful indicators of the criticality of 
different types of defects to operational safety, provided that the raw data was properly 
interpreted.* After removal of artifacts, the early statistics suggested transversely oriented 
rail-head defects and bolt hole cracks as the most critical types: the first because of a relatively 
high rate of derailments per defect and the second because of its apparently large proportion 
in the total defect population (see Table 4). 



"For example, early national compilations of derailments broken down by defect type have 
shown a large proportion of accidents seemingly caused by broken-base defects. This "statis- 
tic" is apparently an artifact of the cause-code organization in the reporting system. Broken 
base is second in the list of rail defect cause codes and is the first such entry possessing general 
overtones. Broken base has thus apparently become the cause-of-resort for many accidents. 



38 



Bulletin 689 — American Railway Engineering Association 



TABLE 4. Summary Of Early Studies Of Defect Criticality 



Item 


SRS 

Nationwide' 


Limited 
Mainline 
Inclusive' 


Limited 

Mainline 

Profitable 

Roads' 


Transverse 
rail-head defects 


20/37' 


27/24 


55/30 


Longitudinal 
rail-head defects 


18/26 


29/18 


8/13 


Rail-end 

defects'* 


58/20 


39/28 


17/25 


Total defects 


622, 142 


2,623 


412 


Miles tested 


868, 802 


1,810 


696 


Defects/mile 


0.72 


1.5 


0.6 



Santa Fe"* 



22/44 



25/8 



38/29 



6,307 



Notes: 

'Sperry Rail Service, data for 1970-74. 

^K.D. Benson et al.. "Rail Flaw Survey Analysis," August 1977 (data for 1974-75). 

^W. Autrey, tabulation of Santa Fe defects for 1977. 

''Primarily bolt hole cracks. 

-''First entry is percentage of total population represented by category; second entry is percentage of total rail-flaw-caused 

derailments attributed to category. 



In the in-depth study, rail defects were categorized in a manner similar to the earlier 
breakdowns. All rail defect cause codes for which the end result of an undetected defect could 
be a fracture were included, and the breakdown was designed to differentiate between those 
parts of the defect population which would or would not be strongly influenced by tonnage 
accumulation. Table 5 summarizes the category definitions and the observed population 
statistics. 

The in-depth study results generally confirm the early assessments of population trends, 
but there are some differences of detail. The railroad "A" and "D" line segments are primarily 
newer continuous welded rail, and hence show relatively low bolt hole cracking incidence and 
relative high "infant mortality" rates. It also appears that the longitudinal head defect catego- 
ry is almost as significant in the total population as bolt hole cracks. The conclusion to be 
drawn from these results is that the rail defect population has been correctly prioritized: (1) 
transverse group; (2) bolt hole cracks; and (3) longitudinal group. 

Defect Detection 

The railroad industry has employed continuous-search inspection technology to control 
rail defects since the 1920s. ^^ Today over 70 rail defect detector cars operate year-round 
sweeping the national rail net for defects with ultrasonic probes and magnetic induction 
equipment.^' "• '** The low annual rate of derailments caused by rail defects, relative to the 
approximately 200,000 defects found and removed from track each year,-^" indicates that the 
detector car fleets are doing an effective job. It is generally recognized, however, that the 
detection systems in use are imperfect, as any nondestructive inspection technique must be. 
Both industry and government pursue research on improved detection equipment, but it is also 



Paper by O. Orringer and M.W. Bush 



39 



^ -^ tJ3 cC CC 

•a: <c z: cc CD 



— :s ^-. 3; Qi 

I — I — 

<_> :a <_j I — c=t cd 



U_ UJ U- <! Q_ 3: 

Lu — • uj r — • I — 

ca u- ca Q_ Q_ o 



>=r e3 ct cC 



■^ ^-, ^-^ \ — ^^>^;=a<i: 
oi I cc I I <s: Q_ 

'-0C3OQ_Ljja-Q_l_lJLlJ 



cc ::c =0 cc: 1 Z3 

I — CD 13 — • I — ce I 

^w' Q_ 00 «« t_) CD I 

EI c/3 I — <a: UJ 

:^C3CD — llJci;-^^: 



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OO (_> CyO => 

:^ UJ ^ 00 

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q; UJ Qi I — i 

a I — u_ 



Qi<C — IQiCDctCa 



40 Bulletin 689 — American Railway Engineering Association 



recognized that transfer of any improvement from the laboratory to the field is an arduous and 
lengthy task. 

With these considerations in mind, the Committee gave its opinion that development of 
the rail defect control specification should be based on existing field equipment capabilities.* 
The Committee also noted that the specification framework should encompass the continuous- 
search role of the detector car within the total system of inspection, which includes track 
forces. Thus, to provide the proper framework one must recognize that the essential factor is 
detection effectiveness, which consists of: 

• Opportunity: the probability that a given type and size of defect will be present in the 
track when detector-car inspection occurs. 

• Reliability: the probability that the detector-car/operator combination will discover the 
defect, given the opportunity. 

The in-depth study data provided direct estimates of detection effectiveness, as defined 
above. Results for the three major service-generated fatigue defect categories are summarized 
in Table 6. Each entry in the table is the percentage of defects in the category found by 
continuous-search inspection. 

These results suggest several observations regarding the balance between detector-car 
and track-force effectiveness. First, detector cars are most effective in finding TH-group 
defects. This group is generally difficult for track forces to find because such defects tend to 
become service breaks before they give visual indications. 

Second, the track forces appear to be most effective in finding bolt hole cracks. This is 
not surprising because bolt hole cracks do tend to give visual indications before breakout and 
because the bolt hole area is a difficult target for instrumented probes.** Railroad "C" stands 
out as an exception, but it is not known whether the high detector-car effectiveness in this case 
arises from a better equipment/operator system or from relatively fewer track forces than 
those on the other roads. 

Third, the results in Table 6 represent both home fleets and a rail flaw detection service. 
Thus, it appears that the two types of fleets have similar effectiveness. 

Fourth, the results generally represent a situation of highly effective defect population 
control. The line-segments represented in Table 6 are the same as shown in Figure 10, i.e., the 
derailment rates on these hnes are generally much lower than the national average. 

Finally, it is important to inquire whether an adjustment of the balance between detector- 
car and track-force inspection can be used to gain control over a rail defect population which 
exhibits sudden growth. Figure 18 presents an example of such a situation, which was found 
in the in-depth study of railroad "A". A rapid rise in the detected defect rate is clearly seen 
in the first 38 months of data. After month 38, the railroad doubled its continuous-search 
frequency and brought the problem rapidly under control. This pattern was repeated at 
months 57 and 72. Over the entire six years, the inspection effectiveness balance has been 
adjusted from an initial posture in which detector cars were finding about one third of the 
defects to a posture in which the detector cars are finding about half of the defects, and this 
adjustment has kept the defect population under control. 



*With the understanding that the specification could be revised as improvements enter the 
national detector-car fleet. 

**The chief difficulties are: (1) rail-end height mismatch, which can lift an ultrasonic probe 
and break the couplant film before the signal can reach the defect; and (2) the inability of 
magnetic-induction systems to penetrate below the rail head. 



Paper by O. Orringer and M.W. Bush 



41 



TABLE 6. Defects Found By Detector Car 





Bolt Hole 


Railroad 


Cracks 


A 


22 


B 


40 


C 


72 


D 


40 



TH Group 



LH Group 



77 
90 
97 
70 



55 
72 
93 

35 



CURRENT VIEW OF SPECIFICATION 

Based on periodic reviews of the in-depth study, the Ad Hoc Committee on Track 
Performance Standards had by late 1981 synthesized a preliminary framework for a rail defect 
control specification. The key study observations and their relationship to the specification 
framework will be summarized in the following. 

The accident statistics indicate that an operating speed can be established to differentiate 
between safety-critical accidents and those which have only an economic impact. This speed 
can be used to limit the specification coverage, i.e., the requirements would not apply to track 
posted to lower speeds. 



50 

45 — 

40 

35 

30 

25 

20 



DEFECTS FOUND 
■^ BY DETECTOR CAR 
I 1 IN SERVICE 



•NUMBER OF DETECTOR CAR AND 
SERVICE DEFECTS ARE IDENTICAL 




ffl 




5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 

MONTHS 

FIGURE 18. EXAMPLE OF ADJUSTING INSPECTION STRATEGY TO CONTROL 
A RAIL DEFECT POPULATION 



42 Bulletin 689 — American Railway Engineering Association 



The effect of accumulated tonnage is significant, in that the occurrence rates of service- 
generated fatigue-type defects rise as tonnage accumulates. The "map" of accumulated ton- 
nage on track is too complex to permit the direct use of tonnage as a precise numerical 
parameter in the spcification. Tonnage accumulation is reflected, however, in the detected 
defect rate which can be used as a control parameter. Control will thus be based on the 
dominant components of the rail defect population: bolt hole cracks, the transverse group, and 
the longitudinal group. Other types of defects have a relatively lower influence on safety. 

New track is an exception to the foregoing. A long period of usage can be expected before 
significant numbers of fatigue defects begin to appear. However, sufficient early inspection 
should be provided to take care of the "infant mortality" defects, which are influenced by rail 
mill processing quality. 

The preliminary results suggest that derailments will be reduced if service defects are 
reduced and that there is some degree of correlation between service defects and detected 
defects. Thus it should be possible to control derailments indirectly by increasing the fre- 
quency of continuous-search inspection on those line-segments which produce high defect 
rates and at those times when the trend toward a high defect rate appears. The results further 
suggest that accumulated tonnage since the last inspection, rather than calendar time, is the 
appropriate variable for specifying inspection frequency. 

The problem of winter breaks appears to be an exception to the foregoing. The severe 
stresses placed on track by winter conditions in territories with severe climate may change the 
relationship between detected defects and service defects, i.e., by reducing the opportunity 
component of detector-car effectiveness. Special provisions will probably be necessary for 
winter breaks, but it is not clear whether this problem is sufficiently widespread to require 
coverage in a general specification. 

The distribution of defects in track is too complex to allow reliance on gross averages 
alone for control purposes. It is encouraging, however, that some general features of these 
distributions have emerged, and that these features tend to persist for at least several years. 
Many line segments may possess a clustering property which can be used to focus attention on 
the defect-prone areas. This suggests that the primary role of continuous-search inspection 
should be redefined to emphasize cluster identification. The individual railroad would then be 
left to deal with the troublesome clusters as best suited to its specific balance between 
detector-car operations and track forces. 

Improvements of detector-car reliability are anticipated as new technology is moved from 
the laboratory to the field, but reliability alone cannot be used as a numerical parameter in 
a rail defect control specification. The net effectiveness of detector cars depends on oppor- 
tunity as well as reliability. Opportunity can be controlled indirectly by inspection frequency 
adjustment. Current equipment is effective with proper opportunity. It appears that the 
specification need only contain some calibration procedures related to the significant types of 
service-generated fatigue defects. 

There remains one crucial question: how often should inspections be performed? In a 
specification which achieves control by adjusting the inspection frequency, the question trans- 
lates into what should be the minimum frequency. The answer to this question lies, not in the 
rail defect occurrence data, but in the behavior of growing fatigue cracks. The background of 
this topic and related specification development activities will be discussed in the next two 
sections. 

Fracture Mechanics and Crack-Propagation Life 

Procedures for estimating fatigue life based on Miner's rule were discussed in the first 



Paper by O. Orringer and M.W. Bush 43 



section of this paper. These procedures have traditionally been applied without distinguishing 
between the crack-nucleation and crack-propagation phases of fatigue life. The U.S. aircraft 
industry began to treat crack propagation as a separate topic in the late 1960s, after some 
unusually large fabrication defects caused several military airplane accidents and when the Air 
Force decided to extend the operational lifetimes of its fleets.^'' 

The new approach focused on the time a crack would take to grow from an initial size, 
at which it might just escape detection, to a final size, at which it could be expected to fracture 
during the next flight. This type of calculation provided a rational basis for setting minimum 
inspection frequencies on airframes. Such calculations have also been made for some railroad 
mechanical equipment on an ad hoc basis,*' '" and there is reason to expect that minimum 
inspection frequencies for rail can be established in a similar manner. 

Background 

Crack-propagation life prediction is based on applied fracture mechanics, in which the 
stress intensity factor, K, associated with the tip of a sharp crack plays the role which stress 
plays in conventional mechanics. In a geometrically simple structure such as a thin flat plate 
with a crack straight through the thickness, the local stresses are approximated by an elastic 
distribution proportional to Kl\^ at small distances, R, from the crack tip."*" The stress 
intensity factor is calculated from 

K=SG(A, ...)Va (7) 

where S is the applied stress level, A is the crack length, and F(A, . . . ) is a dimensionless 
function which accounts for the effects of structure details and nonuniform distribution of 
applied stress. 

Figure 19 illustrates an example /w-formula for a long narrow plate with an edge crack. 
Such /l -formulas have been collected for many combinations of crack geometry, structure 
geometry, and applied stress distribution."^ ** The stress intensity factor is used to predict the 
fracture strength of structures based on the experimentally verified fact that K = Kn at 
fracture, where K,c is a material property independent of configuration.* 

Other experiments with cyclic loading below the fracture strength have shown that the 
stress intensity factor can be used to correlate the rate of crack propagation in a material."' 
For a cycle between minimum stress S^,„ and maximum stress S^ax, the increase in the crack 
length is given by: 

Ay4 = F{K, R; material properties) (8) 

Where 

aa: = (5„„, - 5„,„) G{A)Va (9) 

R=S^JS^.,^ (10) 

Figure 20 illustrates an example of the stress cycles which might be associated with a truck 
passage acting on a rail head. 



*Under the condition that {KiJYf is much smaller than the plate thickness, where Y is the 
material yield strength. The factor (K,clYf is an estimate for the diameter of a small zone, 
near the crack tip, in which the material yields and the actual local stress deviates from the 
elastic K/\/R approximation. K,c is called the material fracture toughness. 



44 



Bulletin 689 — American Railway Engineering Association 



APPLIED STRESS 

= S (UNIFORM TENSION) 



ACTUAL STRESS 

S + K //F 

Y = YIELD STRENGTH 
A STRESS 




PLATE 
WIDTH = B 



PLASTIC 
ZONE 



TIC 1^— ^ 



G(A,B) = -JtcsEcmmi 

FIGURE 19. FRACTURE MECHANICS DESCRIPTION OF A CRACKED PLATE 





WUSH^L 



fcawH MKiaMwa teJIaHTBr 



RESIDUAL + THERMAL + TRACK - ADJUSTMENT STRESS 



LOCATION ON TRACK; OR 




FIGURE 20. WHEEL-PASSAGE STRESS CYCLES IN RAIL HEAD 



Paper by O. Orringer and M.W. Bush 45 



The function F(1K, R, . . . ) in Equation 8 can be determined from laboratory crack- 
propagation experiments at constant amplitude. In analogy to the 5^-^ curve discussed 
previously. Equation 8 can be used to predict the number of cycles of different stress ampli- 
tudes required to grow a crack between specified initial and final sizes. In principle, the 
prediction is made by summing individual crack-length increments. AA, and counting the 
cycles until the crack reaches the final size. In practice, the calculation can be reduced to 
approximate procedures similar to Miner's rule in many cases, ^'■'^ although other cases re- 
quire full accounting for the effects of stress sequence.''*' The crack-propagation approach 
differs from the older crack-nucleation approach, however, in that the crack-propagation data 
are much less scattered* and the life predictions are accordingly more reliable. 

Application to Rail 

Laboratory work started in the mid-1970s has now produced a considerable body of data 
on the crack-propagation properties of control-cooled carbon-steel rails. ^'*'"'''^'' The pre- 
viously mentioned work on wheel/rail load statistics,"" rail mechanics solutions for stress in 
terms of loads.""'', and residual stress''"* can be applied to crack-propagation as well as 
crack-nucleation analyses. The treatment of bolt hole crack propagation has not received 
much attention to date, but several preliminary crack-propagation analyses have been carried 
out for the problem of transverse cracks in the rail head.'^'"'^^ 

A derailment which occurred in February 1979 on Section 13 of the Facility for Acceler- 
ated Service Testing (FAST) demonstrates why crack propagation in general and the propaga- 
tion of transverse rail head cracks in particular are important topics to consider in the devel- 
opment of a rail defect control specification. The FAST derailment was caused by a multiple 
rail break from three detail fractures spaced approximately 18 inches apart. '^'*''' Steele sub- 
sequently performed a fractographic analysis of one of these defects and was able to determine 
the curve of crack size versus FAST consist wheel passages."' *"' When Steele's results are 
translated into tonnage, one finds that this particular defect required on the order of 2 MGT 
to grow from a size at which it could have been detected by current railroad equipment to the 
size at which it fractured. Reference to the accident investigation report also shows that the 
defect analyzed by Steele was at one of the secondary breaks, i.e., the first defect to break out 
grew to a larger size and would have consumed more than 2 MGT from the minimum 
detectable size. 

The FAST loading and environment is not directly applicable to revenue track. However, 
the data obtained from the FAST derailment suggests that there is considerable time available 
to detect transverse rail-head cracks in revenue track during the propagation phase of life. It 
is reasonable to have similar expectations for the other significant fatigue defect groups, and 
hence it is possible in principle to establish minimum inspection frequencies for rail based on 
actual fatigue defect behavior. Translation of principle into practice poses several challenges, 
however, because of the geometrical and mechanical complexities inherent in rail and the 
track structure. 

The bolt hole crack per se may fit within the two-dimensional through-crack criteria under 
which material crack-propagation data are measured, but the crack-driving forces for this type 
of defect appear to be strongly dependent on the effects of thermal stress, track adjustment, 
and rail-end batter. Additional work is needed on the definition of service stress histories, 
therefore, before the time available to detect typical bolt hole cracks can be determined. 



'The random scatter in crack-propagation data is typified by factors of 2 to 4, rather than the 
factors of 20 to 50 observed near the endurance limit in a crack-nucleation S^-N diagram. 



46 Bulletin 689 — American Railway Engineering Association 



The longitudinal rail head defect group may also be treatable as through-cracks. How- 
ever, many of these defects are observed to achieve lengths on the order of one foot without 
breaking, suggesting either that the propagation is not continuous or that the ultimate failure 
involves tearing.* In either case, more must be learned about the mechanics of fracture for this 
situation before attempting to define the detection time. 

Previous work has improved the understanding of behavior of the transverse head defect 
group, but several questions still remain. Even the simplest case of an elliptical defect is three 
dimensional, whereas all of the material crack-propagation rate data is based on two- 
dimensional test configurations. The preliminary estimates for crack-growth life have been 
based on A^-formulas for an elliptical crack in an infinite body,*'' " but many of these defects 
are not elliptical and all are near a free boundary. /C -formulas for elliptical cracks near a 
boundary*^ and for nonelliptical cracks in infinite bodies*'^ have been proposed but have not 
yet been applied to the problem of transverse cracks in the rail head. The crack growth rate 
test data correspond to conditions of simple tension perpendicular to the crack, but the 
transverse head crack exists in a combined stress field.** Finally, applied fracture mechanics 
is based on cracks with flat surfaces, but many detail fractures, transverse fissures, and 
compound fissures do not have flat surfaces. 

Each of the foregoing cases requires further experiments before realistic estimates can be 
made for the time available to detect typical rail defects; Each experiment should: 

• Test actual rail flaws. 

• Simulate the revenue track environment as closely as possible. 

• Accurately document the test environment at the level of nominal stress acting on the 
defect. 

• Include supplementary experiments with simplified loadings applied to actual rail 
flaws. 

The first two test requirements will assure that some direct measurements of detection 
times are obtained, independent of the crack propagation theories. Such tests are time-con- 
suming and expensive, however, and cannot be used to cover all possible cases of track 
conditions and rail alloy variations. The last two test requirements will provide for the cov- 
erage by establishing the simulated service experiments as standards against which the accu- 
racy of crack propagation calculation methods and simplified laboratory evaluation pro- 
cedures can be checked. 

THE DEFECT GROWTH RATE EXPERIMENTS 

Recognizing the need for simulated service experiments the Ad Hoc Committee approved 
the concept of a test series in 1980. Planning for the initial phase of testing was carried out 
during 1980-81, leading to the Defect Growth Rate Pilot Test (DGRPT). Planning for subse- 
quent tests was started in January 1982. 

Defect Growth Rate Pilot Test 

The DGRPT is a test of the experimental approach per se, as well as a test to determine 
rail flaw detection times. Consequently, the scope of the DGRPT is restricted to: 

• Detail fractures (Phase A) and bolt hole cracks (Phase B). 



*Tearing failure involves shearing parallel to the crack front and generally occurs at crack sizes 
longer than required for tensile fracture. 



Paper by O. Orringer and M.W. Bush 47 



• Control-cooled carbon-steel alloy. 

• Tangent track. 

FAST was selected for the experiment because the FAST track provides a unique combi- 
nation of closely simulated service environment, high tonnage accumulation rate, and ability 
to test multiple samples in parallel.* Several railroads have contributed sample defects re- 
moved from revenue track because the FAST track does not generate the types of defects 
observed in revenue service in sufficient numbers for the experiment. 

The first test series in Phase A, scheduled to start in May 1982, consists of ten detail 
fractures in 136RE rail. The sample defects will be placed in a 500-foot test zone toward the 
eastern end of FAST Section 10. The test zone will consists of two strings, each containing five 
defects, strain-gage instrumentation at the ten defect sites, and additional strain-gaging at six 
adjacent sites without defects (see Figure 21). The strain-gage bridges will provide direct 
readings of vertical and lateral bending stress per wheel passage at each of the sixteen sites. 
Vertical and lateral wheel/rail forces will also be measured at the six non-defect sites.** The 



'Scatter is expected in the test results. Preliminary statistical analyses suggested that at least 
ten nominally identical samples should be tested to facilitate reasonable estimates for averages 
and deviations. 

**Force measurements cannot be made at the defect sites because the required in-track 
calibrations of the force circuits might influence the test results. The bending stress circuits can 
be calibrated at lower loads, however, by laboratory tests before the rail is inserted in track. 
Force measurements have been included in the DGRPT to allow comparison of the test 
environment with previously developed service environment data."' 




DGRPT TEST ZONE 



/ 












1 


INSIDE RAIL 

lal 1 


!•! 


\ 


1 1 
1 HH 


-A-l 


1 
1*1 


— 1 


■ 1 


-A— 1 




1 !■! A 


+— 


— 1 



OUTSIDE RAIL 



RAIL-END WELD 

15-FT INSTRUMENTED TEST PLUG 

ADDITIONAL INSTRUMENTATION ON NONDEFECTIVE RAIL 

FIGURE 21. SCHEMATIC LAYOUT OF DGRPT 



48 Bulletin 689 — American Railway Engineering Association 



DGRPT experiment plan includes three additional series having similar configurations and 
scheduled for sequential insertion in FAST Section 10: 

• Phase A series 2 (ten detail fractures in heavy rail, with tight joint bar protection). 

• Phase B series 3 (ten bolt hole cracks in heavy rail) and series 4 (ten bolt hole cracks 
in medium rail). 

Parallel laboratory tests will be performed in each phase to establish the two-dimensional 
crack-propagation properties of the samples, rail breaking strength as a function of defect size, 
and the rates of growth of some of the defects under simplified laboratory loadings. In Phase 
A, the last two laboratory measurements will be made in a special test fixture which places the 
rail head in tension with a constant bending moment exerted over one foot of rail span 
centered on the defect, using static loading for breaking strength or constant-amplitude 
loading for growth-rate measurements. 

Equipment development for the DGRPT started in August 1981 and was completed with 
a systems shakedown test in FAST Section 10 during January-March 1982. The supporting 
equipment includes a special rail-break alarm system and a modified set of joint bars. The 
modified joint bars are placed around the test defect in a loose condition, so that only the rail 
itself carries train loads during the experiment. Should the rail break during the test, however, 
the modified joint bars are able to provide temporary mechanical continuity.* 

Other supporting equipment, related directly to the experiment measurement require- 
ments, includes a semi-automatic portable device for ultrasonic flaw-shape mapping and 
flaw-size determination and two systems for nondestructive measurement of longitudinal force 
in the rail. These systems will be used daily during the experiment to provide a rough guide 
to flaw size versus tonnage and to trace the history of thermal and track-adjustment forces 
acting on the defects. Some of the details on development and current status of these systems 
were reported previously. ^^^** 

Subsequent Tests 

It is expected that DGRPT will confirm the ability of defect growth rate experiments in 
track to provide the information required for setting minimum rail inspection frequencies. At 
the same time, the DGRPT will also build confidence that such testing can be performed 
safely, thus opening the prospects for additional coverage needed to complete the specifica- 
tion. The requirements for additional coverage currently appear to be as follows: 

• Behavior of detail fractures in curved track. 

• Effects of grade. 

• Effects of revenue traffic. 

• Effects of soft roadbed. 

• Effects of severe climate (thermal and track-adjustment stress cycles). 

• Limited testing of defects in the longitudinal group. 

Some of the above effects cannot be obtained on the FAST track. Also, there is concern 



*The experiment plan requires removal of each defect before breakout, in order to preserve 
the fracture surfaces for analysis. The alarm system and joint bars are intended to maintain 
operational safety in case a breakout does occur. In simulated breakout tests, the modified 
joint bars withstood the equivalent of two passages of the FAST consist without structural 
failure or loss of function. 



Paper by O. Orringer and M.W. Bush 49 



about the potential influence of joint disturbance on the results of the DGRPT Phase B tests. * 
Therefore, over the next several months, the Ad Hoc Committee will be considering the 
possibility of conducting field tests on revenue track. 

Finally, it is expected that the parallel laboratory tests and analyses will lead to a predic- 
tive capability sufficiently accurate to provide for extension of coverage to premium-alloy rail. 
Therefore, subsequent tests in track will probably be confined to carbon-steel alloy. 

CONCLUDING REMARKS 

Faced with the challenge of maintaining safe operations under increasing tonnages and 
axle loadings, the railroads and the AREA pioneered the application of early metal fatigue 
technology to the complex structural system of rails in track during the first third of the 
twentieth century. This work led to safe but conservative design guidelines which successfully 
met the challenge. 

During the second third of the century, further increases in tonnage and axle loads have 
placed still more stresses on track. At the same time, declining profitability has forced many 
railroads to abandon conservative overdesign of track as an economically untenable strategy. 
The railroads did react to the additional stress, however, by instituting comprehensive in- 
spection systems to find and remove defective rails from track as the defects occurred. These 
inspection systems included detailed records which have, in some cases, been computerized 
in recent years. 

In the final third of the century, the railroads will be facing additional pressures in the 
form of increased unit-train tonnage and constraints on the resources available for rail in- 
spection and removal. These pressures are beginning to place stress on the inspection systems 
and strategies currently in use. However, studies of the inspection data have revealed the 
existence of patterns in the defect occurrences. The AREA is now seeking a way to take 
advantage of these patterns by developing a specification for a new, more flexible inspection 
strategy to meet the challenges which the railroads now face. One of the keys to such a strategy 
involves the understanding of the rates at which rail defects grow under trafflc. Rail defects 
in track are much more complex, however, than the simpler types of cracking which have been 
dealt with heretofore by control specifications in other flelds. Thus, the railroads and the 
AREA are now embarking once again upon a pioneering application of fatigue technology to 
meet the challenges of the future. 

References 

1. A. V^ohler. Zeiischrifi fur Bauwesen, Vol. 8 (1858), 641-652; Vol. 10 (1860), 583-616; Vol. 
16 (1966), 67-84; Vol. 20 (1870), 73-106. 

2. A. Palmgren, "Die Lebensdauer von Kugellager," ZVDl, Vol. 68 (1924), 339-341. 

3. M.A. Miner, "Cumulative Damage in Fatigue." Journal of Applied Mechanics, Vol. 12 
(1945), A159-A164. 

4. E. Winkler, "Die Lehr von der Elastizitat und Festigkeit," Verlag H. Dominikus, Prag, 
1867. 

5. H. Zimmerman, Die Berechnung des Eisenbahnoberbaues, Verlag W. Ernst & Sohn, 
Berlin, 1888. 

6. A.N. Talbot et al. "Fifth Progress Report of the Special Committee on Stresses in Track," 
Proc. American Railway Engineering Association, Vol. 31 (1930). 



'Current plans call for 20-foot plugs containing bolt hole crac.cs to be removed from revenue 
track as assembled joints. However, some disturbance must be expected from the handling 
required to import the plugs to FAST, and it will also be difftcult to re-establish the tie-support 
conditions. 



50 Bulletin 689 — American Railway Engineering Association 



7. S. Timoshenko, "Methodof Analysis of Static and Dynamical Stresses in Rail," Proc. 2nd 
International Congress for Applied Mechanics, Zurich, Switzerland, 1927. 

8. S. Timoshenko and B.F. Langer, "Stresses in Railroad Track," ASME Transactions, Vol. 
54 (1932), 277-293. 

9. G.M. Magee and E.E. Cress, "Investigation of the Impact Effect of Flat Wheels," Proc. 
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10. Anon., "Effect of Flat Wheels," Proc. American Railway Engineering Association, Vol. 
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11. T.G. Johns and K.B. Davies, "A Preliminary Description of Stresses in Railroad Rail," 
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12. J.R. Lundgren, G.C. Martin, and W.W. Hay, "A Simulation Model of Ballast Support 
and the Modulus of Track Elasticity," University of Illinois Experimental Station, Trans- 
portation Series No. 4, 1970. 

13. M.D. Kilmartin, "A Numerical Discrete Element Analysis of Railroad Track," MS The- 
sis, Tufts University, Medford, MA, November 1972. 

14. D.P. McConnell and A.B. Perlman, "An Investigation of the Structural Limitations of 
Railroad Track," DOT Transportation Systems Center, Cambridge, MA, and Tufts Uni- 
versity, Medford, MA, interim report, DOT-TSC-1575, June 1979. 

15. J.G. Kennedy and S.G. Sampath, "An Integrated Analysis Approach to Calculate Service 
Stresses in Rails," Battelle Columbus Laboratories, Columbus, OH, interim report, 
DOT-TSC-1663, February 1980. 

16. D.R. Ahlbeck et al., "Measurements of Wheel/Rail Loads in Class 5 Track," Battelle 
Columbus Laboratories, Columbus, OH, FRA-ORD-80-19, February 1980. 

17. G.C. Schilling and G.T. Blake, "Measurement of Triaxial Residual Stresses in Railroad 
Rails," U.S. Steel Corporation Research Laboratory, Monroeville, PA (work sponsored 
by AAR Technical Center), Report No. 76-H-046 (019-1), February 1980. 

18. J.J. Groom, "Determination of Residual Stresses in Rails," Battelle Columbus Laborato- 
ries, Columbus, OH, final report, DOT-TSC-1426, August 1981. 

19. R. Schofield and R. Avant, "Amtrak/Knorr Disc Brake Study," ENSCO, Inc., Alex- 
andria, VA, DOT-FR-80-12, November 1979. 

20. O. Orringer, "Amfleet Disc Brake Evalution" DOT Transportation Systems Center, 
Cambridge, MA, PM-743-C-14-77, February 1980. 

21. O. Orringer and D. Farmelant, DOT Transportation Systems Center, Cambridge, MA, 
work in progress on winter bolt hole cracking phenomena. 

22. R.R. Gatts, "Application of a Cumulative Damage Concept to Fatigue," ASME Winter 
Annual Meeting, New York, NY, ASME Paper No. 60-WA-144, 1960. 

23. H. Neuber, "Theory of Stress Concentration for Shear Strained Prismatical Bodies with 
Arbitrary Nonlinear Stress Strain Law," Journal of Applied Mechaincs (December 1961), 
544-550. 

24. B.N. Leis, C.V.B. Gowda, andT.H. Topper, "Some Studies of the Influence of Localized 
and Gross Placticity on the Monotonic and Cyclic Concentration Factors," Journal of 
Testing & Evaluation, Vol. 1, No. 4 (July 1973), 341-348. 

25. A.M. Zarembski, "Effect of Rail Section and Traffic on Rail Fatigue Life," American 
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26. A.B. Perlman, D.Y. Jeong, O. Orringer, and D.P. McConnell, "Rail Flaw Growth 
Investigations," American Railway Engineering Association Bulletin 687, Vol, 83 (1982) , 
pg. 536-550. 

27. J.S. Hitz, "Analyses of Track-Related Railroad Accident Data," DOT Transportation 
Systems Center, Cambridge, MA, September 1977. 

28. J.M. Barsom and E.J. Imhof, Jr., "Fatigue and Fracture Behavior of Carbon Rail Steels 
(Rail Research Volume 5)," U.S. Steel Corporation Research Laboratory, Monroeville, 
PA, Association of American Railroads Report No. R-301, March 1978. 



Paper by O. Orringer and M.W. Bush 51 



29. W. Weibull, Fatigue Testing and Analysis of Results, Pergamon Press, New York, 1961. 

30. P.M. Besuner, D.H. Stone, M.A. DeHerrera, and K.W. Schocneberg, "Statistical Anal- 
ysis of Rail Defect Data (Rail Analysis — Volume 3)," Association of American Railroads, 
Chicago, IL, and Failure Analysis Associates, Palo Alto, CA, AISI-AAR-AREA Track- 
Train Dynamics II, Report No. R-302, June 1978. 

31. Railroad Annual Report, Form R-1, 1933-1975. 

32. K.C. Edscorn et al., "Advance Report of Committee 3— Ties and Wood Preservation/ 
Report on Assignment 5/Service Records," Economics and Finance Department, Associ- 
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33. G.J. Skaliotis, J.L. Poage, and M.E. Cross, "Analysis and Background for FRA Public 
Hearings Regarding Track Regulations," DOT Transportation Systems Center, Cam- 
bridge MA, memorandum, November 8, 1978. 

34. L. Breiman, Statistics: With a View Toward Applications, Houghton Mifflin Company, 
Boston, MA, 1973. 

35. O. Orringer and H.L. Ceccon, "Detection of Rail Defects and Prevention of Rail Frac- 
ture," Proc. 31st Meeting of the Mechanical Failures Prevention Group: Symposium on 
Failure Prevention in Ground Transportation Systems, National Bureau of Standards, 
Gaithersburg, MD, April 1980. 

36. Work in progress under FRA Improved Track Structure Research Program: 
— A. Fleishman, Dynatrend, Inc., Woburn, MA, Interim Report, April 1981. 

— A.T. Hopper, G.A. Mack, and H.C. Meacham, Battelle-Columbus Laboratories, 

Columbus, Ohio, Interim Report, December 1981. 
— J. Waite, Computer Predictions, Inc., Brookside, NJ, December 1981. 

37. Anon., "Rail Defect Manual," Sperry Rail Service, Danbury, CT, 1964. 

38. K.W. Schoeneberg, "Rail Research-Problem Definition," Association of American Rail- 
roads Technical Center, Chicago, IL, Report No. R-120, March 1973. 

39. J.F. McCarthy, Jr., C.F. Tiffany, and O. Orringer, "Application of Fracture Mechanics 
to Decisions on Structural Modifications of Existing Aircraft Fleets," Case Studies in 
Fracture Mechanics (T.P. Rich and D.J. Cartwright, ed.), U.S. Army Materials and 
Mechanics Research Center, Watertown, MA, AMMRC MS 77-5, June 1977. 

40. D.F. Cannon and R.J. Allen, "The Application of Fracture Mechanics to Railway Fail- 
ures," Railway Engineering Journal, July 1974, pp. 6-23. 

41. O. Orringer and R.M.N. Pelloux, "Fatigue Risk Analysis of the Metroliner Railcar 
Truck," Aeroelastic and Structures Research Laboratory, MIT, Cambridge, MA, ASRL 
TR 185-2, November 1976. 

42. G.R. Irwin, "Analysis of Stresses and Strains Near the End of a Crack Traversing a 
Plate," Journal of Applied Mechanics, Vol. 24 (1957), p. 361. 

43. G.C. Sih, Handbook of Stress-Intensity Factors for Researchers and Engineers, Institute of 
Fracture and Solid Mechanics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA, 1973. 

44. H. Tada, P.C. Paris, and G.R. Irwin (ed.). The Stress Analysis of Cracks Handbook, Del 
Research Corporation, Hellertown, PA, 1973. 

45. S.T. Rolfe and J.M. Barsom, Fracture and Fatigue Control in Structures, Prentice-Hall, 
Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1977. 

46. CM. Hudson, "A Root-Mean-Square Approach for Predicting Fatigue Crack Growth 
under Random Loading," Methods and Models for Predicting Fatigue Crack Growth 
under Random Loading (J.G. Wang and CM. Hudson, ed.), ASTM STP 748, American 
Society for Testing and Materials, 1981, pp. 41-52. 

47. O. Orringer, "Rapid Estimation of Spectrum Crack Growth Life Based on the Palmgrcn- 
Miner Rule," to appear in Journal of Computers & Structures, January 1983. 

48. J. Schijve, "Observations on the Prediction of Fatigue Crack Growth Propagation Under 
Variable-Amplitude Loading," Fatigue Crack Growth Under Spectrum Loads, ASTM 
STP 595, American Society for Testing and Materials, 1976, pp. 3-23. 



52 Bulletin 689 — American Railway Engineering Association 



49. G.J. Fowler, "Fatigue Crack Initiation and Propagation in Pearlitic Rail Steels," PhD 
Dissertation, School of Engineering and Applied Science, University of California, Los 
Angeles, CA, 1976. 

50. C.E. Feddersen, R.D. Buchheit, and D. Broek, "Fatigue Crack Propagation in Rail 
Steels," Battelle Columbus Laboratories, Columbus, OH, FRA/ORD-77/14, June 1977. 

51. D.H. Stone and G.G. Knupp (ed.), Rail Steels— Developments, Processing, and Use, 
ASTM STP 644, American Society for Testing and Materials, 1978: 

— D.H. Stone and R.K. Steele, "The Effect of Mechanical Properties on the Performance 

of Rail Steels," pp. 21-62. 
— G.J. Fowler and A.S. Tetelman, "The Effect of Grain Boundary Ferrite on Fatigue 

Crack Propagation in Pearlitic Rail Steels," pp. 363-386. 
— J.M. Barsom and E.J. Imhof, Jr., "Fatigue and Fracture Behavior of Carbon-Steel 

Rails," pp. 387-413. 
— C.E. Feddersen and D. Broek, "Fatigue Crack Propagation in Rail Steels," 

pp. 414-429. 

52. D. Broek and R.C. Rice, "Fatigue Crack Growth Properties of Rail Steels," Battelle 
Columbus Laboratories, Columbus, OH, DOT-TSC-FRA-80-29, January 1981. 

53. D.H. Stone and G.G. Knupp (ed.). Rail Steels— Developments, Processing, and Use, 
ASTM STP 644, American Society for Testing and Materials, 1978: 

— P.M. Besuner, "Fracture Mechanics Analysis of Rails with Shell-Initiated Transverse 
Cracks," pp. 303-329. 

— S.G. Sampath, T.J. Johns, P.M. McGuire, and K.B. Davies, "Stresses Around Trans- 
verse Fissure Flaws in Rails Due to Service Loads," pp. 330-341. 

54. R.I. Mair and R. Groenhout, "The Growth of Transverse Fatigue Defects in the Head of 
Railway Rails", Rail International (December 1980), 675-690. 

55. D. Broek and R.C. Rice, "Prediction of Fatigue Crack Growth in Rail Steels," Battelle 
Columbus Laboratories, Columbus, OH, DOT-TSC-FRA-80-30, January 1981. 

56. R.C. Rice, B.N. Leis, and M.E. Tuttle, "Residual Stresses and the Fatigue and Fracture 
of Railroad Rail," Proc. ASTM Symposium on Residual Stress Effects in Fatigue, Phoenix, 
AZ, May 1981. 

57. C.G. Chipperfield, "Modelling Rail Head Fatigue Using Fracture Mechanics," Broken 
Hill Proprietary Company, Ltd., Melbourne Research Laboratories, Melbourne, Austra- 
lia, November 1981. 

58. G.P. Mcintosh, M. McCafferty, J.R. Lundgren, M. Edwards, and S. Guy, "Accident 
Investigation/Transportation Test Center/FAST Derailment/February 27, 1979," Trans- 
portation Test Center, Pueblo, CO, March 1979. 

59. L.D. Fleming and M.J. Wisnowski, "Investigation of a Failed Rail from FAST," AAR 
Technical Center, Chicago, IL, Report No. R-371, May 1979. 

60. R.K. Steele, "A Perspectival Review of Rail Behavior at the FaciUty for Accelerated 
Service Testing," Transportation Test Center, Pueblo, CO, Report No. FRA TTC-81/07, 
June 1981. 

61. R.K. Steele and R.P. Reiff, "Rail: Its Behavior and Relationship to Total System Wear," 
Proc. 1981 FAST Engineering Conference, Denver, CO, November 1981, pp. 115-164(a). 

62. A.E. Green and I.N. Sneddon, "The Distribution of Stress in the Neighborhood of a Flat 
Elliptical Crack in an Elastic Solid," Proc. Cambridge Philosophical Society, Vol. 46 
(1950), 159-163. 

63. R.C. Shah and A.S. Kobayashi, International Journal of Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 
Vol. 3 No. 1 (1971), 71-96. 

64. R.C. Shah and A.S. Kobayashi, "Stress Intensity Factor for an Elliptical Crack Approach- 
ing the Surface of a Plate in Bending," Stress Analysis and Growth of Cracks, Proc. 1971 
National Symposium on Fracture Mechanics, Part 1, ASTM STP 513, American Society 
for Testing and Materials, 1972, pp. 3-21. 



Paper by O. Orringer and M.W. Bush 53 



65. S.G. Sampath, "Calculation of Stress Intercity Factors for Elliptical Cracks Under Arbi- 
trary Loading," interim report. Contract DOT-TSC-1663, June 1979. 

66. F.A. McClintock and M. Clerico, "Plastic Flow and Cracking from a Crack Under 
Friction and Combined Stress," Department of Mechanical Engineering, MIT, Cam- 
bridge, MA, final report. Contract DOT-TS11653, December 1977. 

67. H.L. Ceccon, "Ultrasonic Rail Flaw Imaging," appearing in AREA Bulletin 687, 
pp. 551-559. 

68. H.L. Ceccon, "Techniques for Measuring Longitudinal Forces in Rails," appearing in the 
AREA Bulletin 687, pp. 560-564. 



PUBLISHED AS INFORMATION 



56 Bulletin 689 — American Railway Engineering Association 



Committee 3 — Ties and Wood Preservation 

A survey of member roads was recently conducted by AREA Committee 3, Ties and 
Wood Preservation, which asked for information on a number of current issues related to the 
use and production of wood ties. Figures and comments included are for the year 1980. 

1. Approximately how many old, used crossties do you dispose of each year? 

22,245,500 

2. How do you remove old crossties when replacing them? — whole ( ) Yes ( ) No 
— 2 or more sections ( ) Yes ( ) No — both of the above ( ) Yes ( ) No 

37.8 — % whole 8,419,000 62.2% Sections 13,826,500 

3. Please place a check mark below on items a. through h. that relate to the specific 
methods you use in disposal of your old crossties and enter the approximate percent, in the 
space provided, by each method. 

a 4,791,500 sell to contractor who picks up off right of way 21.5 % 

b 1,369,000 sell and haul by rail to designated point 6.2% 

c 2,433,000 give to farmers, etc. 10^ % 

d 633,000 pick up and use for cribbing, fencing, etc. 2.9% 

e 5,756,000 bury along right of way 25^9% 

f 2,384,500 haul to landfill and bury 10.7 % 

g 200,000 use as boiler fuel 0.9% 

( X ) hogged or ( ) whole, 

h 3,959,000 other burn 17.8 % 

200,000 shred 0^% 

521,000 rehabilitate ' 2^% 

4. What method of dating your ties do you use? 

a 18,159,000 end stamping 81.6 % 

b 70,000 date nails 03% 

c burn branding 0% 

d 4,016,000 other (please specify) not dated at all 18.T % 

5. Do you feel it is worth the expense to date your ties and please explain. 
YES 14,784,000 66.5% No 7,461,500 33.5% 

6. Are records being kept of tie service life? 

YES 30,060,000 13.8% NO 19,185,500 86.2% 

7. Suggestions on dating ties. 

Of the 81.9% of ties that are dated, most are done in conjunction with identification 
initials to use as proof of ownership in theft cases. The date apphcation will be continued since 
it involves no extra cost. 

8. Comments on any of the above. 

Currently 81 .9% of ties are dated, and 66.5% are dated with the belief that it is worth the 
expense. Only 13.8% of dated ties installed have formal records kept on them. 



Published as Information 57 



Committee 14 — Yards and Terminals 

Criteria For Selecting a Dual Hump For A Gravity 
Classification Yard 

D.N. Witt (Chairman, Subcommittee), M.J. Anderson, F. Bartunek, H.E. Buchanan, B.H. 
Clarke, Jr., J.R. Clark, D.V. Clayton, H. Crawley, J.W. Darby, F.D. Day, G.N. Dorshimer, 
P.P. Dunavant, Jr., M.R. Gruber, Jr., H.L. Haanes, J.N. Hagan, J.J. Helm, E.T. Lucey, 
S.N. Maclsaac, R.E. Mingle, J.C. Pinkston, G.A. Sargent, W.A. Schoelwer, L.G. Tieman, 
P.E. VanCleve, J.C. Weiser, C.C. Yespelkis 

Your subcommittee submits this report on the captioned subject as information with the 
recommendation that this subject be discontinued. 

General 

A dual hump serving a gravity classification yard is identified by several distinctive 
characteristics. It has a single hump with two tracks leading from a receiving yard to one 
classification yard. Cars humped from either hump lead track must be able to reach any track 
within the classification yard. Each lead should contain the identical equipment and signaling 
system of a single track hump, such as a "no-hump" setout track, a motion weighing system, 
and a master retarder. In addition, a dual track hump requires crossovers on both sides of the 
hump crest and an expanded signal and control system to utilize the flexibility that a dual track 
arrangement provides. 

With this integrated system in place, the hump can be operated in three principle modes. 
For example, assume a yard that operates along an east-west axis. The first mode permits 
humping from the north lead to the full classification yard; the second mode permits humping 
from the south lead to the full classification yard; and the third mode permits simultaneous 
humping from the north lead to the north half of the classification yard and from the south lead 
to the south half. The expeditious use of these modes will improve hump utilization, thence 
yard efficiency. 

There are two common problems that exist for any single lead track hump yard that a dual 
lead track hump can minimize. The first problem is the delay between hump cuts. In the first 
or second operation modes, a second hump cut can be brought up the unoccupied lead so that 
humping can resume immediately upon completion of the first cut. In the third mode, the 
second cut can begin humping at anytime without regard to the humping stage of the first cut. 
The second problem is lost hump utilization due to scheduled or emergency maintenance. This 
problem is overcome at a dual lead track facility by providing the capability to maintain one 
lead while the yard is being operated in the first or second mode with the other lead active. 
The same holds true for emergency repairs. An additional maintenance advantage is the 
capability to employ rail-mounted equipment on one lead in support of repairs on the other 
lead. 

Indicators 

Design of a dual lead track hump yard should be considered when all of the following have 
been evaluated and economically justified: 

1. The volume of traffic through the yard exceeds the capacity of a single track hump 
yard, but is not sufficient to justify two classification yards. 

2. Schedule requirements cannot be met at certain times during the day unless two trains 
can be classified simultaneously. 



58 Bulletin 689 — American Railway Engineering Association 



3. Tangent point retarders alone will not sufficiently increase through-put capacity. 

4. The characteristics of the traffic are such or can be modified so that a maximum 15 to 
20 per cent of the traffic would have to be rehumped to the other half of the yard. 

5. The advantage of being able to continue humping to one-half of the yard while 
maintenance is being performed on the other half is a significant factor. 

6. Slight reduction in maximum allowable humping rate in the single mode due to 
increased crest to clearance distance is not a significant factor. 



Published as Information 59 



Committee 32— Systems Engineering 

Assignment 5 — Utilization of Track Geometry Data 
Report Prepared by A. E. Fazio 

Your committee presents as information a report on railway use of track geometry cars. 

I. Introduction 

This report is designed to be of use to operators and users of track geometry cars. As such, 
it contains a minimum of theory and many simpHfications. It was motivated by a desire to 
encourage the exchange of existing knowledge regarding the capabilities and uses of track 
geometry cars. There exists no standard criteria by which those contemplating purchasing or 
building such a car can be guided. A survey of existing cars indicates a wide range of capability 
and technological sophistication. This is, in part, due to the propensity of individual railroads 
to construct their own vehicle. An obvious shortcoming of this lack of standardization is the 
confusion faced by potential geometry car owners. This problem has undoubtedly retarded the 
use of geometry cars as track maintenance planning aids. This report makes no attempt to 
define standards, but rather represents a survey of possible criteria which could be developed 
into standards. 

Track geometry cars record the loaded surface (relative positions of the running rails) of 
the track structure. Since the surface is, in part, a function of the speed and configuration of 
the traversing vehicle, the geometry car is, to some extent, altering the phenomena it is 
measuring. In the absence of a constitutive relation (a relationship between load and defor- 
mation) for track it is advisable to configure the geometry car so that it is somewhat represen- 
tative of a railroad's traffic. The geometry car is generally incapable of measuring important 
track structural parameters, e.g. tie or ballast condition. It is thus limited to the provision of 
an instantaneous record of track surface; obviously the data it provides assumes meaning only 
in the context of other physical track characteristics. Finally, the portion (frequency response) 
and quality (noise spectrum) of data recorded by a given car depend on the measuring 
techniques and instrumentation utilized. 

II. Uses of Track Geometry Cars 

Track geometry cars have not been as widely used in the United States as they have in 
Europe or Canada. The primary use, at present, is in the location and reporting of individual 
track geometry defects. These defects may constitute a violation of the FRA class standards, 
or of a company maintenance standard. The exceptions may be identified in a variety of 
formats, e.g. analog-generated strip charts, digital print-outs, computer generated graphics, 
etc. Regardless of the presentation format, this mode of operation is characterized by a 
necessity to correct the defects as quickly as possible. Other than to locate the exceptions, 
there is no formal attempt to characterize the overall quality of the particular track segment, 
and little or no correlation is made between the observed defect rate and future programmed 
maintenance. This "punch-list" approach represents the most primitive and, unfortunately, 
the most common usage of track geometry cars in this country. It is by no means a trivial 
application, however, since the ability to observe under load, and automatically record indi- 
vidual track geometry exceptions, at high speed, is an important asset to basic maintenance 
forces. 

Certain railroads, e.g. Southern,'' have instituted formalized track maintenance planning 
models in which the geometry car plays an integral role. These models vary but are generally 
characterized by a formalism relating track geometry data to the overall quality of a track 
segment; and subsequently, to the requirement on that segment for "production" mainte- 
nance. Most of the planning models currently in use are railroad specific: they were developed 



60 Bulletin 689 — American Railway Engineering Association 



by individual railroads and their application has generally been limited to the developing road. 
However, both the FRA and AAR are currently involved in major research programs which 
are attempting to predict track surface life (as measured by the geometry car) as a function 
of a track's usage and physical characteristics. An important objective of these programs is to 
develop equations which can predict the deterioration of track geometry. Should successful 
mathematical models be developed, individual railroads who desire to implement these plan- 
ning techniques will face the problem of matching the type and quantity of data developed by 
their geometry car to that required to drive the models. 

Geometry cars have also been used for a variety of other purposes including the collection 
of track characteristics data, such as curve location and size for incorporation in track data 
bases. Another important application has been in rail vehicle design, where geometry car data 
is used to provide a basis for defining typical track surface signatures. This signature is then 
used to predict the response of a particular design. 

III. Discussion of Geometry Car Technology 

A wide variety of hardware and software is employed in geometry cars. The purpose of 
this report is not to recommend a standard technology. However, since the technology em- 
ployed by a particular car often qualifies or restricts the use of the car, some critical areas are 
briefly discussed. These include: 

1. Car Weights and Configuration. A wide spectrum exists in the gross weights and 
configurations of existing geometry cars. Some examples are included in Table 1. 

Table 1 
Typical Comparative Data for Geometry Cars 

Axles Center Plate Truck Wheel 

Gross Weight Supporting distance base 

Car (tons) Weight (ft.) (ft.) 



Plasser 


EM-80 


32 


2 


23 


N/A 


Sou. Rwy. 


R-1 


146 


6 


59 


11 


FRA 


T-6 


80 


4 


59.5 


8 


FRA 


T-10 


65 


4 


59.5 


8 



Depending on the condition of track, the EM-80 might, for example, cause dynamic gauge 
widening which is much less than that due to the R-1 traversing the track. ^ A constitutive 
relation for track (possibly one for each parameter) is required to identify the change in track 
geometry as a function of load. In the absence of such a relation, it is advisable for each 
railroad to record geometry with a car which is representative of the weight and configuration 
of their heavier traffic. 

2. Data Collection Systems. Included herein are sensors, which determine the relative 
location of each rail, and associated instrumentation, which converts the position of sensors, 
or other information, e.g. force levels, into an electronic or mechanical signal which can be 
finally converted to a linear (distance) measurement. This is a very complex area, and one 
which is usually beyond the scope of interest to track maintenance officers. However, the data 
collection systems employed effect application of the car to a railroad's track maintenance 
program in three significant areas: 

a) Limitations on the quantity of data that can be collected stem from both theoretical 
and design considerations. The gauge recording system for the T-6 provides an example of the 
latter. While the remote sensors used to detect rail location provide a more precise mea- 



Published as Information 



61 



surement at high speeds than do direct contact sensors (such as those employed on the 
EM-80), they do not record data through road crossings and turnouts. This represents a 
serious disadvantage of this system, one which seriously restricts its usefulness in the "punch- 
list" scenario. 

Most geometry cars take discrete, i.e. individual, data samples of a continuous phenom- 
ena (track geometry). There is a theoretical limit to the wavelengths of the continuous 
phenomena that can be "seen" by a discrete sampling process. This is known as the Nyquist 
frequency. From theoretical considerations it can be shown^ that the process of discrete 
sampling, i.e. recording data at intervals, of continuous waveforms, causes certain wave- 
lengths in the composite waveform to be lost. The minimum, i.e. shortest, wavelength that can 
be reconstructed is equal to twice the sampling interval. Thus, the T-6 car, which takes a 
measurement every foot, cannot identify geometry deviations of wavelength less than two feet. 

Another limitation occurs where non-absolute geometry, for example, the reconstruction 
of alignment by chordal offsets, is utilized. The suppression of certain wavelengths occurs as 
a result of the measurement process regardless of whether a geometry car or a simple string 
line is used to record data. Figure 1 gives the frequency response characteristic for a mid-chord 
offset. An actual response characteristic for the Mauzin car's alignment data is provided by 
Esveld' and is illustrated here as Figure 2. This topic is further discussed in the appendix to 
this report. 

b) Of critical importance in processing and using track geometry car data is the signal to 
noise ratio. Limitations on the quality of data recorded are expressed by a noise spectrum 
which gives, for each wavelength, the standard deviation of the random error associated with 



H = 2 SIN^C^) 
(dimensionless) 




15.5 31 62 

Fig. 1. Frequency Response for 62-foot Mid-Chord Offset 



A (ft) 



62 



Bulletin 689 — American Railway Engineering Association 



H (dimension! ess) 



2.0" 



l.O" 




1.67 2.5 5 



X (ft) 



Fig. 2. Mauzin Car Response Characteristics 



the measurement at that wavelength. Noise is generally expressed in a spectral format. Figure 
3 is an example of what is known as "white noise"; the standard deviation of the random 
measurement error is constant for each wavelength. In the case of white noise, all wavelengths 
are measured with the same confidence. The noise spectrum associated with a track geometry 
car is not white, however. Hence there will be different levels of confidence for geometry 
deviations of different wavelengths. 

The noise spectrum of track geometry data varies as a function of a wide variety of factors 
and hence is generally different for different geometry parameters on a particular car (as well 
as varying from car to car). For example, Corbin discusses the noise spectrum associated with 
profile on the T-6 car.' 

This system is a combination of an accelerometer and a displacement transducer. The 
total noise for profile is: 



N[<d] = NM + Nd[&] + Nr\ 



where 



spatial frequency of geometry 
deviations (cycles/ft.) 



Nr[Q] = noise due to wheel/bearing 
imperfections 



Published as Information 63 



Fig. 3. White Noise; Energy Distributed Equally among Wavelengths 



A^j[0] = displacement system's noise 
/V„[0] = accelerometer noise 
Corbin gives the first two terms as: 

N40] = IXia/) 



where 



X = sample interval 
(t/ = is a characteristic (random error) of the displacement sensor. 



where 



^M = tttH ii + ,0 < fl < 0, 



0, = folding frequency, a constant. 
V = car's speed 



64 Bulletin 689 — American Railway Engineering Association 



Thus, for a given wheel/bearing condition, the random profile error varies as 

'^"^. V'' w 

When recording profile with this system, it is advantageous to operate at high speed, and 
at any speed data recorded pertaining to high frequency profile deviations will be superior to 
data recorded for low frequency deviations. 

c) The type, packaging, and location of the instrumentation are important in determining 
the maintenance requirements of the geometry car, and hence, its availability for inspecting 
track. For example, due to the severe dynamic loads experienced at the track, it is desirable 
to mount as much sensitive instrumentation as possible in the body of the car. 

On the T-6 car, profile is recorded using a "profilometer"; this is an accelerometer 
mounted on a platform. The platform is protected from direct impact by a suspension system 
between it and the track. This permits the use of a more sensitive accelerometer and hence 
lower noise levels.' 

3. Data Processing Systems. On, as well as off-Hne, data processing is available for most 
geometry cars. The type of processing required is highly dependent upon the role the data 
plays in maintenance of way. If the car is used in the "punch-list" mode, for example, it is 
important that a real time, i.e. generated as the exceptions are detected, digital exception 
report be generated. This report can be delivered to the track supervisor for immediate 
attention. In this case, it is important that the exception report be simple and that the type, 
magnitude, and location of the deviations be evident. 

Off-line data processing can be more varied and could include automatic rating of a 
particular track segment's overall quality, compilation of a geometry exception history, or 
selection of certain bits of data for use in special studies. Since time is not a critical factor and 
since larger computers are generally available, more complex and accurate processing of the 
raw data can be performed off the geometry car. 

IV. Operating Considerations 

These are of paramount importance to a railroad desiring to purchase/build and operate 
its own car. In particular, a railroad contemplating geometry car operation should carefully 
consider: 

1. Cost to purchase or rent car, i.e. the initial capital investment; this should include the 
required support systems. 

2. Operating costs: these should be considered in the broad context of all costs (direct 
cash and other) attributed to operating and maintaining the particular geometry car. Oper- 
ating considerations include: Is the car self-propelled or does it require a locomotive; can it 
test bi-directionally, or must it be turned; what is the car classified as by the operating 
department, i.e. is it a train, hence requiring a full crew, or a track car — will it shunt signals 
if a track car; what level of training is required by the operating crew; can the car test in a 
train — can it be moved (deadheaded) in a train; what level of comfort does the car provide for 
the crew — how many riders can it accommodate for inspection trips? 

The ability to maintain a car is critical. A potential owner or operator must consider the 
car as part of a system. It will require proper support facilities to insure proper operation. Car 
maintenance must be viewed in a broad context, and consideration should be given to software 
maintenance (and modification) as well as to the electronic and mechanical systems. The 



Published as Information 65 



requirement for unusual equipment or skills should be identified. It is extremely easy to render 
the initial investment in a geometry car ineffectual by poor or inappropriate maintenance 
practices. 

3. Operating Practice (M/W Department). In order for a railroad to realize the greatest 
return on its investment, it is advisable that a standard operating procedure be implemented 
in the Maintenance of Way department. This should specify frequency of the car's operation, 
who is to ride the car, e.g. division engineer, track supervisor, and how the various reports 
generated are to be handled. The format used to present the geometry data to line manage- 
ment is critical; important defect data can easily be overlooked if not clearly presented. 

Conclusion 

Because track geometry provides the dynamic input (forcing function) to a rail vehicle, 
the track geometry car is an excellent tool for "punch-list" maintenance. It can readily locate 
specific geometry which is likely to cause undesirable vehicle response; the type of repair can 
then be determined by a site inspection. In many instances, this application alone will justify 
the operation of a geometry car. 

The ease with which data may be collected and manipulated has prompted research into 
the use of geometry cars in intermediate- and long-range track maintenance planning.^ The 
essence of these efforts is the formulation of a quantitative measure of track quality. It has 
been argued" that this measure should be derived solely from loaded track geometry, and that 
other track characteristics, e.g. tie and rail condition, be included to predict the rate of change 
of the geometry. Thus, for purposes of intermediate and long-range maintenance planning, 
the geometry assumes meaning only in the context of track's structural characteristics. 

The operation of automatically recording the loaded geometry of track borrows from a 
wide variety of diverse disciplines of engineering, many of which are foreign to the track 
maintenance engineer. Nevertheless, a fundamental understanding of some of these concepts 
will assist railroad personnel in the operation of geometry cars and in the application of the 
derivative data to the track maintenance program. Of paramount importance is an under- 
standing of some of the limitations associated with geometry cars that were discussed in this 
paper. 

References 

1. Corbin, J., Statistical Characterization of Track Geometry, Volume II, FRA Report FRA/ 
ORD-80/22.1, March, 1980. 

2. Corbin, J. and Fazio, A., "Development of Performance Based Track Quality Measures 
and Their Application of Maintenance of Way: Methodology and Framework", presented 
at the 1981 Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 
January. 1981. 

3. Esveld, C. and Groenhysen. F., "Planning of Mechanized Track Maintenance by the 
Netherlands Railways, Based on Track Recording Cara Data" Rail International, Volume 
656, May 1980. 

4. Hamid, A. et al, A Prototype Maintenance of Way Planning System. Report No. 
FRA/ORD-80/55. March. 1980. 

5. Raemer, Statistical Communication Theory and Applications, Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1969. 

6. Tuve, R., "An application of Track Geometry Data to Planning on the Southern Railway ". 
Paper presented before the Transportation Research Board, 1980 Annual Meeting, Wash- 
ington, D.C., January, 1980. 

7. Zarembski, A.M. and Choros, J., Laboratory Investigation of Track Gauge Widening, 
Report No. R-395, Association of American Railroads, 1979. 



66 



Bulletin 689 — American Railway Engineering Association 



Appendix 
Engineering Concepts 

Following is a brief, qualitative discussion of some concepts and terms which are fre- 
quently encountered in discussions of track geometry cars. 

I) Power Spectral Density 

Track represents a forcing function on a vehicle which is comprised of waves and various 
amplitudes and wavelengths. The analysis of track geometry borrows techniques from wave 
mechanics and acoustics. A concept of qualitative interest to track engineers is that of Power 
Spectral Density (PSD). Consider a simple sine wave (Fig. 4a) 



y = A sin (ttjc) 



where 



y = profile (for example of a rail) 

X = distance along the rail 

where O(0) is the power associated with the wave of frequency 0. The power spectrum of this 
profile is shown in Fig. 4b. Since this simple profile is comprised of only a single wave of 
frequency 0.5 cycle/ft. all of the energy in the profile is contained at this wavelength. 



Y A 



A ■• 




2) X (radians) 



Fig. 4a. Sine Wave 



Published as Information 



67 



§((j» 






0.5 



<J) (cycles/foot) 



Fig. 4b. PSD of Sine Wave 



Now consider a slightly more complex profile, one which is composed of two sine waves. 

y = A sin (-nx) + B sin (2tta) 

The profile can be found by simple algebraic addition of the amplitudes at each point of 
the component waves, as shown in Fig. 5a. 

Note that the component waves are of amplitudes A and B. The power spectrum of this 
wave is illustrated in Fig. 5b. Observe that the greater part of this wave's energy is concen- 
trated at a frequency of = 1.0 cycle/ft. 

The actual calculation of the PSD for a given wave is not of great importance to the track 
engineer; an understanding of the general concept of a PSD is critical however. A typical PSD 
for the profile of Class 6 track is shown in Fig. 6. Note the tapering of the energy spectrum 
at higher frequencies (shorter wavelengths). The short wavelength end approaches geometry 
deviations caused by rail corrugations, while the long wavelengths approach site topography 
(hills and valleys). 

The mean square deviation of the profile, i.e. the variance (ct"), can be computed by 
taking the area under the PSD (Parseval's Theorem). 

II) Car Response Characteristics 

A device such as a geometry car which measures a space curve will have a response 
characteristic, i.e. it will attenuate geometry deviations of certain wavelengths more than those 
at other wavelengths. In some cases there will exist null frequencies; these are frequencies to 



Bulletin 689 — American Railway Engineering Association 



Y = Asin (ttx) + Bsin (Zttx) 




(2) X (radian) 



Fig. 5a. Sum of Two Harmonic Sine Waves 



|«1» 



Al 

8tt 



0.5 



1.0 



^ (cycles /foot! 



Fig. 5b. PSD of Function Shown in Figure 5a. 



Published as Information 



69 



iw 



(J> (cycles/foot) 



Fig. 6. PSD of Typical Class-b Track 



which the measurement system will be totally blind. For exampling, consider stringiining, a 
common mid-chord offset technique used for measuring alignment. Suppose that the track 
viewed in plan as Fig. 7a, is string-lined. Figs. 7b, 7c, and 7d show the results of recording the 
mid-chord offset. As this sequence illustrates, a 62 ft. MCO is incapable of "seeing" an 
alignment deviation of X. = 124 ft. Note the null frequencies which occur at wavelength of 31 
ft. and its harmonics. (See Fig. 8.) Geometry deviations having these wavelengths cannot be 
found with a 62 ft. MCO. Al^o, observe the gain (2.0) at wavelengths of approximately 20 and 
62 ft. Geometry deviations at these wavelengths will be "magnified". In practice, the response 
characteristic can be improved by, for example, taking the offset measurement from a point 
other than the mid-point of the chord. 



70 



Bulletin 689 — American Railway Engineering Association 



Lateral 4 

Deviation 




Distance (ft) 



Fig. 7a. 



Lateral 
Deviation 



62 



MCO*= 



— I. 




Distance (ft) 



Fig. 7b. 



* MCO = Mid Chord Offset 



Published as Information 



71 



Lateral 
Deviation 



, MCO = 




Distance (ft) 



Fig. 7c. 



Lateral ^ 
Deviation 



,MCO = 




Distance (ft) 



Fig. 7d. 



* MCO - Mid Chord Offset 



72 



Bulletin 689 — American Railway Engineering Association 



2.0 -• 



H = sin (-r-) 
(dimensionless) 



1.0 -• 




15.5 31 62 93 124 Wavelength (ft) 

Fig. 8. Response Characteristics for 62-foot Mid-Chord Offset 



MEMOIRS 



74 Bulletin 689 — American Railway Engineering Association 



Lawrence N. Bigelow 
1915-1981 

Lawrence N. Bigelow, retired senior staff engineer, American Bridge Division, United 
States Steel Corporation, died in Zanesville, Ohio, on August 12, 1981, at the age of 65. 

Mr. Bigelow, son of Albert S. and Margaret M. Bigelow, was born September 28, 1915, 
in Hiawatha, Kansas. He received a B.S. degree in Civil Engineering from the University of 
Kansas in 1937. 

Larry started his engineering career as an engineering draftsman for American Bridge 
Company, Gary, Indiana, in 1937 and continued with American Bridge, holding various 
engineering supervisory and project management responsibilities until his retirement in Sep- 
tember 1977. 

For many years, Larry was a member of the American Society of Civil Engineers Com- 
mittees on Long Span Steel Bridges and Cable Structures; the American Society of Testing 
Materials Committees F-16 on Fasteners and A-1 on Steel, Stainless Steel and Related Alloys; 
the American Institute of Steel Construction Committee on Bridges; and the American 
Railway Engineering Association Committee 15, Steel Structures. Larry gave freely of his time 
and energy to various technical organizations during his lifetime. His contributions to the steel 
industry and railroad industry helped to make these various organizations a success. All who 
knew him are saddened by his passing. 

Mr. Bigelow married Ruth Redding on May 24, 1938, at Garden City, Kansas. 

Mr. Bigelow was an active member and leader in the United Methodist Church and in the 
World Federalist Association. 

He is survived by his wife, Ruth, of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; two sons, Robert of 
Merrillville, Indiana, and James (Craig) of St. Matthews, South Carolina; a daughter, Mar- 
garet Beeman of Milford, Ohio; and four grandchildren. 

W.L. Brock 
J.E. Barrett 



Memoirs 75 



George V. Guerin 
1902-1981 

George V. Guerin, retired Chief Engineer. Great Northern Railway, died at St. Paul, 
Minnesota, on October 19. 1981, at the age of 79. 

Mr. Guerin, the son of George V. and AHce V. ( Arendt) Guerin, was born June 17, 1902, 
in St. Paul, Minnesota. He received a B.S. in Civil Engineering from the University of 
Minnesota in 1924 and was a member of Tau Beta Pi, and Chi Epsilon. He also attended 
Harvard Graduate School of Business, Advanced Management Program, in 1957. 

Mr. Guerin married Alice L. Krengel on June 9, 1928. 

Mr. Guerin started his work experience with the Bridge Department of the Great North- 
ern Railway in June, 1924, and was appointed Assistant Bridge Engineer in February, 1929; 
Bridge Engineer in January, 1940, all in St. Paul; and in May, 1954, as Assistant Chief 
Engineer at Seattle. Washington. He returned to St. Paul in August, 1956 as Chief Engineer, 
holding this position until his retirement in March. 1968. 

Mr. Guerin gave freely of his time to the American Society of Civil Engineers and the 
American Railway Engineering Association. He was well known and respected in the AREA, 
having served as a member of Committee 7, Timber Bridges, from 1940 to 1946, as a member 
of Committee 15, Steel Structures, from 1946 to 1954, and on Committee 24, Engineering 
Education, from 1957 to 1959. and finally, as a Director of AREA in 1966 and 1967. He served 
as president of the Minnesota Section of ASCE in 1952. 

All those who knew him are saddened by his passing. 

D.V. Sartore 



Turn Your 
Rail and Track 
Material Problem 
Over... 

To A&K 



• You'll talk to a specialist. He'll 
understand your questions, you'll 
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• You'll deal with the largest supplier 
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Salt Lake City, ai 841 3C 
Call Toil-Free (800) 453-88^ 
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Neoprene 
Bridge Bearing 
Pads 



Meets A.R.E.A 
specifications 




Neoprene bearings 
between bridge 
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thermal expansion 
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assemblies. 

Neoprene's resistance 
to weather-aging, 
compression set, oil, 
and ozone insures a 
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Accommodates thermal 

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Available in hardness, 

durometer A, grades 50, 60, 

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withstand temperatures from 

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Durable and maintenance-free 

Isolates components of 

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against vibration, noise, and 

shock 



Use Neoprene Bearing Pads for: Rails, Bridge spans, Approach ramps, 
Elevated roads, Walk ways, Column to footing isolation. 

nLE^I manufa during and supply co. 



1848 Wilmot Avenue • Chicago, 
Phone: (312) 452-6480 



60647 




JWERY 



TRACKS 



, r-i H tng r 

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SHEETING 

When Safety Is First. 

Railroad crossings are serious 
business. To assure safe visibility, 
remember our name, Avery. 

First, there was Avery's Fasign® 
Engineer Grade. Our top of the line 
beaded reflective sheeting. In 
flexibility, quality, and superior 
performance, you couldn't find 
a better value. We even backed 
it with Avery's 7-year warranty. 
Now we've gone one step 
further, one step safer. Introducing 



Durabrite^^ Hi-Intensity Grade Reflective Sheeting. 
With a unique prismatic design, it has SVz times the 
specific intensity of most beaded reflective sheeting. 




That means greater visibility around the clock. And 
"Durabrite" Hi-Intensity Grade is tough, too. With a 
unique, solvent-resistant film, "Durabrite" is protected 
against severe handling, vandalism and harsh 
weather. For all your railroad signage and 
markings, remember "Durabrite" Hi-Intensity 
and "Fasign" Engineer Grade products from 
Avery. The first name when 
safety is first. 

Avery International 

Reflective Products 

250 Chester Street Painesville, Ohio 44077 (216) 352-4444 





The Allegheny Insulated Rail Joint 

Designed to withstand the heaviest trafRc 
in welded rail 



This modern joint cements rail ends in position and thereafter 
resists all forces imposed by temperature and simultaneous forces 
of live loads to move them. 

This joint makes welded rail truly continuous. It promises you years 
of service without maintenance costs. It reduces rail and wheel batter 
to a previously unknown minimum. It employs the safety of steel splice 
bars. It can be assembled in the shop or field. It has been tested in 
service and AAR laboratories. It saves you lots of money. 

Allegheny Drop Forge Company 

Subsidiary of Tasa Corporation 



2707 Preble Avenue • Pittsburgh, Pa. 15233 



e Quality and Progress 

1982 for 58 years 
in Chemicals and 
Application . . . 

RAILROAD VEGETATION CONTROL 

The R.H. Bogle Company 

P.O. Box 588 
ALEXANDRIA, VIRGINIA 22313 

Memphis, Tenn. Alva, Okla. 

Jacksonville, Fla. 



Bridges, General and 
Incidental Construction, Grading 
Gravel, and Crushed Stone Surface, 
and Railroad Structures 

EDWARD KRAEMER 

and 

SONS, INC. 

General Contractor Plain, Wisconsin 53577 Phone:546-2311 



RIGHT 01 




Chevron industrial weei 



Get in touch with your nearest distributor: 



Asplundh Tree Expert Co. 

Blair Mill Road 
Willow Grove.PA 19090 

The R. H. Bogle Co. 

P.O. Box 588 
Alexandria, VA 22313 



Washburn Agricultural S 
Rt. 1, Box 2650 
Davis, CA 95616 

J. C. Ehrlich Chemical Q 

800 Heister Land 

Reading, PA I960; 

Spray Services, Inc 

4711 Piedmont Roa 

Huntington, W VA 25 



FHE TRACK! 

3day literally thousands of miles of railroad track are kept free of weeds 
id grasses with two efficient weed killers from ORTHO— Chevron 
dustrial Weed & Grass Killer and Diquat 2 Spray. These herbicides 
11 weeds and grasses on contact, with extraordinary speed. You 
n begin to see results just hours after spraying. Both materials stay 
:tive even at low temperatures. 

While Chevron Industrial Weed & Grass Killer is a Restricted Use 
^sticide, Diquat 2 Spray is not. Both materials are non-explosive 
id non-flammable. They're water soluble and rapidly absorbed by 
eeds so you don't have to worry about rain ruining your spray 
b after application. Both of these effective contact weed killers are 
•mpatible with most residual herbicides on railroads. 

Use one of ORTHO's dependable weed killers in conjunction 
ith your regular herbicide program and reduce the problem of weed 
.capes. For best results, apply with ORTHO X-77 Spreader. 



NGER Paraquat is highly toxic if swallowed and should be kept 
of the reach of children To prevent accidental ingestion never 
nsfer to food drink or other containers Read the label carefully 
i follow all directions danger statements and worker safety 
3S Restricted Use Pesticide Use all chemicals only as directed 



"^ Ortho 

Chevron Chemical 
Company 

irass Killer- conlalns Paraquat. 



Railroad Weed Control, Inc. Applied Chemical Division 
Lockhouse Road Mobley Co., Inc. 

Turnpike Industrial Park P.O. Box 1640 

Westfield, Mass 01085 Kilgore, TX 75662 

For additional information contact: 

CHEVRON CHEMICAL CO., SPECIALTY SALES 

P.O. Box 3744, San Francisco, CA 94119 

Phone 415-894-3750 



SgSiS3T.,„„„3,««^ 



NEED A 
REALLY SMOOOOOTH!!! 
RAILROAD/HIGHWAY CROSSING? 




SMOOOOOTH 




If you think the 'T' ® 

"BEST" example of a product is 
the product itself 



We invite you to use 
THE "BEST" 




TOUGH 



GENTLE 



member: 
AREA-ARF-NRC/MAI-RDM-REMSARPI 



" AHOY ESTAMOS PREPARADOS PARA 

MANDAR CARGAMENTOS PARA MEXICO " 



The Crossing Designed witti ttie "Driver in Mind" 



'xar 



KG &fifffrpri^cd| utxc. 



P.O. Box 2027 

Livonia, Michigan 48151 

Phone: (313) 427-5535 



The tough couple 
for weed control. 



If you need a tough couple for 
right-of-way weed control, ask for 
Ontrack 8E® and Atratol.® 

A pre-emergence or early 
post-emergence application (be- 
fore weeds are 6 inches high) of 
Ontrack 8E delivers top-notch 
grass control that'll last the sea- 
son. And coupled with Atratol 
you'll get the broad spectrum 
control you insist on — control 
of foxtails, crabgrass, quack- 
grass, pigweed, kochia and 
Russian thistles. 

What's more, Ontrack 
8E is an easy-to-mix liquid. 



And since it's concentrated 
goes a long way. In fact, the conven 
lent 30 gallon plastic drum will 
cover 60 acres. 

Like to know more? Your 
Ciba-Geigy railroad specialist can 
explain all the benefits. To con- 
tact the specialist nearest you, 
call or write the Railroad and 
Industrial Herbicide Sales 
Dept., Ciba-Geigy Corpora- 
tion, RO. Box 18300, 
Greensboro, NC 27419. 
Telephone: 919/292-7100. 

Ontrack 8E+AtrQfol 
The Tough Couple. 



it 



isj 



Aratol 




4 



xTd 



aBA-GEIG/ 






^•4)1 



-^ 



"^l 




DUPONT 

has the people and products^ 
to serve you 

There's a Du Pont Railroad Vegetation Management 
Specialist in your area. Let him bring his technical 
knowledge and experience to help you solve your weed 
and brush control problems. Du Pont is represented by 
the most qualified railroad applicators available. 



Midwest 



Southern 



Northeast 



Central 



Western 






Lee w. Pershke 

904 Hawthorne Court 
Franklin, TN 37064 
(615) 794-6031 



Peter Sarin 

RO. Box 872 

Apt. 303 

1305 North Broom Street 

Wilmington, DE 19806 

(302) 655-2472 





R. H. Koester 

4109 Three Oaks Drive 
Arlmgton. TX 76016 
(817)429-0668 



Thomas E. Nishimur 

17454 SW Canal Circle 
Lake Oswego. OR 97034 
C503) 635-5804 



The Du Pont Railroad Vegetation Management Products. 

KROVAR® I HYVAR® X VELPAR 



WEED KILLER 

Gives you broad-spectrum 
weed control at a low cost. 
A single application of 
Krovar I can substantially 
reduce the need for 
follow-up sprays later in 
the season. 



WEED KILLER 



Especially effective on 
hard-to-kill perennial 
weeds and grasses such 
as Johnson, Bermuda, nut, 
quack, vasey and other 
grasses. 



® 



WEED KILLER 

Gives you both contact 
and residual control of 
a broad-spectrum of weeds, 
grasses and vines. 
Velpar is non-volatile, 
minimizing chances of 
drift. 



With any chemical, follow labeling instructions and warnings carefully. 

jOPQMT) RAILROAD HERBICIDES 



f'EG U S PAT a TM Off 



BURRO 


BADGER 


^9 %#■■■■%# 
LOCOMOTIVE CRANES 


CONSTRUCTION 
EQUIPMENT 


and 




MAINTENANCE-OF-WAY 


• Hi-Rail Telescoping 


ACCESSORIES 


Boom-Type Excavators 


• Panel Track Lifters 

• Multi-rail Lifters 

• Rail Threaders — CWR or Jointed 


• Hydraulic Excavator- 
Tractor- Type Crawler 


• Rail Tongs 

• Ditching and Brush Cutting 


• Hydraulic 40 & 55 Ton 


Equipment 
• Modernization and OSHA 
Equipment Kits 


Self-propelled Cranes 


.^ 


/^Ife^^-.^-. 


BURRO 

BURRO CRANE INC. 

1300 S. Kilbourn Ave Chicago. III. 60623 
312/521-9200 


^mm^ri 


CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT CO. 

DIVISION OF BURRO BADGER CORP 

1300 S. Kilbourn Ave Chicago, III 60623 
312/521-9200 



HYDRAULIC POWER FOR 
RAILROAD EQUIPMENT 



Cut cost and increase efficiency 
in the production and heavy-duty 
repair of railroad equipment. 
ENERPAC has the right Hydraulic 
Tools for: Car Fabrication, Machin- 
ing and Fastening. 

Hydraulic Maintenance Tools 
for: King Pin Coupler Repair, Sill 
Straightening and Rebushing, Journal 
Bearing Maintenance and many 
other jobs. 

ENERPAC Hydraulic Tools ideal 
for railroad applications: Cylinders 
including the new RR-5020 Double- 
Acting Cylinder with 20" stroke. 
Pumps, Presses, Pump and Cylinder 
Sets, Cutters, Punches and the 
Pullpac System. 

Go with the power and versatility 
of ENERPAC Hydraulic Tools. 





See your local ENERPAC Distributor 
for the New Hydraulic Tool Catalog. 
Or write ENERPAC, Butler, WI.53007. 



MORE 

POWER 

TO YOU 




ESCO 



• Rail Saws — Drills — Abrasive Saws 

• Anchor Applicators — Trak-Skans 

• Boutet — Field Welds 

• Grinding Wheels — Cut-Off Wheels 

• Yard Cleaners — Switch Undercutters 
Tie Destroyer — Welded Rail Trains 
Track Patrols — Portable Ramps 

Tie Unloaders — Tower Cars 

• Hydraulic Testers — System Fuel Trucks 

• Rail Welding — Hydr. Rail Stressors 

CHICAGO, IL — 312 939-0840 

PHILADELPHIA, PA — 215 752-0133 

ST. LOUIS, MO — 314 421-6499 




Maintain tracic, roadbed and control 
witli Evans equipment. 



Control your next maintenance-of-way job with the 
Evans combination — a wide range of equipment plus 
flexible lease/rent terms. We offer numerous products 
and services to help you complete track maintenance 
and railbed projects properly, economically and on-time. 

Evans/RTW builds and sells a complete line of 
equipment, from grinders and gaugers to skeletonizers, 
offering you a choice of new machinery to do your track 
maintenance work right. Selective contracting services 
are also available for your major rehabilitation projects. 

Equipment selection is expanded even further 
through Evans/R & R Leasing. We offer over 500 
pieces of widely varied machinery for rental or lease, 
from short term to duration-of-job. This equipment is 
inspected and maintained by Evans professionals 
before placement by experienced field engineers. In 



addition, Evans/R & R Leasing sells both new and 
reconditioned parts and components. We even provide 
contract repair work for privately owned equipment. 

And, Evans Track-Work Leasing offers a wide range 
of plans for long-term equipment use and lease 
packages including manual and motorized equipment 
for maintenance-of-way work. The services of skilled 
operators and maintenance men are also available 
under lease package terms. 

Meet your next track or railbed maintenance job 
head-on with equipment and services from 
Evans Maintenance-of-Way Operations. For more 
details, contact Walter Kilrea, V. P. Marketing, 
Engineered Products Division, Evans Products Co., 
2550 Golf Rd., East Tower, Rolling Meadows, IL 60008. 
(312)640-7750. 



^0) MAINTENANCE-OF-WAY OPERATIONS 

evRns/enG/ne€R€D PRODUCTS Division 



PRODUCTS conrtPftnY / TRRnspORTnnon srsrems c inousTRiRt croup 




INSPECTION MOTOR CARS 
SECTION MOTOR CARS 
GANG MOTOR CARS 
PUSH CARS AND TRAILERS 
HY-RAIL EQUIPMENT 
BALLAST MAINTENANCE CARS 
WEED MOWERS 
TOW TRACTORS 
RAIL GRINDERS 
DERRICK CARS 
HYDRAULIC POWER TOOLS 
TRACK LINERS 



TRACK LINING LIGHT 

SPIKE DRIVERS 

TIE REMOVERS 

TIE HANDLERS 

RAILLIRERS 

TIE SHEARS 

TIE BED SCARIFIERS 

SPIKE PULLERS 

TIE PLUG INSERTERS 

TIE SPRAYERS 

TIE INSERTERS 

RAIL GRINDING SYSTEMS 



(fienfinmance 



THESE UNITS ARE ACTUATED EITHER COMPLETELY 
OR PARTIALLY BY HYDRAULIC POWER 



FAIRMONT RAILWAY MOTORS, FAIRMONT, MINNESOTA 56031 
A DIVISION OF HARSCO CORPORATION 




That's because L. B. Foster Company 
can provide a rail. Or a railroad. Or 
anything in between. 

In fact, L. B. Foster is the country's 
leading one-stop shop for rail, track- 
work, rail accessories and tools. We 
nnanufacture frogs, switches, turnouts 
and pressure treated cross ties. 

Beyond all this, we provide 
industrial users with a track inspec- 
tion service. Trained experts work 
with users to maintain installations, 
then provide the know-how and the 
inventory to keep the railroad in 
working shape. 

And if there's a need for replace- 
ment or repair parts, they're available 



erything. 



fast from any of Foster's coast-to- 
coast stocking locations. 

If you're an industrial rail user, 
there's a lot more you ought to know 
about L. B. Foster. Write for the 
latest information about rail and rail 
products and our track inspection 
program. 

Then you'll see we do supply 
everything. 

Write: L. B. Foster Company, 
Foster Building, 415 Holiday Drive, 
Pittsburgh PA 15220. 



FOSTER 



L.B.FOSTER 
COMPANY 




FULL-LINE 
SUPPLIER 

OF RAIL SIGNALING CONTROL SYSTEMS 

For more than 75 years, GRS has been a world leader in the 
design and manufacture of transportation control systems -- 
and equipment -- for every type of railroad. Here are a few 
examples: 



SYSTEMS 

• Automatic train control 

• Computer-controlled cTc 
and NX interlocking 

• Computer-controlled automatic 
car classification 

• Automatic train operation 

• Coded track signal control 

• Rail-highway crossing warning 

• Cab signals/speed control 

• Automatic block signaling 



EQUIPMENT 

• Electric switch machines 

• Safety relays 

• Wheel presence detectors 

• Car retarders 

• Color - light signals 

• Highway crossing flashers 

• Traffic control consoles 

• Rectifiers and transmitters 

• Hot journal detectors 

• Electric switch locks 



Plus many more. For more information about how we can 
help you, see your GRS sales engineer or write for Bulletin 200. 



GEIMERAl. RAILWAY SIGIMAI. 



B. C. HAMMOCK 
CONSTRUCTION CO. 

RAILROAD CONTRACTORS 

SPECIALISTS FOR OVER 1 5 YEARS 

• New Track Construction 

• Repairing Old Tracks 

• General Maintenance 

• Site Preparation & Excavation 



P.O. Box 577 
Gray, GA 31 032 
Phone: 743-0470 



Bridges 
Docks 
Hump Yards 



Track Work Earth Excavation 

Coal Handling Rock Excavation 
Facilities Pile Driving 






THE HARDAWAY COMPANY 

P.O. Box 1360, Columbus, Georgia 31993 (404) 322-3274 



Heavy Construction 
Projects since 1891 



Bruce Bird 
Marketing Mgr. 



WORLD-CUISS 
TRACK SIARS 




Kershaw Ballast Regulators 

first in ballast maintenance 
with railroads throughout the 
world. Kershaw machinery 
stands out because it is 
designed and built tough for 
long lasting dependability. 

Run with the winner. Make sure 
you have one of the Kershaw 
stars on your team. For more 
information on our complete 
line of Ballast Regulators call 
or write: 

Kershaw Manufacturing Company, Inc. 
Post Office Drawer 9328 
Montgomery Alabama 36196 
Telephone: 205-263-5581 



Ballast Regulator 24 



Ballast Regulator 46 




H 



JACKSON 

TAMPERS 

MODELS 

900 6500 
2400 6000 
2600 7000 

and Hand Tampers • Tie Inserters • Automatic Switch Tampers 

JORDAN 

DITCHERS 
SPREADERS SNOWPLOWS 

We sell, lease, rent, rebuild 

JACKSON JORDAN. INC. 

O.F.Jordan Division 

P.O. Box 95036, 1699 East Woodfietd Road ■ Schaumburg. IL 60195 
(312) 843-3995 Cable JAKTAMP 




The Ever-Dependable Wood Crosstie 

(Good news down the line) 



In this world of shrinking natural 
resources, it's comforting to know 
there's at least one resource that is 
literally grov/ing The proven, 
dependable wood crosslie We're 
growing ihem lasler than we're 
•jsing Ihem 

It's a good thing. On down the line, 
we'll need 30 million new crossties a 
year to keep America rolling Thai's 
a pretty tall order But Man and 
Nature— working together— began 



filling It years ago 
In the century and a half since 
crosstie technology emerged from 
the stone age. modern improvements 
in drying and treating wood have 
extended the average life of the 
crosstie live fold from about six 
years to 30 years and up 
Today, the modern wood crosslie 
lasts longer than it takes to grow a 
tree big enough to make one or 
more new crossties 



Nature IS doing her part, loo 
Hardwood growth now exceeds 
annual cutting by more than 75% 
And that inventory— especially in 
crosstie-size trees— is increasing 
American Commerce has a lot 
riding on the strength and growth of 
the Nation's Railroads And our 
Railroads can bank on the ever- 
dependable wood crosstie to carry 
Its share of the load Right down 
the line. 

Koppers Company. Inc. 
Pittsburgh. PA. 15219 

KOPPERS 

Architectural and 
Construction Materials 



These heavjrweights out-maneuver 

and out-perform all comers 

where it really counts. 



In the yard. 

On the balance sheet. 

Marathon LeTourneau's LeTro 
Porters meet the operating and 
economic demands of the intermodal 
industry better than any competitive 
equipment . . . even equipment with 
greater lift capacity ratings. 

Our fVlodel 2682CH is rated at 
80,000 lbs. compared to the 90,000 
lb. rating of our largest competitor. 
However, with its articulated frame 
our Model 2682CH has a tipping 
factor range and the competition has 
none. In the full steer position the 
80,000 lb. LeTro Porter has a greater 
static tip load rating than the 90,000 
lb. competitor's. The LeTro Porter has 
a more favorable horsepower to 
weight ratio ... 1 HP drives 464 lbs. 
as opposed to the 1 HP/600 
lbs. of the competition 

It's 10% longer for 
even better weight/ 
balance characteris- 
tics. And it has ,. 
a 12% shorter i 
turning 



radius for greater maneuverability. 
The Model 2682CH is more stable, 
stronger, more efficient and more 
maneuverable than the competition. 
It's simply the "smart money lift 
machine " in the intermodal industry. 
For a line-by-line "smart 
money lift machine" 
comparison, contact Fred 
Boone. Call toll-free. 
1-800-238-5591. 

LeTourneau Railroad Services, Inc. 



d^ 



PO. Drawer 18986 
Memphis, TN 38118 
(901) 365-8600 or 
(800) 238-5591 



Distributors for Marathon /JaA LeTourneau Company 





"^^ LONE STAR INDUSTRIES, INC. 

We Sell Pre-stressed 

Concrete Railroad 
Cross Ties 



David A. Pittinger 6416 Halsey Drive 

National Sales Manager Woodbridge, IL 60517 
Railroad Products Bus: 312 964-9775 

Res: 312-964-1259 



Continuous Welded Rail 



We will furnish everything for Cropping and Welding 
All we need is a level site and a pile of rail 



LEWIS RAIL SERVICE COMPANY 

44050 Russia Road Elyrla, OH 44035 
(216) 323-1277 



''Direct fixation fasteners wouldn't work 
on my track... but new TRAK'LOK wilVJ 




**With longer traina, increased 
density, higher tonnage and faster 
speeds, my track is taking a beating, 
I need a good direct fixation 
fastening system.** 



^nraniiEHPIlHiMffllSBB&l 



. my budget. Trak-Lok does. It welds 
right onto my standard high and low carbon tie plates in seconds 
. . . don't have to buy new plates. And Trak-Lok goes on fast, I 
don't have to worry about disassembling the track ... or about 
scheduling. That saves me a fortune in crew time . . . particularly 
in overtime. I don't even have to remove spikes or worry about 
anchors. And it works. My tests show it'll give me 25% more clamp 
force than the leading competitive system. And, when it comes to 
transposing or replacing rail, my maintenance crew can get in and 
out in a fraction of the time . . . without disturbing traffic." 



Its ttme jot* twtFAtx 




TRAK-LOK 



OMARK TRAK-LOK " RAILWAY FASTENERS 
2091 Sprlngdale Rd., Cherry Hill. N.J. 08003 



I would like to see samples and literature of the new 
Omark Trak-Lok'" Railway Fastening System variations. 



ADDRESS 

TELEPHONE ( 



FROM MARMON TRANSMOTIVE 
A BETTER WAY 




CLEANS DITCHES 18 FEET FROM TRACK 
CENTER! 

CAST MATERIAL TO EITHER SIDE OR 
LOAD INTO AIR DUMP CARS. EQUIPPED 
WITH OUR CAR TOP CONVEYORS, RIG CAN 
LOAD, HANDLE AND DUMP TWO 50 YARD 
SIDE AIR DUMPS. WILL MOVE THESE 
CARS UP A 1 Vj GRADE AT 10 MPH. 

IBra] MannonTransinolivc 



P.O. Box 1511 

Governor John Sevier Highway 
Knoxville. Tennessee 37901 U.S.A. 
615/525*224 • TELEX 557-486 



WILL DIG UP TO FOUR FEET BELOW 
T.O.R. GREAT FOR TUNNEL AND 
CROSSING DRAINAGES! 



Shoulder Ballast Cleaner 




LORAM'S ALL^PRO TRACK 
REHABILITATION TEAM 



Loram has not only built but actually developed some 
of our Industry's most innovative track machinery. The 
sled, plow and shoulder ballast cleaner are examples 
of Loram ingenuity. They're part of a broad line of 
dependable track rehabilitation equipment that 
includes: 

LORAM RAIL GRINDERS (24-, 36-, 72- and 88-stone 
models) grind down to the rail corrugation valleys 
instead of into them, as other grinding methods do. 
Loram grinders restore rail without wasting rail metal. 

LORAM S DOUBLE TRACK AUTO PLOW, which 
plows ballast to the field side of double-track terri- 
tory, sets up faster than any competitive machine. 

LORAM'S SHOULDER BALLAST CLEANER has the 

highest capacity of any machine on the market. It 
cleans ballast from the tie end to shoulder edge while 
a scarifier tooth breaks out fouled ballast. One pass 
and the track is broomed and ready to use. 

LORAM'S AUTOSLED/PLOW, with plowing and sled- 
ding components built right in, can be set up fast- 
actually in about 11 minutes. 



LORAM'S TIE INSERTER inserts five or more ties a 
minute and can be easily adapted to Inandle concrete 
ties. Design simplicity and very accessible parts make 
the 1015 easy to maintain and repair 

LORAM'S WINCH CART sets up solid as a rock and 
has 70,000 pounds pulling power. Replaces the work 
locomotive and crew normally used to pull undertrack 
equipment. 

For purchase or lease information contact: 

LORAM MAINTENANCE OF WAY, INC. 

3900 Arrowhead Drive • Hamel, Minnesota 55340 
(612) 478-6014 • Cable LORAM; Telex 29-0391 




Nobody buiMs it tougher. 
Or services it iietter. 



HEAVY-DUTY 



Rail Lubricators 



I 



--^3^ 



f 



• Easy Installation— no grinding or drilling 
required 

• No valves to stick or wear out 

• Gear pump and ratchet arm submerged in 
grease 

• Effective distribution far beyond trackslde 
location 

• Available in both single and double rail units, 
2-port or 4-pon design 

• Extends rail life; reduces M/W costs 

Moore & Steele Corporation 

Owego. Tioga County, NY. 13827 USA. 

(607) 687-2751 



Switch Point Protectors 




• Low initial cost, low replacement cost 

• Replaceable blade made of drop-forged alloy 
steel, heat-treated 

• Long service life 

• Quick installation 

• Fits right or left-hand switches 

• Available for prompt delivery 

• A quality product matched with quality service 

Call or write lor our brochures 



M &S 



iviaaREiIj Steele 




Proven Performer 

National's helical spring washers have been giving 
proven performances for America's railroads since 
1887. 

National railway washers have proven time and again 
their ability to keep bolts tight by maintaining constant 
bolt tension. They have proven their ability to with- 
stand the extreme stresses and strains of continuous 
heavy traffic and reduce maintenance costs systems 
wide! 

National ... the oldest name in railway track washers 
with the newest innovations . . . still the name to 

specify for quality, concepts, economy and service. 

NRTIONRL LOCH WRSHER coMPfi^v 

Industrial Parkway ■ North Branch, N.J. 08876 
(201 ) 526-1 234 — Cail coitect. Send for free catalog. 



A COMPLEX 
CROSSING 




complex crossing, a crossing 
within a crossing, is an example of the 
highly technical engineering and 
craftsmanship developed by Nelson Iron 
Works to meet industrial railroad track 
requirements. 

We specialize in the manufacturing of 
railroad track material, such as frogs, switches 
and crossings. 

Complete Trackwork Catalog available on 
request — no obligation. 



INELSON, 



IRON V^ORKS, IKC 



Mailing address: P.O. Box 80816, Seattle, Wa. 98108 
3423 Thirteenth Ave. S.W., Seattle, Wa. 98134 
Telephone: (206) 623-3800 



DOUBLE TIE LIFE OIM CURVES AT A SINGLE STROKE 



Ties take a beating on curves. When you 
replace rail frequently, your tie life may be 
doubled by using the "Pandrol" brand rail 
fastening system. 

NO SPIKE KILLING.. .no need to pull spikes 
to replace rail. 

REDUCE PIATE CUTTING. .mechanical 
wear is reduced. 

EQUAL LOAD DISTRIBUTION.. .loads are 
carried equally by each tie. 

NO CREEP, LESS ROLL OVER.. .the strong 
clamping force stops creep and resists rail 
roll over. 

EASY TO INSTALL.. .clips can be easily 
installed or removed using standard track 
tools. 

SAVES TIME.. .rapid installation and easy 
rail replacement reduces track time for 
required maintenance. 

The "Pandrol" system. 







Box 44, 505 Sharptown Road, Bridgeport, 
New Jersey, 08014 Tel. (609) 467-3227 



/^pleton Takes a Long Look at Peirkco 
291 Feet Long. . . 



Running diagonally across the heavily 
trafficked thoroughfare of Newberry 
Street. Appleton. Wisconsin on the 
C&NW track are 291 feet of smooth, 
safe, reliable PARKCO rubber grade 
crossing. This installation was a joint 
venture, with the city furnishing the 
PARKCO crossing and the C&NW 
preparing the track structure and in- 
stalling the PARKCO material. 

"Our most important require- 
ment in selecting a grade crossing 
system is the virtual elimination of 
maintenance problems." explained 
Tom Harp. City Engineer. Depart- 
ment of Public Works. Appleton. 
Wisconsin. "The elimination of 
spikes and lag bolts in the Parkco 
system did much to convince us that 
we could achieve this objective." 




Thomas L. Harp, ? z l :. :.',^:,rt'er 

Tom also stressed the fact that 
"we were pleased with the method 
and speed with which this system 
went together. It took only two days 
to install 291 track feet and busy 
Newberry Street was again open to 
traffic. We had done considerable 
research to determine that, in the 
long run. the Parkco system would 
be more economical ... a prime 
factor in our final decision because 
Appleton purchased the crossing 
material for the project." 

Write us for more detailed in- 
formation on both the Appleton in- 
stallation and other locations where 
there are PARKCO crossings you 
can inspect. See for yourself how a 
PARKCO system can be the answer 
to safe, smooth and economical 
grade crossings 
Transportation and Products Division 

P^rk Rubber 
Compciny ^ks: 

80 Genesee Street. Lake Zurich. IL 60047 
(312) 438-8222 





PENTA CONSTRUCTION 
CORPORATION 

Railroad Track Construction 
Rehabilitation, and Related 
Right-of-way Construction 



2083 Jericho Turnpike 

East Northport, New York 11 731 

(516)499-5900 



1195 Victory Drive 

S.W. Atlanta, Georgia 30310 

(404)752-5509 



NEW HY-RAIL 

5A/oeP£/i' 

New and more versatile 

Get better inspection and maintenance with the 
HY-RAIL SNOOPER. Hy-rail wheels allow 
controlled movement and complete coverage. 
2x4 foot platform, with controls, enable the 
operator to position and work as far as 25 feet 
below deck. 

f'ompany 

27th & Martha Streets • Omaha, Nebraska 68105 

For full details call or write: Mr. C. H. Petersen 

(402) 345-6767 



SUPAC HAS 



TT 



Geotextiles may be a new word to many 
jeople, but it's a fast-growing familiar term to 
ailroad engineers and contractors concerned 
vith economical, long-term reinforcement, 
itabilization and drainage of soil structures. 

Supac, a versatile series of nonwoven 
)olypropylene geotextile fabrics developed 
)y Pfiillips Fibers Corporation, largest and 
he most diversified manufacturer of 
leedlepunch, nonwoven fabrics in the country, 
s typical of the dedication to research and 
ievelopment Phillips devotes to preparing 
products engineered for specific end 
ise requirements. 

Supac fabrics fill needs for sturdy 
ong-lasting reinforcement and separation of 
rack bed ballast from subsoil for greater load 
rearing and contamination 
rontrol . . . helping maintain 
;ubsoil drainage for safety 
ind lower long-range 
Tiaintenance costs. 



subsoil load bearing for more efficient use of 
fill materials and aggregate, and provide free 
water drainage without becoming clogged or 
blinded. They are flexible, tough and easy to 
install. They will not rot or mildew and have 
excellent resistance to soil chemicals. Their 
physical properties are designed to cover 
many railroad engineering applications— main 
and secondary lines, switches, turnouts, grade 
crossings, access road substructures, 
earthwork dams, storage yards, work areas, 
silt fences, erosion control and other 
soil problems. 

Supac fabrics in weights of 4, 5, 8, and up 
to 16 oz. per square yard engineered to a 
broad range of requirements are available 
for railroad geotechnical use. 



SUPAC 



® 



Supac fabrics increase 



I 



NONWOVEN 




FABRIC 



FOR MORE INFORMATION TOLL FREE 800/845-57.37 IS AT YOUR SERVICE 



I Pctroltum Company 



PHILLIPS FIBERS CORPORATION 

A SUBSIDIARY OF PHILLIPS PETROLEUM COMPANY 
ENGINEERED PRODUCTS MARKETING P O BOX 66 GREENVILLE SC 29602 1803) 242-6600 



MANLIFE 

MADEf^DE 

HBKILSK ITEP 



AGENT 

United States Railroad Services. 
103.C 13368 Polo Road W. 
West Palm Beach. FL 3341 1 
(305) 793-8243 



Inc. 



Maximum Utility, 
IS/linimum Price 




That's Plasser's MINIMA 1 Tamper- The 
no-frills, high-performance small tamper 

• Using the best and latest Plasser technology, this tamper 
will do all those miscellaneous tamping jobs at minimum cost. 
Helps keep your tracks in top condition between the big jobs. 
Look at all the jobs the Minima 1 can do: You can use it for 
spotting track, peaking joints, tamping ties behind tie and 
rail- renewal gangs, even for tamping switches. 

• For maximum tamping performance the four-tool tamping 
head uses the same vibratory-squeeze principle as Plasser's 
big tampers, and the tamping tools are individually tiltable for 
maximum efficiency when working through switches. 

From the productivity peopk 

PLASSER AMERICAN 



2001 Myers Road, 
Chesapeake, Va. 23324 




(804) 543-3526 




our specialty. . . 

effective sighs for the Railroad and 
Transportation Industry . . . crossbucks 
caution, depot & station, track, targets, 
caboose markers, trade mark decals, 
any standards, plus caution styles 
that you may be considering . . . 
we can make them ALL . . . and at 
sensible, economical prices! 




"Service so good . . . it's Better 
than having your own sign shop!" 



,.c cnc47 ^ m9> 7 



POWER PARTS ^-^ijOLVi COMPANY 

I860 North Wilmol Avenue • Chicago. Illinois 60647 ^ (312) 772-4600 • TWX 910 221-5507 



A DOZEN (and one) WAYS to 

IMPROVE your M/w PROGRAM 






PLUS A FULL SELECTION OF HYDRAULIC TOOLS. Mj MB ef 

m M* 




RAILROAD PRODUCTS, INC. 

1524 FREDERICK STREET RACINE, WISCONSIN 5340J 




railroad builders, inc 



Railroad Engineering, Construction 
Rehabilitation, and Take-up 

"By the foot or by the mile" 



4039 South Santa Fe Drive 

Englewood, Colo. 80110 

303 761-1994 



PROVEN PROTECTION! 



©K©OW[ 




1/2" 



3/4" 



WRITE - WIRE - PHONE 



ill 

Four Fluted Steel Dowels 



ANTI-SPLITTING AND LAMINATING 

DEVICE FOR TIES AND OTHER 

WOOD PRODUCTS 

LENGTH AS SPECIFIED + 1/8" 




PO 60x6122 • Akron, Ohio 44312 • Area Code 216 733-8367 



DOWELS CONFORM TO 
ALL AGENCY SPECIFICATIONS 

PRECISION MADE TWISTED STEEL 

GIVE ADDED LIFE 

IN EACH APPLICATION 



Mtfe 169,000# slag potls; <S^iift#ilt:^ft#;g^^^ trucks will in- 
evitably challenge the staying-power of your railroad 

««»^^crossing surfaces. 

Add strength to the integrity of your track striieture with 

sapsulated steel 




One complete service. 
Lowest cost per mile. 




* A complete, objective test 
of each rail from end to end. 

^ Simultaneous ultrasonic and 
induction detection methods. 

^Sperry far surpasses every other 
rail testing service in efficiency, 
thoroughness and research. 

^One mileage charge pays 
for everything. 

^The lowest real cost per mile 
and per defect found. 

Details and technical assistance on request. 



Jim AUTOMATION INDUSTRIES, INC. 

Mm SPERRY RAIL SERVICE DIVISION 

^flllH SHELTER ROCK ROAD 

^^ ^" DANBURY, CONNECTICUT 06810 

V (203)748-3581 




NABLA- 
FORTAX 



safety - durability - economy 



selected by the French Railways for the new TGV high speed line and for Its whole network, as well as by 
other leading railways in the world. Outcome of 35 years of experience and 500 million elastic fastenings 
In 50 countries. Specially developped for continuous welded rail on wood, concrete or metal ties. 



STEDEF 1 1 7 bureaux de la Colline - 9221 3 SAINT-CLOUD CEDEX 
France - T6I. (1 ) 602.70.85 - Tx : 200 888 F 
' STEDEF INC. 7657 Leesburg Pike Tysons Office Park 1 4 

FALLS CHURCH VA. 22043 U.S.A. - Tel. (703) 790-8777 - Tx : 901 1 24 



naoaAiL. 



fUNOVAn VE NEW RAIL 




intermecliate 
Strength" Rail. 
A lot more rail 
for a lot less 
than you think. 

CF&I has succeeded in producing 
a superior carbon rail at a very 
economical price. 

"Intermediate Strength" Rail has 
a guaranteed minimum Brinell 
hardness 8.5% above the 
minimum standard carbon rail 
hardness. The average hardness of 
the new rail is an 18.5% increase 
over standard carbon rail. 

With its improved hardness and 
yield strength, "Intermediate 
Strength" Rail is capable of serving 
in either tangent track or light 
curved track. 

Available for your immediate 
requirements in standard and long 
lengths, "Intermediate Strength" 
Rail is an innovative breakthrough 
from CF&I. For more information, 
write Railroad Sales Department, 
P.O. Box 1830, Pueblo, 
Colorado 81002, or 
call (303) 561-6000. 



A subsidiary of Crane Co. 





Quality Steel Making People 




STM 




THE VERSATILE TAMPER . . . 



Designed for today's busy work schedules, 
this Tamper offers big tamper quality on a 
smaller tamper frame. Driven by a Perkins 
Diesel and a 3-speed hydraulically driven 
transmission with chain drive to the alloy 
steel axle, the STM tamper track travels at 30 
MPH. By using Tamper's proven vibratory 
squeeze method of tamping, it assures 
uniform consolidation of ballast under the 
tie. Working in tandem with our bigger tam- 
pers, the STM produces quality track and 
speeds tandem tamping operations by 
decreasing the number of ties the main tam- 
per tamps. As a tamper, the STM can handle 
your tamping requirements. 

SEE YOUR NEAREST TAMPER REPRESENTATIVE TODAY. 



Tamper ^r 



2401 Edmund Road 
West Columbia 
South Carolina 29169 
Tel. (803) 794-9160 
Telex 573423 



TEIEWELD 



INC. 



Serving the railroad industry 
with technology you can depend on. 
Call on Teleweld for field-proven 
rail maintenance systems: service 
and equipment. 

SERVICE Rebuilding of Frogs, Crossings, 
Switches • Rail End Reclamation • CWR 
Joint Repair • Thermite Welding 

EQUIPMENT Rail Heaters • Rail Grinders • 
Power Cars • TELEFLEX Equipment Cars 
•CWR Heating Cars • CWR Cooling Cars • 
SONIRAIL Flaw Detectors • Power Plants 
• TELEBRINELLER Hardness Testers 

Call or Write for new corporate booklet, showing 
capabilities and product line. Details and 
specifications of any service or equipment listed 
also available. 

TELEWELD, INC. 

Dept. 11, 416 No. Park St., Streator, IL 61364 
Phone: 81 5/672-4561 TWX: 510-359-0897 

NOV^ OPEN— TELEWELD FIELD SERVICE 
CENTER and WELDING SCHOOL 

1555 Hawthorne Lane, West Chicago, IL 60185 



WESTERN-CULLEN-HAYES 

Railroad Products 

rugged quality and dependability ^ 




Delectric Operator 

Used with 
HB sliding derail. 
Available as door 
protection system 




Rail Benders 

25 and 35 ton jacks 
for rail up to 155 lbs. 



Derails 

Sliding, hinge, 
portable, remote 
controlled 



Bumping Posts 

All-steel, 
universal fit, 
6 types 




Equipment 
Shelter Boxes 

Cable Boxes <&;^i^ 
Lightning '^^■'■'^^ 
Arresters 




Crossing 
Signals 

Gates, cantilevers, flashing light 
signals 




Switch Lamps 
and Targets 

Aluminum or poly- 
carbonate-colors 
to meet railroad 
requirements 



For more information 
write: 




WESTERN-CULLEN-HAYES, Inc. 

2700 West 36th Place • Chicago, Illinois 60632 

Telephone: 312/254-9600 • Telex 25-3206 

1 20 North 3rd Street • P.O. Box 756 • Richmond, Indiana 47374 

Telephone: 317/962-0526 



78-9 




Installation of the True Temper oil containment system requires 
minimum labor and no special equipment. 



TrueTemper 

has an oil 
containment 
system 
that saves 
you money! 



^ow^^^C^O^. 




NEW CONCRETE 



TRUE TEX IT-10 
TRUE TEX MG FABRIC SAND BARRIER- 



TRUE TEX MG-100 DRAIN PIPE WRAP' 
6" ID PERFORATED PVC DRAIN PIPE 



RECOVERY PIPE 



If oil containment is a problem for you, we have the 
solution. ..the oil containment system from True Temper. 

The True Temper oil containment system is not only 
easy to install, but cost effective as well. And with today's 
spiraling fuel costs, the system allows you to recover oil 
that might otherwise be lost. 

The capacity of a standard True Temper oil containment 
system is approximately 10,000 gallons. ..that's about six 
times more than other systems. In addition, the surface 
recovery area is alomst double that of other systems. 
And unlike the others, the True Temper oil containment 
system can handle major spills and permits standard 
track maintenance without disturbing the system. 

The True Temper oil containment system features a 
'op layer of a needle-punched polyester True Texrw engi- 
Jbering fabric to prevent sand from fouling the system 
while permitting spilled diesel oil to enter it. The entire 
containment basin is constructed of a continuous sheet 
of True Temper's unique True Tex IT-10. ..a tough, 

I RUE lEMPER. 

RAILWAY APPLIANCES, INC. 



impermeable, nitrile rubber impregnated 
fabric designed specifically for use in oil 
containment systems. The True Temper oil 
containment system. ..designed and 
engineered for efficient oil containment and 
effective recovery. 

So, if oil containment tias been a problem 
for you. ..give us a call at (216)331-4656 



MAIL TODAY! I want to find out more about oil 
containment and recovery! 

n Please mail information and literature. 

□ Have a representative call and deliver a sample of IT-10, 

True Temper 

Railway Appliances, Inc. 

20800 Center Ridge Rd.; Cleveland, Ohio 44116 



Name . 



Company 
Address _ 



City 

State 

Telepfione_ 



-Zip_ 



AREA 68C 



Hie world^s most 
advanced rail. 

From the world*s 
most advanced 
railmill... 






Wheeling-Pittsburgh's new 
Universal rail mill- now 
open and rolling! 

It took the world's best available technology 
to make better rail for you to run on. 
Wheeling-Pittsburgh's unique universal mills 
mean higher quality . . . more consistency . . . 
and better productivity. 400,000 tons a year, 
in fact. It's the only U.S. -made rail of its kind- 
from the only U.S. rail mill of its kind. Best 
of all, you don't pay anything extra for the 
better quality. So don't delay. Call us at 
(412) 288-3620 and get your schedule roll- 
ing on our schedules. Wheeling-Pittsburgh 
Steel Corporation, Four Gateway Center, 
Pittsburgh, PA 15222. 



^Wheeling 
W PittsbuPBh 

STEEL CORPORATION 



DIRECTORY OF CONSULTING ENGINEERS 



FRANK R. WOOLFORD 

Engineering Consultant — Railroads 

24 Josepha Ave. 

San Francisco, Co. 94132 

(415) 587-1569 

246 Seadrift Rd. 

Stinson Beoch, Co. 95970 

(415) 868-1555 



werdrup & Parcel 
id Associates, Inc 



Railroads • Transit • Tunnels 
Bridges • Electrification 

• Design 

• Planning 

• Construction Management 



Boston • Jacksonville • New York • Phoenix 
San Francisco •Seattle • St. Louis • Washington DC. 




BAKKE KOPP BALLOUkMcFARLIN.INC. 
CONSULTING ENQINEERS 



Bridges 
Special & IHeavy Structures 
Investigations & Reports 



7505 WEST HIGHWAY SEVEN 

ST. LOUIS PARK, MINNESOTA 55426 

(612)933-8880 



FREDERICK A. KAHL 

CONSULTANT 

Lightning and Surge 

Voltage Protection 

Signals— l\Aicrowave— 

Power— Locomotives 

P.O. BOX 58 805-969-5998 

SUiy^MERLAND, CA. 93067 



® 



Golder Associates 

CONSULTING GEOTECHNICAL 
AND MINING ENGINEERS 



2950 Northup Way 
Bellevue (Seattle) 
Washington, 98004 
Tel (206) 827-0777 
DENVER 
TUCSON 
ANCHORAGE 
ATLANTA 
HOUSTON 
WASHINGTDON DC 



Route selection, soil 
and rock slopes, 
tunnels, retaining 
structures, bridge 
foundations, landslide 
control, groundwater 
studies. 



CANADA • U.K. • AUSTRALASIA 



I^ir§(Q)ms 
,lfflini(SIk©irIlQ(n)l!l! 

Parsons Brlnckerhoff Quade & Douglas 



Railway Consultants 

8200 Greensboro Drive 
Suite 1000 
McLean, VA 22102 
703-442-7740 

One Penn Plaza 
New York, NY 10119 
212-239-7900 

30 national and international offices 



foodkind 
ODea,Inc. 

ENGINEERS 
PLANNERS 



RAILROADS • RAIL FACILITIES • BRIDGES 
PLANNJNG • DESIGN • INSPECTION 

Clifton, N.J. New York, N.Y. 

Homden, Conn. 




BERNARD lOHNSON INCORPORATED 

ENGINEERS • AHCHITECTS • PLANNERS 

Dackwork • Terminals • Railroad Relocation 

Maintenance Facilities • Signalization 

Bridges (Design. Rating. Rehabilitation) 

Communication Systems • Systems Evaluation 

Operations Analyses • Equipment Modernization 

5050 WESTHE/MER • HOVSTOS. TEXAS 7.7056 

7 I3'622-l 400 
HOUSTON • WASHINGTON, D.C. • ATLANTA 



HARDESTY & HANOVER 

Consulting Engineers 

BRIDGES — FIXED and MOVABLE 

HIGHWAYS and RAILWAYS 

SPECIAL STRUCTURES 

Design, Inspection, Valuation 

1501 Broadway New York, NY. 10036 

Jersey City, N J. 



Railroads • Rapid Transit 

Electric Traction Power 

Signals and Train Control 

Communications • Substations 

Operations Analysis ond Simulation 

Power Generation • Urban Planning 

Gibbs a Hill Inc. 

ENGINEERS, DESIGNERS. CONSTRUCTORS 

393 Seventti Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10001 

A Subsidiary of DrOYO Corporation 



K-^ 



HARRINGTON & CORTELYOU, INC. 
Consulting Engineers 



1004 Baltimore, Kansas City, Mo. 64105 
Telephone: 816^21-6386 

RAILWAY AND HIGHWAY 

• FIXED AND MOVABLE BRIDGES • 

• Condition Inspections 

• Investigations & Reports 
• Design. Construction Plans 

• Contract Documents 

• Construction Supervision 

• Cost Negotiations 



ALFRED BENESCH 
& COMPANY 

CONSULTING ENGINEERS 

233 NORTH MICHIGAN AVENUE 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 60601 

Railroad* — Highway* — Airports 

Bridges — Building* — Subways 

Report* — Construction Observation 



1^ 




SOROS ASSOCIATES 


CONSULTING ENGINEERS 


PLANNING 


POPT DEVELOPMENT 


DESIGN 


BULK HANDLING SVSTEMS 


SUPERVISION 


OFPSMORE TERMINALS 


(818) BSS 8700 


S7S LEXINGTON AVE 


TELEX 2249S9 


NEW YORK NY 10022 


423479 


CABLE BULKONSULT 




SANTIAGO SYDNEY 




ker 



Engirieers Architects Ptdnners 



Booker Associates. Inc. 

1139 Olive Sueet 
St. Louis. Missouri 63101 

343 Walle'' Avenue 
Lexington. KentuCKy 40504 

10905 Fori V.'ashington Road 
Fort Washington. Maryland 20744 



THOMAS K. DYER, INC. 

Consulting Engineers 
Railroads Transit Systems 
Trock, Signals, Structures 

Investigation! and Feaiiblllty Rtports 
Planning, Detign, Contract Docum«nt« 

1762 MossQchuselts Avenue 

Lexington, Moss. 02173 

(617) 662-2075 

Washington, D.C. Chicago, III. 

(202)466-7755 (312)663-1575 



EDWARDS AND KELCEY SSf 

70 SOUTH ORANGE AVE., LIVINGSTON, NJ. 07039BiB^ 
TEL. (2011 994-4520 

PLANNING • ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES 
DESIGN •CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT 

RAIL AND BUS TRANSITWAYS 

RAILROADS, TERMINALS, TUNNELS 

BRIDGES, PARKING, UTILITIES 

Boston'Chicago'Minneapolis'New York«Philadelphia«Washington, D.C. 



w 



RALPH WHITEHEAD & ASSOCIATES 

Consulting Engineers 

1936 East Seventh Street 

P. O. Box 35624 

Charlotte, North Carolina 28235 

704-372-1885 



BRIDGES • HIGHWAYS • RAILROADS • RAIL t BUS TRANSIT • AIRPORTS 



Ml ( WILU^ 

CONSULTING ENGINEERS 
PLANNERS • ARCHITECTS 



Route Studies — Refueling — 
Terminals — Pollution Control 
— Storm Water Treatment — 
Aerial Photogrammetry — 
Bridges — Structures — Foun- 
dations — Solid Waste Disposal 

913-827-3603 

609 W. NORTH ST. 

SALINA, KANSAS 67401 

816-363 26% 

9140 WARD PARKWAY. SUITE 100 

KANSAS CITY, MO. 64114 



BRANCH OFFICES 

3300 NE Expressway, Atlanta, GA 30341 
1033 Wade Avenue, Raleigh, NC 27605 



(404)452-0797 
(919)832-0563 



^B. Bennett-Carder 
^^ & Associates, Inc. 



Engineering Services 

507 Fifth Street 

Rock Springs, Wyoming 82901 

(307) 382-5445 



COWIN & COMPANY 

INC. 

Mining Engineers and Contractors 

Phone 205-780-7700 

1 South West 18th Street 

Birnningham, Alabanfia 3521 1 

Tunnels- 
Construction, Repair, Enlargement, 
Consulting 



M 



A.J.HENDRY, INC. I 

CONSULTING ENGINEERS I 



1512 PIONEER BUILDING ST. PAUL, MN 55101 16121 222-2787 

•RAILROADS •RAIL TRANSIT 

• SIGNALS •COMMUNICATIONS •ELECTRIFICATION •AUTOMATION 

• ELECTRIC UTILITIES •LANDLINE COMMON CARRIERS •PIPELINES 

•INDUCTIVE COORDINATION .ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE 



@ 



Gilbert/ 



Commonwealth 

BMMmna/coMMinMTa 



Electrical Systems Studies 

and Engineering 
Construction Management 
Quality Assurance 
Management Consulting 



Reading.PA/Jackson.MI 



KirJG Sl GA\/AFIIS{^ 



ZO'VSI-H.T./VO 1 



PLANNING • DESIGN 
CONSTRUCTION SUPERVISION 

Railroads 'Mass Transit 

Ports • Highways 

500 Fifth Avenue, New York, N Y. 10036 

(212) 594 - 24/0 

A ST E EGO CORPORATION SUBSIDIARY 



Berger, Lehman Associates, P.C. 

Railroads • Transit* Bridges 
Design* Inspection* Rehabilitation 

550 Mamaroneck Avenue 
Harrison, New Yor1< 1 0528 

(914)698-2260 

(212)772-0617 




Bridges and Structures 
Environmental Studies 

Highway Design 
Transportation Planning 

BENNETT, RINGROSE, WOLSFELD, JARVIS, GARDNER, INC 

2829 University Avenue S.E. 

Minneapolis. Minnesota 55414 

612/379-7878 

MINNEAPOLIS-CHEYENNE-DENVER 




INTERNATIONAL 
ENGINEERING 

A MOnniSON-KNUDSEN COMPANY 



Railroad Design & Electrification 
Shop Facilities 

Planning • Design 
Construction Management 

180 Howard Street SarT Francisco. California 94105 

Boise • Denver • Phoenix • Houston • New London • Anchorage 



Gannett Fleming 

Engineers and Planners 



Railroad/Mass Transit 

Bridges • Tunnels • Inspection 

Maintenance Facilities 

Repair Shops • Equipment 

Trackwork • Yards 

Environmental Studies 



P.O. Box 1963 • Harrisburg, PA 17105 
Regional Offices Located in 1 8 Other Cities 



HAZELET & ERDAL 

Consulting Engineers 

Design InvesMgations Report* 

Fixed and Movable Bridges 

547 W. Jackson Blvd., Chicago, III. 60606 
UwltvllU andnnoH 



STV ENGINEERS 

11 Robinson St., Pottstown, PA 19464 
215/326-4600 

RAILROADS • TRANSIT • DESIGN 

FIXED FACILITIES • ROLLING STOCK 

VALUATION • OPERATIONS • PLANNING 

CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT 

Member Firms: 

Sanders & Thomas 

Pottstown, PA 215/326-4600 

Seelye Stevenson Value & Knecht 

New York, NY 212/867-4000 

S&T Western 

Newport Beach, CA 714/955-2732 

STV/Management Consultants Group 
New York, NY 212/344-3200 



ROBERT W. HUNT COMPANY 

INSPECTION & LABORATORY TESTING SERVICES 
Rail, Trackwork, Rolling Stock & Structural Inspection 
Serving The Railroad Industry Worldwide 
Since 1888 
11 / 26 U.S. Locations, 8 In Europe & U.K. 
rj.) Headquarters: 810 S. Clinton Street 

Chicago, Illinois 60607 
312/922-2872 
Telex: 25-3176 



Anderson- 
Nichols 

Engineers • Environmental Consultants 
Planners • Architects 



1 50 Causeway Street .^gg 

Boston. Massachusetts 021 14 (617)742-3400 f^^ 



Concord NH / HarttorO CT / Provrflence Rl / Richmond & Palo Alto CA 



the southwestern railroad 

construction co., Inc. 




The Railroad People 
Specializing in Route 3-6ox 186N 

Railroad Construction Amarillo, Tx 79107 

Maintenance (806) 383-9351 

Consulting 




imck 



INCORPORATED 

RAILROAD AND MASS TRANSIT ELECTRIFICATION 

• Feasibility and Utility Impact Studies 

• Power Control and Substation Design 

• Catenary Design and System Design 

• Project Management and Quality Assurance 

6525 Belcrest Road, Suite 209, Hyattsville, MD 20782 
Telephone: (301) 779-6868 
Also, Scarborough, Ontario 
Telephone: (416) 755-7121 



MODJESKI AND MASTERS 

ContuMng Enghi««r* 
FIXED & MOVABLE RAILROAD BRIDGIS 

Design • Inspection of Construction 

Machinery • Electrical Work 

Inspection, Maintenance, Rating, 

Strengthening 

Rehabilitation • Reconstruction 

P.O. BOX 2345 

HARRISBURG, PA. 17105 

New Orleans, La. Arlington, Va. 

Poughkeepsie, N.Y. Charleston, S.C. 



UNIT TRAIN UNLOADING 

SYSTEMS FOR COAL, ORE, 

PHOSPHATE ROCK, WOODCHIPS, 

BULK MATERIALS 

113St. Clair Ave., NE 

Cleveland, Ohio 44114 

(216) 621-9934 



DeLEUW 
GATHER 



Engineers and 
Planners 



De Leuw. Gather & Company 

12M Connecticut Avenue N '.'. 
V;asnington D C 20036 
c202) 828-3800 

0"ices 'n United Slates and Worldwide 



Ellerbe Associates. Inc 
Engineers & Architects 

One Appletree Square 

Bloomington. MN 55420 

612 853 2000 

Railroad Maintenance Facilities 
Locomotive/Railcar/Support 



HEIIerbe 



TAMS 



ENGINEERS, ARCHITECTS 
AND PLANNERS 



RAILROADS & MASS TRANSIT 
BRIDGES & TUNNELS 
TRANSPORTATION PLANNING 



TIPPETTSABBETT-McCARTHY STRATTON 

655 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017 
(212)867 1777 

Anchorage • Boston • Seattle • Washington, DC 
22 Overseas OffiL es 




\ D R E^ S COMSUITING 

LARK *NO.N€f«S 



NAIL • HIOHWAV •VSTEMt 

ruSLIC WOHKS FACILITIES 

TNAMSrORTATIOM AND 
UHtAM DEVELOPMENT 

•THUCTUNAL EVALUATION ft DESIQN 

CONSTNUCTION INSPECTION 



306 Eitl 93 '" SI G«l»w»» On* 

N*w Yorli. HI 10021 N.«.»rk. H J 07102 

212 'S3S' 2600 201 a23'333e 



©Pittsburgh 
Testing 
Laboratory 






^ECTRIFICATialil 

RAILROADS & MASS TRANSIT 

PLANNING* DESIGN • PROJECT MANAGEMENT 

DAY & ZIMMERMANN. INC 

1818 MARKET STREET 
PHILADELPHIA, PA. 19103 
(8001 523-0786 Ext. 8456 



(}8 HARLAND BARTHOLOMEW 
CA^ & ASSOCIATES, INC. 



Professional Consultants 



PLANNING 



ENGINEERING 



LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE 



Atlanta 

Austin 

Birmingham 

Chicago 

Jacksonville 

Memphis 

Richmond 

St. Louis 



'"^Irn Washington, D.C. 



sill 



SHANNON & WILSON, INC. 

Geotechnlcal Consultants 

Soil & Rock Mechanics • Seismic Response 

Foundation Engineering • Instrumentation 

Geology & Geophysics • Hydrogeology 

Seattle • Portland • Spokane 

Fairbanks • St. Louis • Houston 

Corporate Headquarters, Seattle: (206) 632-8020 
1105 N. 38th. Seattle. WA 98103 



Trackage - Bridges 

Structures - Terminals 

Load/Unload Facilities 

Maintenance & Repair Shops 

Power & Utility Systems 

Environmental Studies 

Waste Treatment 

Burns & MCDonnQJi 

ENGINEERS - ARCHITECTS - CONSULTANTS 

P.O. Box 173 Kansas City, MO 641 41 
816-333-4375 



MICHAEL BAKER 
CORPORATION 



Baker Engineers 

nia Jcft:kson, Mississippi 

(601) 362-5481 
throughout the U. S. 



NOTES 



PROFILES IN 

RAIL LIFE: 

SPENO 





Speno's exhaustive research into the 
science of rail grinding pays dividends 
in our ability to restore optimum rail 
profile, often virtually doubling its 
performance life. 

Best results are possible only through 
effective equipment control, and Speno's 
reprofiling techniques have it. Speno's 
Autoload'" control automatically 
maintains optimum effectiveness of all 
grinding wheels — without manual 
adjustment. 

Speno's patented Active Long Wave 
system, with positive pressure control. 



assures pinpoint action on high or low 
welds and other similar defects. The 
result: continuously varied grinding effort 
according to need. 

For the full benefit of a planned rail 
maintenance program, rely on Speno 
experience and technology. We save 
the rails. 



bpcno 

-?&^- Speno Rail Services Co. 

-.^fe?.: PC. Box 309 
^''- ■•■.'•■ East Syracuse, New York 13057 
(315)437-2547 




•'S&H^UUSS 






A 







% 



R.E. Bodkin, President 



The Trasco Car Retarder 

We not only stand beside 

our Trasco Car Retarder, we stand 

behind it. 

This one has been in 

track for 18 years— the retarding 

rails have been replaced once, 

but most of the parts are original equipment. 

P.O. Box 729 • 18 South Sylvan Road 

Westport, Conn. 06881 

(203) 226-3361 



W 




AMERICAN RAILWAY 
ENGINEERING ASSOCIATION 



A 



^ 



BULLETIN 690 
VOL. 84 (1 983) 



NOVEMBER-DECEMBER 1982 

ROOM 403 

2000 L St. N.W. 

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20036 

U.S.A. 



RECEIVED 

DEC 221982 

J.E.STALLME)rER 




_v 

CONTENTS 

25° Curves on Chessie's Laurel Bank Grade 76 

Manual Recommendations (Comm. 4, 7, 8, 9, 10, 14, 15, 16, 28) 78 

Portfolio Recommendations (Comm. 5) 112 

Published as Information (Comm. 3, 6, 13, 22) 113 

Memoirs 145 

1^1 




BOARD OF DIRECTION 
1982-1983 

President 

R. E. Haacke, District Engineer, Union Pacific Railroad, 724 Pittock Bldg., Portland, OR 

97205 

Vice Presidents 

H. L. Rose, Assistant Vice President — Maintenance of Way & Structures, Southern Railway, 

99 Spring St., S.W., Atlanta, GA 30303 
V. R. Terrill, Vice President — Engineering, Boston & Maine Corporation, High Street, 

North Billerica, MA 01862 

Past Presidents 

Mike Rougas, Chief Engineer, Bessemer & Lake Erie Railroad, P. O. Box 471, Greenville, 

PA 16125 
Wm. Glavin, Vice President — Administration, Grand Trunk Western Railroad, 131 W. 

Lafayette Blvd., Detroit, MI 48226 

Directors 

B. J. Gordon, Chief Engineering Officer, Consolidated Rail Corporation, 6 Penn Center 
Plaza, Philadelphia, PA 19104 

J. C. HoBBS, Chief Engineer, Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac Railroad, P.O. Box 
11281, Richmond, VA 23230 

J. R. Masters, Chief Engineer — Maintenance, BurUngton Northern Railroad, 176 E. 5th St., 
St. Paul, MN 55101 

P. R. Richards, Chief Engineer, Canadian National, Box 8100, Montreal, Que., H3C 3N4 

G. Rodriguez, Chief Engineer, Ferrocarriles Nacionales de Mexico, Av. Central 140, 8 Piso, 
Ala "B", Mexico 3, D.F., Mexico 

W. E. Brakensiek, Assistant Chief Engineer, Missouri Pacific Railroad, 210 N. 13th St., Rm. 
1211, St. Louis, MO 63103 

J. D. Jardine, Assistant Chief Engineer, Canadian Pacific Limited, Windsor Station, Mon- 
treal, Quebec H3C 3E4 

D. E. TuRNEY, Jr., Assistant Chief Engineer — Maintenance, Norfolk & Western Railway, 8 
N. Jefferson St., Roanoke, VA 24042 

H. G. Webb, Assistant Chief Engineer, Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway, 80 E. Jackson 
Blvd., Chicago, I L 60604 

R. E. Frame, Chief Engineering Officer, Family Lines Rail System, 500 Water St., Jack- 
sonville, Florida 32202 

M. D. Kenyon, Assistant Chief Engineer, Denver & Rio Grande Western Railroad, Box 
5482, Denver, Colo. 80217 

A. L. Maynard, Director — Engineering Material Control, Chessie System, Box 1800, Hunt- 
ington, W. Va. 25718 

W. B. Peterson, Chief Engineer, Soo Line Railroad, Box 530, Minneapohs, MN 55440 

Treasurer 

W. S. Lovelace, Asst. Vice President — Engrg. & Research, Southern Railway, P.O. Box 
1808, Washington, D.C. 20013 

HEADQUARTERS STAFF 

EiXCCiitivc Director 

Louis T. Cerny, 2000 L St., N.W., Washington, DC 20036 

Manager — Headquarters 

Judi Meyerhoeffer, 2000 L St., N.W., Washington, DC 20036 

Director of Engineering 

W. Arthur Grotz, Jr., 2000 L St., N.W., Washington, DC 20036 

Published by the American Railway Engineering Association, Bi-Monthly, January-February, April-May, June-July, 
September-October and November-December at 
2000 L St., N.W., Washington, DC 20036 
Second class postage at Washington, D.C. and at additional mailing offices 
Subscription $40 per annum 
Copyright «' 1982 
American Railway Engineering Association ■ 
All rights reserved. 
(ISSN 0003-0694) 
POSTMASTER: Send address changes to: AREA Bulletin, 2000 L Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036 
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in an information or data retrieval system, or transmitted, in any 
form, or by any means — electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise — without the prior written permission 
of the publisher. 



American Railway 
Engineering Association 

Bulletin 690 
NOVEMBER-DECEMBER 1982 
Proceedings Volume 84 (1983) 



CONTENTS 

SPECIAL FEATURE 
25° Curves on Chessie's Laurel Bank Grade 76 

MANUAL RECOMMENDATIONS 

Rail (4) 78 

Timber Structures (7) 81 

Concrete Structures and Foundations (8) 93 

Highway-Railway Programs (9) 94 

Concrete Ties (10) 97 

Yards and Terminals (14) 98 

Steel Structures (15) 100 

Economics of Plant, Equipment and Operations (16) 104 

Clearances (28) 106 

PORTFOLIO RECOMMENDATIONS 
Track (5) 112 

PUBLISHED AS INFORMATION 

Ties and Wood Preservation (3) 113 

Buildings (6) 116 

Environmental Engineering (13) 123 

Economics of Railway Construction and Maintenance (22) 129 

MEMOIRS 145 

Cover Photo: Four Chessie diesels haul loaded coal train around 22° (80 meter radius) curve 
while climbing the 2.88% Laurel Bank Grade of Chessie's Webster Springs-Elkins, West 
Virginia, Line. 

Comments on the Manual and Portfolio revisions shown on pages 78 
through 112 are welcomed from all readers and should be received at 
Headquarters by February 1, 1983. 



Published by the 

American Railway Engineering Association 

2000 L St., N.W. 

Washington, D.C. 20036 



MANUAL RECOMMENDATIONS 



COMMITTEE 4— RAIL 

SPECIFICATION FOR FABRICATION OF 
CONTINUOUS WELDED RAIL 



SCOPE: The requirements recommended herein are intended for use only in the fabrication 
of continuous welded new and relay rail for main line service and are not intended for use in 
the acceptance or rejection of rails from the mills. New rails shall be in accordance with the 
latest issue of AREA Specifications for Steel Rails, Part 2, this chapter. Relay tail shall meet 
the specifications as stated below. 

1. All rail delivered to the welding plant shall be examined prior to welding. Relay rails 
not meeting the following alignment specifications shall be rejected: 

(a) Deviations of the lateral (horizontal) line in either direction at the rail ends shall not 
exceed a maximum mid-ordinate of 0.030 in. in 3 ft. using a straight edge and of 0.023 
in. at the end quarter-point as illustrated in Figure 1. 

(b) The uniform surface upsweep at the rail ends shall not exceed a maximum ordinate 
of 0.025 in. in 3 ft. and the 0.025 in. maximum ordinate shall not occur at a point 
closer than 18 in. from the rail end as illustrated in Figure 2. 

(c) Surface downsweep and droop shall not be acceptable. 

2. Alignment of rail in the welding machine shall be done on the head of the rail. 

(a) Vertical alignment shall provide for a flat running surface. Any difference of height 
of rails shall be in the base. 

(b) Horizontal alignment should be done in such a manner that any difference in the 
width of heads of new rails should be divided equally on both sides of the head. Where 
the difference when divided exceeds 0.040 in. and the gage side is predetermined, it 
may be desirable to align this side of the head allowing any difference in the width of 
heads to occur on the field side. For relay rails, horizontal alignment should be done 
in such a manner that the webs will be straight and any difference in the width of the 
heads be finished by grinding. 

(c) Horizontal offsets shall not exceed 0.040 in. in the head and/or 0.125 in. in the base. 

3. Surface Misalignment Tolerance (Figures 3 and 4): 

(a) Combined Vertical Offset and Crown Camber at ambient temperature shall not 
exceed 0.060 in. as shown in Figure 3. 

(b) No Dip camber shall be allowed (Figure 4). 

(c) The hot weld tolerance at the inspection station will vary and should be established 
by practice. 

4. Gage Misalignment Tolerance (Figure 5). 

(a) Combined Horizontal Off-set and Horizontal Kink Camber at ambient temperature 
shall not exceed .060 in. as shown in Figure 5. 

5. A finishing deviation of not more than plus or minus 0.005 in. of the parent section of 
the rail head surface should be allowed. 

78 



Manual Recommendations 



79 



TOLERANCES FOR INSPECTION OF RELAY RAIL 



STRAIGHTEDGE 




0.023" MAX. 

0.030" MAX. 

FIG. 1 TOP VIEW OF RAIL LATERAL (HORIZONTAL) LINE 

TOLERANCE AT RAIL ENDS PER SECTION 1a. 



36" STRAIGHTEDGE 




0.025 MAX. 



FIG. 2 SIDE ELEVATION OF RAIL UNIFORM UPSWEEP 

TOLERANCE AT RAIL ENDS PER SECTION 1b. 



6. The sides of the rail head should be finished to plus or minus 0.010 in. of the parent 
section. The bottom of rail base should be finished to within 0.010 in. of the lowest rail. 

7. The web zone (underside of head, web, top of base, both fillets each side), shall be 
finished to within Vs in. of parent contour or closer but shall not be deeper than parent section. 
Finishing shall eUminate all cracks. 



80 



Bulletin 690 — American Railway Engineering Association 



TOLERANCES FOR INSPECTION OF WELDED RAIL 
NEW AND MAIN LINE RELAY RAIL 



36 STRAIGHTEDGE 




S^^-^ 



FIG. 3 ELEVATION OF RAIL SHOWING WELD MISALIGNMENT 

TOLERANCE IN VERTICAL ALIGNMENT PER SECTION 3a. 




-NO DIP 
ALLOWED 



FIG. 4 ELEVATION OF RAIL SHOWING WELD MISALIGNMENT 

TOLERANCE IN VERTICAL ALIGNMENT PER SECTION 3b. 




FIG. 5 PLAN VIEW OF RAIL SHOWING WELD MISALIGNMENT 

TOLERANCE IN HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENT PER SECTION 4a. 



8. All notches created by offset conditions or twisted rails shall be eliminated by grinding 
to blend the variations. 

9. All fins on the weld due to grinding and/or shear drag shall be removed prior to final 
inspection. 



Manual Recommendations 



10. All welds giving fault indication in magnetic particle inspection shall be rejected. 

11. All rails used for electric flash butt welds shall have the scale removed down to bring 
metal in those areas of the rails where the welding current-carrying electrodes contact the rail. 
The weld and adjacent rail for a distance clearing the electrodes shall be rejected if in the areas 
of electrode contact there is not more than 95 percent of the mill scale removed. Rails showing 
evidence of electrode burns shall be rejected. An electrode burn is considered to exist where 
the metal has been displaced. 

12. All electric-flash butt welds shall be forged to point of refusal to further plastic 
deformation and have a minimum upset of V2 in., with Vs in. as standard. 

13. If flashing on electric-flash butt welds is interrupted because of malfunction or exter- 
nal reason, with less than Vi in. of flashing distance remaining before upsetting, rails shall be 
reclamped in machine and flashing initiated again. 

14. Whenever possible, grinding shall be done immediately following welding at an 
elevated temperature. When grinding must be done at ambient temperature, care must be 
taken to avoid grinding burns and metallurgical damage. 

15. Where jagged, notched or badly mismatched cuts are made by cutting torch on rails 
for electric-flash butt welding, the mismatched end faces shall be pre-flashed to an even or 
mated condition before setting up rails for preheating and final flashing to assure that the 
entire surfaces of rail ends are uniformly flashing immediately preceding upsetting. 

16. When a weld is torch cut for re-weld, or a rail is cropped by torch cutting, the weld 
must be made as soon as possible but not to exceed 15 minutes after cutting to prevent deep 
thermal cracks from forming on the cut rail end faces. If this cannot be done, the rail ends must 
be cut back a minimum of 6" before making the weld. 

17. It is recommended that a straightening press be included in a welding production line 
to help achieve or improve upon the alignment of items 2, 3 and 4. 

18. It is recommended that a chart recorder be used with each welding production line 
to monitor the significant welding parameters. Calibration should be made daily for each 
recorder. 



COMMITTEE 7— TIMBER STRUCTURES 



The Committee recommends the following revisions to Chapter 7 of the Manual to 
replace "Specifications for Glued Laminated Lumber," pages 7-1-42 through 7-1-56 and 
Table 1 — "Working Unit Stresses for Structural Lumber Subject to Railway Loading," page 
7-2-7, 1957. 

2.5 SPECIFICATIONS FOR GLUED LAMINATED LUMBER 

2.5.1 General 

a. The sterm "Structural Glued Laminated Timber" as employed herein refers to an 
engineered, stress-rated product of a timber laminating plant, comprising assemblies of suit- 
ably selected and prepared wood laminations securely bonded together with adhesives. The 



82 Bulletin 690 — American Railway Engineering Association 



grain of all laminations is approximately parallel longitudinally. The separate laminations shall 
not exceed 2 inches in net thickness. They may be comprised of pieces end joined to form any 
length, of pieces placed or glued edge to edge to make wider ones, or of pieces bent to curved 
form during gluing. 

b. Laminations shall be arranged horizontally (wide face of laminations placed normal to 
the direction of the load) in members stressed principally in bending, except as hereinafter 
provided. 

c. Except as otherwise provided, glued laminated member shall be designed in accord- 
ance with the engineering formulas used for solid sawn wood members and those presented 
in Part II of this specification. Design factors for curved members and lateral stability criteria 
differ from those for solid sawn members. (For more detail, see references 2 and 4.) 

d. The same allowable loads and methods of design for bolts, connectors, and other 
fastenings apply to glued laminated members as to solid sawn members. (For more detail, see 
references 2 and 4.) 

e. Except as otherwise provided, the Voluntary Product Standard PS 56-73 for Structural 
Glued Laminated Timber is adopted as a part of this specification. 

2.5.2 Design Stresses 

a. Allowable stress values for wet conditions of use given in tables 1 and 2 shall be 
applicable for normal loading when the moisture content in service is 16 percent or more, as 
may occur in most exterior and submerged construction. 

b. Allowable stress values for dry conditions shall be applicable for normal loading when 
the moisture content in service is less than 16 percent, as in most covered structures. Such 
stresses shall be obtained by multiplying the stresses in tables 1 and 2 by the factor listed at 
the bottom of each column in the tables. 

c. When members are pressure treated with a preservative or fire retardant, adjustment 
factors applicable to the design stresses shall be obtained from the treater for the specific 
treatment used. Note: When members are preservatively treated in accordance with AWPA 
C-20 or C-28, AWPA recommends no reduction factor. For large glulam members, treatment 
with fire retardants is not recommended. If treatment is used, however, reductions of up to 
25 percent may be applicable to certain fire-retardant treatments. 

2.5.3 Sizes for Laminations 

a. Individual laminations shall be 2 inches net or less in thickness. 

b. For exterior use, laminations of a member shall be of one piece in width or of pieces 
preglued together edgewise, unless it can be shown by calculations or experimental data that 
unglued edge joints will perform satisfactorily in the member; then unglued edge joints may 
be used in the inner laminations of a horizontally laminated member. 

2.5.4 Grade Provisions 

a. All lumber used as laminations in the fabrication of structural glued laminated timber 
shall be graded in accordance with the current standard grading rules or special laminating 
grading rules and with additional requirements as specified in the applicable laminating 
specification, PS 56-73, or herein. 

b. The lumber used for laminations shall be surfaced as specified in PS 56-73 and the 
grades shall be as required by the appropriate specification referenced in the footnotes of 
tables 1 and 2. 



Manual Recommendations 



83 



Table 1. Design values for structural glued laminated softwood timbers 
stressed principally in bending' 















Design values^ 










Extreme fiber 














in bendi 

Load 
parallel to 
Combi- Number wide faces 
nation of Lami- of lami- 
symbol nations nations 


ng "Fb" 
Load 
perpen- 
dicular to 
wide faces 
of lami- 
nations 


Tension 

parallel 

to grain 

F, 


Compres- 
sion perpen- 
Compres- dicular to 
sion grain "Fc" 
parallel Compres- 
to grain Tension sion 
Fc face face 


Hori- 
zontal 
shear 
F, 


Modulus 

of 
elasticity 

f 










Lb/in^ 

DOUGLAS-FIR AND LA 












RCH 








16F 


4 or 


more 


(3) 


1280 


720 


1100 


255 


255 


145 


1,300,000 


18F 


4 or 


more 


(3) 


1440 


720 


1100 


255 


255 


145 


1,400,000 


20F 


4 or 


more 


(3) 


1600 


800 


1100 


'255 


'255 


145 


1,400,000 


22F 


4 or 


more 


(3) 


1760 


800 


'1100 


'300 


'255 


145 


1,500,000 


24F 


4 or 


more 


(3) 


1920 


800 


'1100 


300 


255 


145 


1,500,000 


22F-E 






(3) 


1760 


1280 


1100 


300 


300 


145 


1,500,000 












HEM-FIR 










22F-E 








1760 


1040 


880 


165 


165 


135 


1,300,000 










LODGEPOLE PINE 










16F-E 








1280 


880 


730 


165 


165 


125 


1,100,000 


20F-E 








1600 


880 


730 


165 


165 


125 


1,200,000 










SOUTHERN PINE 










16F-1 


5 to 13 


(3) 


1280 


640 


510 


300 


255 


120 


1,200,000 


16F-2 


14 or 


more 


(3) 


1280 


640 


510 


300 


255 


120 


1,200,000 


18F-1 


4 or 


more 


(3) 


1440 


720 


'1100 


255 


255 


175 


1,300,000 


18F-2 


12 or 


more 


(3) 


1440 


720 


'1100 


255 


255 


175 


1,300,000 


20F-1 


8 or 


more 


(3) 


1600 


800 


'1100 


255 


255 


175 


1,400,000 


20F-2 


7 or more 


(3) 


1600 


800 


'1100 


300 


300 


175 


1,400,000 


20F-3 


4 to 15 


(3) 


1600 


640 


510 


300 


255 


120 


1,300,000 


20F-4 


16 or 


more 


(3) 


1600 


640 


510 


300 


255 


120 


1,300,000 


22F-1 


4 or 


more 


(3) 


1760 


800 


'1100 


300 


300 


175 


1,400,000 


22F-2 


12 or 


more 


(3) 


1760 


800 


'1100 


255 


255 


175 


1,400,000 


22F-3 


14 or 


more 


(3) 


1760 


800 


'1100 


255 


255 


175 


1,400,000 


24F-1 


10 or 


more 


(3) 


1920 


800 


'1100 


255 


255 


175 


1,500,000 


24F-2 


4 or 


more 


(3) 


1920 


800 


'1100 


300 


300 


175 


1,500,000 


24F-3 


14 or 


more 


(3) 


1920 


800 


'1100 


300 


300 


175 


1,500,000 


24F-4 


12 or 


more 


(3) 


1920 


800 


730 


300 


255 


120 


1,400,000 


22F-E 








1760 


1280 


1100 


300 


300 


175 


1,400,000 










CALIFORNIA REDWOOD 








16F 


4 or 


more 


(3) 


1280 


960 


1170 


215 


215 


110 


1,200,000 


22F-1 


4 or 


more 


(3) 


1760 


960 


1460 


215 


215 


110 


1,200,000 


22F-2 


4 or 


more 


(3) 


1760 


1040 


1460 


215 


215 


110 


1,200,000 


22F-3 


4 or 


more 


(3) 


1760 


1200 


1610 


215 


215 


110 


1,200,000 



84 



Bulletin 690 — American Railway Engineering Association 



Table 1. Design values for structural glued laminated softwood timbers 
stressed principally in bending' (Continued) 









Design values^ 








Extreme fiber 














in bending "Fb" 






Compres- 








Load 






sion perpen- 








Load perpen- 




Compres- 


dicular to 








parallel to dicular to 


Tension 


sion 


grain "Fc" 


Hori- 


Modulus 


Combi- 


Number wide faces wide faces 


parallel 


parallel 


Compres- 


zontal 


of 


nation 


of Lami- of lami- of lami- 


to gram 


to gram 


Tension sion 


shear 


elasticity 


symbol 


nations nations nations 


F, 


Fc 


face face 


Fv 


f 



DOUGLAS-FIR AND LARCH WITH WESTERN SOFTWOODS CORE 



16F 11 or more 


(3) 


1280 


640 


880 


300 


255 


125 


1,200,000 


20F 12 or more 


(3) 


1600 


720 


910 


300 


300 


125 


1,400,000 


24F 11 or more 


(3) 


1920 


880 


950 


300 


300 


125 


1,500,000 


Modification factor 


















for dry service 


















conditions 


(3) 


1.25 


1.25 


1.37 


1.50 


1.50 


1.14 


1.20 



'Design values in this table are based on combinations conforming to "Standard Specifications for Structural Glued 
Laminated Timber of Douglas-fir, Western Larch, Southern Pine, and California Redwood," AITC Standard 117-76, by 
American Institute of Timber Construction, "Standard Specifications for Structural Glued Laminated Timber Using "E" 
Rated and Visually Graded Lumber of Douglas-fir, Southern Pine, Hem-fir, and Lodgepole Pine," AITC Standard 120-76, 
by American Institue of Timber Construction, and manufactured in accordance with Department of Commerce Voluntary 
Product Standard PS 56-73, Structural Glued Laminated Timber. 

^When moisture content in service will be less than 16 pet, tabulated design values shall be multiplied by the modification 
factor for dry service conditions, as given in the bottom line of this table. 

'For additional details, see AITC 117-76, per footnote 1. 

""When dense lumber is used in outer laminations in members 4 to 12 laminations deep, Fc in outer tension and 
compression laces is 300 lb/in. ^. When close grain lumber is used in outer laminations of members 4 to 8 laminations deep, 
Fc in tension and compression laces is 270 lb/in. ^. Both numbers pertain to wet service conditions. 

^Design values may be increased when slope of grain is more restrictive than basic requirement. (See AITC 117-76 per 
footnote 1.) 

'When closer grain lumber is used in outer laminations in members 4 to 10 laminations deep, Fc in both tension and 
compression faces is 270 lb/in. ^ for wet service conditions. 



c. When lumber to be used for laminating is resawn or ripped, the finished size shall meet 
the grade requirements. 

2.5.5 Slope of Grain 

a. Slope of grain shall be Umited in the full length of each lamination and shall be 
measured over a distance sufficiently great to determine the general slope, disregarding sHght 
local deviations resulting from permissible defects. 

b. Slope of grain shall be as required in the appropriate specifications referenced in 
footnotes of tables 1 and 2. 

2.5.6 Vertical Laminations 

a. When vertically laminated beam.s are specified, the allowable stresses shall be the 
stress specified in table 2. 



Manual Recommendations 



85 



Table 2. — Design values for structural glued laminated softwood timbers: 
Members stressed principally in axial tension or compression' 

(or loaded in bending parallel to the wide face of laminations) 

Design values are for normal load duration and wet conditions^ of use. See footnotes, and 
other provisions in the National Design Specification for Wood Construction, for adjustments 
of calculated values. 













Design values 












Compression 










Extreme fiber in 






perpendicular to 


Horizontal 






bendii 


™g "Ft," 
Load 






grain 


"f;' 


shear 


Load 






Load 


perpen- 




Com- 






Load 


perpendic 


:- 




parallel to 


dicular to 


Tension 


pression 






parallel to 


ular to 


Modulus 


Combi- 


wide faces wide faces 


parallel 


parallel 




Com- 


wide faces 


wide face 


s of 


nation 


of lami- 


of lami- 


to grain' 


to grain"* 


Tension 


pression 


of lami- 


of lami- 


elasticity 


symbol 


nations^ 


nations^ 


F, 


Fr 


face' 


face' 


nations' 


nations'* 


E 












Lblin. ^ ... 
















DOUGLAS-FIR AND LARCH 








1 


720 


960 


720 


1,100 


255 


255 


125 


145 


1,300,000 


2 


1,200 


1,440 


1,040 


1,310 


255 


255 


125 


145 


1,500,000 


3 


1,520 


1,760 


1,120 


1,530 


300 


300 


125 


145 


1,600,000 


4 


1,680 


1,920 


1,200 


1,460 


275 


275 


125 


145 


1,700,000 


5 


1,840 


2,080 


1,280 


1,610 


300 


300 


125 


145 


1,800,000 










SOUTHERN PINE 










1 


720 


880 


720 


1,020 


255 


255 


145 


175 


1,200,000 


2 


1,200 


1,440 


960 


1,390 


255 


255 


145 


175 


1,400,000 


3 


1,440 


1,680 


1,120 


1,610 


300 


300 


145 


175 


1,500,000 


4 


1,520 


1,920 


1,120 


1,530 


255 


255 


145 


175 


1,600,000 


5 


1,760 


2,080 


1,280 


1,610 


300 


300 


145 


175 


1,700,000 


6' 


480 


440 


240 


510 


170 


170 


100 


120 


1,000,000 


T 


800 


720 


480 


730 


170 


170 


100 


120 


1,000,000 








CALIFORNIA REDWOOD 








1 


800 


1,120 


960 


1,310 


215 


215 


100 


110 


1,100,000 


2 


800 


1,120 


960 


1,310 


215 


215 


100 


110 


1,100,000 


3 


1,120 


1,600 


1,040 


1,460 


215 


215 


110 


110 


1,200,000 


4 


1,760 


1,760 


1,200 


1,610 


215 


215 


110 


110 


1,200,000 


5 


1,760 


1,760 


1,200 


1,610 


215 


215 


110 


110 


1,200,000 


Modification 


















factor for 


















dry service 


















conditions 1.25 


1.25 


1.25 


1.37 


1.50 


1.50 


1.14 


1.14 


1.20 



'Footnote 1 of table 1 applies equally to table 2. 

^When moisture content in service will be less than 16 pet, tabulated design values shall be multiplied by the modification 
factor for dry service conditions, as given in the bottom line of this table. 

'Design values apply to members with 3 or more laminations. 

■"Design values apply to members with 4 or more laminations. 

'Combinations 6 and 7 are not recommended for use as separate combinations. Other Southern Pine combinations are 
more economical. 



86 Bulletin 690 — American Railway Engineering Association 



3 


4 


6 


8 


10 


12 


14 


16 


2'/8 


3V8 


5V8 


63/4 


8% 


10% 


12'/4 


14'/4 



b. When other information is not available, the stress as specified in the standard grading 
rules for the grade of lumber may be used for two lamination members and increased 15 
percent for three or more lamination members. 

c. Allowable stresses for vertically laminated beams made up of combination grades of 
lumber shall be the weighted average of the lumber grades or 115 percent of the allowable 
stress for the lowest grade, whichever is the least. 

2.5.7. Radius of Curvature 

a. The ability to bend laminations is dependent upon a multitude of factors, relating to 
both wood properties and manufacturing techniques, and it may be advisable for the designer 
to consult with the laminator prior to specifying. Two prime considerations are thickness of 
laminations (t) and bending radii (R). The t/R ratio should not exceed Vioo for southern pine 
nor '/i25 for Douglas-fir and other softwoods. 

2.5.8. Finished Sizes 

a. Net (not nominal) dimensions of members shall be specified. 

b. All members shall be trimmed to the length and finished to the width and depth 
dimensions specified. Net dimensions shall be specified. Normal finished width of laminated 
members shall be as follows: 

Nominal width, inches, 
Net finished width, inches 

Normal finished depths of straight laminated members shall be specified in multiples of IVi 
inches. Curved members may be available in multiples of 0.75 inch. Other widths and depths 
may be available and are subject to agreement between purchaser and supplier. 

c. Members that are specified to be pressure impregnated with a preservative after 
laminating shall be finished to size, and all cutting, framing, and boring of timbers shall be 
done before treatment, unless otherwise specified. 

d. Treatment with waterborne preservatives following gluing is not recommended but, if 
used, special consideration should be given to dimensional change. 

2.5.9. Marking and Wrapping 

a. Each completed member shall be certified and marked with the product quality mark 
of PS 56-73 unless otherwise specified by the purchaser. 

b. Each completed member that is stressed principally in bending, if significant to its 
proper use, shall be plainly marked to identify its top and bottom face. 

c. Requirement for end sealing protection from damage during shipment shall be speci- 
fied for the member involved. 

d. Each completed member shall be protected from damage such as would noticeably 
impair its appearance or lower its strength, durability, or utility values. When method of 
shipment warrants such protection, a wrapping to enclose each completed member may be 
required. 

e. Each completed member, if not pressure impregnated with a preservative and if the 
weather or other conditions justify, may be required to be enclosed in a moisture-resistant 
wrapping or coating. 

f. It shall be the responsibility of the Contractor to provide protection on the job site. 



Manual Recommendations 87 



2.5.10. Standard References 

1. U.S. Department of Commerce, Voluntary Product Standard PS 56-73. "Structural 
Glued Laminated Timber" (available from Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government 
Printing Office). 

2. "Timber Construction Manual," by American Institute of Timber Construction, John 
Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1973. 

3. U.S. Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin 1069, "Fabrication and Design of 
Glued Laminated Wood Structural Members," by A.D. Freas and M.L. Selbo, Forest Prod- 
ucts Laboratory. Available from American Institute of Timber Construction. 

4. Current "National Design Specification for Stress-Grade Lumber and Its Fastenings," 
National Forest Products Association. 

5. American Institute of Timber Construction, "Timber Construction Standards AITC 
100-72." 

6. American Institute of Timber Construction. "Standard Specifications for Structural 
Glued Laminated Timber of Douglas-fir, Western Larch, Southern Pine, and CaHfornia 
Redwood." AITC 117-76. 

7. American Institute of Timber Construction. "Standard Specifications for Hardwood 
Glued Laminated Timber." AITC 119-76. 

8. American Institute of Timber Construction. "Standard Specifications for Structural 
Glued Laminated Timber Using Visually Graded Lumber of Douglas-fir, Southern Pine, 
Hem-fir, and Lodgepole Pine." AITC 120-76. 

9. American Wood-Preservers Association. Standards C20 and C28. 

10. American Society for Testing and Materials. "Standard Method for Establishing 
Stresses for Structural Glued-Laminated Timber (Glulam) Manufactured From Visually 
Graded Lumber." ASTM D3737-78. 



Bulletin 690 — American Railway Engineering Association 



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Manual Recommendations 93 



COMMITTEE 8— CONCRETE STRUCTURES AND 
FOUNDATIONS 



The Committee recommends three items for approval. The first is new Part 14, "Repair 
and Rehabilitation of Concrete Structures" which replaces old Parts 13, "Shotcrete" and 14, 
"Repairing and Solidifying Masonry Structures" in Chapter 8. New Part 14 applies to the 
repair and rehabihtation of concrete structures above and below water by patching, encase- 
ment with concrete, shotcrete, pressure grouting, injection grouting of preplaced aggregates, 
tremie placement, bagged concrete, and component replacement. It identifies some of the 
major causes for deterioration of concrete and the methods of protecting against deterio- 
ration. This revision includes new figures, references and numbering scheme which conforms 
to that in use in the rest of the Manual. 

The second item for publication is new Part 17, "Prestressed Concrete Design" which 
replaces old Part 17, "Prestressed Concrete Structures" in Chapter 8. New Part 17 is a 
complete revision; existing Part 17 dates back to the 1958 tentative criteria reported by 
ACI-ASCE Joint Committee 323. The state-of-knowledge has advanced considerably since 
then. The primary publications used as guides in the preparation of the revision were as 
follows: 

"Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete Design (ACI 318-77)" 

"Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges (AASHTO)" 

"Analysis and Design of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Structures (ACI 443 Committee 

Report— 1977)" 
"Ontario Highway Bridge Design Code 1979" 
"Concrete Railway Bridges (CSA S29-1978)" 

New Part 17 is prepared as a Supplement to Part 2 of Chapter 8 for non-prestressed 
concrete. See Article 17.1.1(b). This was done primarily to avoid duplication of equivalent 
provisions. 

The overall format is a little different from existing prestressed design specifications in 
that the two primary aspects of design "strength" and "serviceability" are distinguished with 
appropriate titles: 

Article 17.5 — Strength requirements 
Article 17.6 — Serviceability requirements 

This overall design distinction is clarified in Article 17.4.1., which states: "Design of 
prestressed members shall be based on strength (Article 17.5) and on behavior at service load 
conditions (Article 17.6) at all load stages that may be critical during the life of the structure 
from the time prestress is first applied." 

And last, new Part 17 is a bit more performance oriented than some of the equivalent 
provisions in the AASHTO Highway Bridge Specification. Some of the specific minimum sizes 
and rebar details contained in AASHTO are not included because railway needs may differ 
considerably from highway needs. 

The third item for publication is a new updated Chapter 29, "Waterproofing". It includes 
a new section on scale pits and other similar structures below grade, pertinent modifications 
to ASTM D 1883 and usage definitions of applicable ASTM specifications and industry 
accepted materials and/or systems. 

Copies of the full texts of these proposed Manual changes are available from headquarters 
at cost, which are as follows: Proposed new Part 14 $2.50; proposed new Part 17 $3.20; and 
proposed new Chapter 29 $2.50. 



94 Bulletin 690 — American Railway Engineering Association 



COMMITTEE 9— HIGHWAY-RAILWAY PROGRAMS 



The Committee recommends deleting Parts 3, 4 and 5 and changing Parts 1 and 2 of 
Chapter 9 of the Manual as follows: 

Parti 

Guidelines for the Construction 
or 
Reconstruction of Highway- 
Railway Crossings 

1.0 Crossing Surface Materials 

Any crossing surface material may be used on any crossing at the discretion of the 
operating railroad or as may be recommended by a diagnostic evaluation of the crossing. 

Specifications and plans concerning the crossing surface material and use should abide 
with the manufacturer's recommendations, and/or the operating railroad's specifications and 
plans and, where applicable, to the standards of the public agency having jurisdictional 
authority at the specific location. 

1.1 Width of Crossing 

The crossing shall be of such width as prescribed by law, but in no case shall the width 
be less than that of the adjacent traveled way plus 2 ft. 

1.2 Profile and Alignment of Crossings and Approaches 

Where crossings involve two or more tracks, the top of rails for all tracks shall be brought 
to the same plane where practicable. The surface of the highway shall be in the same plane 
as the top of rails for a distance of 2 ft. outside of rails for either multiple or single-track 
crossings. The top of rail plane shall be connected with the grade line of the highway each way 
by vertical curves of such length as is required to provide riding conditions and sight distances 
normally appUed to the highway under consideration. It is desirable that the surface of the 
highway be not more than 3 in. higher nor 6 in. lower than the top of nearest rail at a point 
30 ft. from the rail, measured at right angle thereto, unless track superelevation dictates 
otherwise. 

If practicable, the highway alignment should be such as to intersect the railroad track at 
or nearly at right angles. 

1.3 Width and Marking of Approaches 

Width of roadway at a highway-railway grade crossing should correspond to that of the 
adjoining highway and have the same number and width of traffic lanes as adjoining highway 
without extra lanes and with center turn lanes at the crossing being deUneated. 

At all paved approaches to the highway- rail way grade crossing, the highway traffic lanes 
in the vicinity of the crossing should be distinctly marked in accordance with the recommen- 



Manual Recommendations 95 



dations of the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways. Such 
markings are the responsibility of the public authorities. 

1 .4 Drainage 

In situations where the grade of the highway approach descends toward the crossing, 
provisions shall be made to intercept surface and subsurface drainage and discharge it laterally 
so that it will not be discharged on the track area. 

Surface ditches shall be installed. If required, subdrainage with suitable inlets and the 
necessary provisions for clean-out shall be made to drain the subgrade thoroughly and prevent 
the formation of water pockets. This drainage shall be connected to a storm water sewer 
system, if available; if not, suitable piping, geotextile fabrics and/or french drains shall be 
installed to carry the water a sufficient distance from the roadbed. Where gravity drainage is 
not available, a nearby sump may provide an economical outlet, or the crossing may be sealed 
and the roadbed stabilized by using asphalt ballast or its equivalent. 

1.5 Ballast 

The ballast and sub-ballast shall be dug out a minimum of 10 in. below the bottoms of the 
ties, 1 ft. minimum beyond the ends of the ties and beyond the end of the crossing a minimum 
of 20 ft., and reballasted with ballast to conform with AREA specifications. 

1.6 Ties 

Treated No. 5 hardwood or concrete ties shall be used through the limits of the crossing 
and beyond the crossing a minimum of 20 ft. 

1.7 RaU 

The rails throughout the crossing shall be so laid to eliminate joints within the crossing. 
Preferably, the nearest joint should be not less than 20 ft. from the end of the crossing. Where 
necessary, long rails shall be used or the rail ends shall be welded to form continuous rail 
through the crossing. Rails shall be spiked to perfect Une, and the track shall be thoroughly 
and solidly tamped to uniform surface. Rails should be protected with an approved rust 
inhibitor. 

1.8 Flangeway Widths 

Flangeways not less than 2'/2 or more than 3 in. width should be provided. Flangeways 
shall be at least 2 in. in depth unless approved by the operating railroad. 

1.9 New or Reconstructed Track Under Crossing 

1.9.1 Profile 

An agreed upon profile, railroad and highway, should be established between the oper- 
ating railroad and the road authority. 

1.9.2 Subgrade 

Subgrade should be cleaned of all old contaminated ballast and bladed to a level surface 
at a minimum of 10 in. below bottom of tie and at least 20 feet beyond each end of the crossing. 

1.9.3 Drainage Areas 

All drainage areas should be cleaned and sloped away from the crossing both directions 
along the track and the roadway. See Paragraph 1.4 above. 



96 Bulletin 690 — American Railway Engineering Association 



1.9.4 Geotextile Fabrics 

When practical, a geotextile fabric should be used between the subgrade and the ballast 
section and at least 20 ft. beyond each end of the crossing and if a rail joint falls within these 
hmits at least 5 ft. beyond the rail joint. If practical, the geotextile fabric should extend under 
the roadway surface, traveled way, 15 ft. each way from center line of track. 

1.9.5 Ballast 

A minimum of at least 10 in. of clean ballast should be placed between bottom of tie and 
the sub-ballast or subgrade. See Paragraph 1.5 above. 

1.9.6 Ties 

No. 5 hardwood or concrete ties should be used. Length and spacing of ties should 
conform to the type of grade crossing surface materials being used. See Paragraph 1.6 above. 

1.9.7 Tie Plate, Spikes, Anchors 

All ties through the crossing area and at least 20 feet beyond each end of the crossing 
should be fully tie plated with four spikes per tie plate and fully box anchored. Optional 
placement of the tie pads is acceptable. 

1.9.8 Rail 

The rail section should, at a minimum, be 115 lb. welded rail throughout the crossing to 
at least 20 feet beyond each end of the crossing. 

1.9.9 Lining and Surfacing TVack 

Rails should be spiked to perfect Hne and the track machined or mechanically tamped and 
surfaced to grade and alignment of the existing track and roadway as described in Paragraph 
1.2 above. Let as many train movements, as time will permit, across the crossing before final 
surface and aUgnment. This will help achieve the optimum ballast compaction through the 
crossing area. 

1.10 Highway Approaches 

The width, tranverse contour, type of surface or pavement, and other characteristics or 
each such approach to a high-railway grade crossing should be suitable for the highway and 
the railroad and shall, in each case, conform to the requirement of good practice. 

EDITOR'S NOTE 

The Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways referred to in 
this chapter was prepared by the National Advisory Committee on Uniform Traffic Control 
Devices for Streets and Highways (now organized as the National Committee on Uniform 
Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways). The Manual may be purchased from the 
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 



Manual Recommendations 97 



Part 2 

Traffic Control Devices for 

Highway-Railway Grade 

Crossings 



2.1 Traffic Control Devices for Highway-Railway grade crossings are designated in The 
Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices and State Manuals on Traffic Control Devices. 

2.2 Signs and signals specifically for use at highway-railway grade crossings, such as cross- 
bucks, advance warning signs, flashing light signals, cantilevers and gates are covered in 
Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices, Part VIII. 

Signs, signals, pavements markings and barricades intended for general highway use may 
be used at and approaching highway-railway grade crossings as indicated in the Manual on 
Uniform Traffic Control Devices Parts II, III, IV and VIII. 

EDITOR'S NOTE 

The Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways referred to in 
this chapter was prepared by the National Advisory Committee on Uniform Traffic Control 
Devices for Streets and Highways (now organized as the National Committee on Uniform 
Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways). This manual may be purchased from the 
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 



COMMITTEE 1 0— CONCRETE TIES 

Your committee submits for adoption the following revisions to Chapter 10 of the manual: 

Page 10-1-20 Article 1.9.1 Design Test of Monoblock Ties. 

Page 10-1-21 Article 1.9.1.4 In the title, change the word "test" to "tests". 

Add 1.9.1.13 and 1.9.1.14 after 1.9.1.12 in the fourth line from the bottom of the last 
paragraph, and delete "(Art. 1.9.1.14)" from the second line from the bottom. 

Page 10-1-25 Article 1.9.2.4 Delete the single sentence and add the following: 

"A tie cracked (not structurally under Definition 19) and otherwise undamaged after 
testing, will be considered acceptable for use in track unless non-structural cracks are specif- 
ically rejected by the engineer prior to testing." 

Page 10-1-27 Article 1.10.1.8 After Table II in the last line, add the following 
sentence: 

"If after 3 million cycles, the tie can support the rail seat load (I.IP), the requirements 
of this test will have been met." 



98 Bulletin 690 — American Railway Engineering Association 



Page 10-1-36 Article 1.13.2.1 Change M,=-!^ to A/,=-^ 

o Z 

Change definition of "L " to "L = Distance from centerline of Rail to end 
of Tie." 



COMMITTEE 14->YARDS AND TERMINALS 



Your committee submits this report with the recommendation that it be placed in Chapter 
14, Section 2.5 of the Manual. There currently is no manual material in this section. 

2.5 FLAT CLASSIFICATION YARDS DESIGN 

2.5.1 General 

2.5.1.1 Objective 

The ideal objective is the design of a series of gradients so that each car will roll to and 
stop at the far end of the classification yard, or will roll to coupling at an acceptable speed. 
The following objectives are the minimum to be expected: 

(a) Deliver cars having a practical maximum roUing resistance to the clearance point 
under adverse weather conditions. 

(b) Deliver cars of the most frequently-occurring rolling resistance to the far end of the 
yard, or to some desired intermediate point, if the block sizes do not require fiUing the track. 

(c) Permit maximum switching rate and acceptance coupling speeds. 

2.5.1.2 Rolling resistance 

The designer must be familiar with car rollability and the factors which can contribute to 
rolling resistance. (See pages 14-2-7, item 2.4.3.2, Rolling Resistance; 14-2-8 to 14-2-11, item 
2.4.3.3, Theory; 14-2-11 and 14-2-12, item 2.4.3.4, Design Factors and 14-2-13 to 14-2-16, item 
2.4.3.5 Formulas, 1982 edition) 

2.5.1.3 Commodities and Equipment 

The design should reflect the type of equipment to be used and the commodities to be 
handled. 

2.5.2 Gradients 

The following data are presented to assist in the design of a flat yard with optimum 
gradients for the switching of cars. The various segments of a flat yard with letter designations 
are shown in Figure 1. 

Segment A: Switching Lead or Drill Track 

Gradient here is not critical. Cars are normally released on or close to the ladder (segment 
B). However, since this segment accommodates constant bi-directional movement, the gra- 
dient should be relatively flat, with 0.00 percent preferred. 

Segment B and C: Ladder and Switch to the Clearance point 

The preferred gradient is "slightly" accelerating; which means that the grade must de- 
scend sufficiently to overcome rolling, switch and curve resistances. The preferred gradients 
for these segments range from -0.20 percent to -0.30 percent. In special cases, gradient on 
the ladder can be level if cars are to be released near the switch of their classification track. 



Manual Recommendations 



99 




D 



-h- E -KGH 



DIRECTION or SWITCHING 




FIGURE 1. FLAT YARD FOR SINGLE -DIRECTION SWITCHING 



Segment D: Clearance Point to Clearance Point 

The preferred design gradient for this segment is "slightly" decelerating, ranging from 
-0.10 to 0.00 percent. 

Segments E, F and G: Leaving End of the Yard 

Segments E and F should have sufficient adverse (uphill) gradient to prevent rollouts, and 
thus minimize the need for retarders or skates. Approximately 300 ft. of 0.3 percent grade is 
suggested. 

When conditions permit, it is highly desirable to design a flat yard for switching at both 
ends, even when current operations might not require double-ended switching. A flat yard for 
double-ended switching would have gradients in segments G, F and E the same as those in 
segments A, B and C respectively, and gradient in segment D would be either level or 
"slightly" descending from each end toward the middle. The yard profile would resemble a 
saucer. 

In a flat-yard drilling operation, the car, when it is uncoupled, is not unlike the car leaving 
the group retarder in a hump yard in that each car has just departed from its last point of 
external control, unless tracks are equipped with one of the recently-developed continuous- 
control devices inside the clearance point and/or on a portion of the track or a tangent-point 
retarder. Hence, the basic formula for the hump yard from the group retarder to the clearance 
point could be applied to the flat-yard design as follows: 

Drop from uncoupling point to clearance point = SR^+AC + NSW + a 



100 Bulletin 690 — American Railway Engineering Association 



S = Distance in feet (meters) 

Re = Rolling Resistance of easy-rolling car expressed decimally. 
A = Curvature in degrees of central angle. 

C= Curve resistance in feet (meters) of drop per degree of central angle. 
SW= Switch resistance in feet — 0.06 ft. per turnout (0.0183 meters per turnout). 
A^= Number of switches. 

a = Difference in velocity head at clearance and velocity head at uncoupling point for 
easy-rolling cars. 

Note: If metric units are used for any items, they should be used for all items in the formula. 

The gradients in the body tracks must not produce unacceptable acceleration of easy- 
rolling cars. 

2.5.3 Design Factors 

2.5.3.1 Yard Configuration 

If possible, a track should be designated for each classification to be made. However, it 
should be remembered that a flat yard is best suited to a situation where the number of 
switching cuts is small. While fairly large volumes of cars can be handled in a flat yard, a large 
number of cuts reduces its effectiveness. 

Body tracks should preferably be on tangent and of sufficient capacity to hold the volumes 
of each classification under normal circumstances. 

Ladders should be designed to minimize distance to clearance point and provide max- 
imum yard capacity. Switches should be as close together as possible for efficient hand- 
throwing. Multiple-frog-angle ladders allow the designer to provide a compact layout; how- 
ever, when hand-throw switches are used, the layout should be such that all switch stands are 
on the outside of the ladder. Inside switch stands should be used only when push-button power 
switching is provided. 

2.5.3.2 Drainage 

The flat yard will have a natural tendency to retain water, since its profile will usually take 
the shape of a saucer. Good drainage is imperative to maintain designed track grade, align- 
ment and structure. In most cases, a subsurface drainage system will be required, unless the 
subgrade is very porous. 

The grades of segments B and C in Figure 1. are between —0.2 and -0.3 percent. As more 
tracks are added to the design, the drop in elevation to the outside tracks increases. This drop 
may require an extension of the grade further into the body tracks of the first tracks on the 
lead than is desired (segment C). If that is the case, then consideration should be given to 
lowering the elevation of each track from 0.4 to 0.5 ft. which would drain the yard to the 
outside of the classification tracks. The yard would drain with equalizer pipes put through the 
grade at the lowest elevation. 



COMMITTEE 15— STEEL STRUCTURES 

The Committee recommends the following revisions to Chapter 15 of the Manual: 
1. Revise Art. 1.2.6 on Pages 15-1-4.1 and 15-1-5 to read: 



Manual Recommendations 101 



1.2.6 Clearances 

(a) The clearances on straight track shall be not less than those shown in Fig. 1.2.6. On 
curved track, the lateral clearance each side of track centerline shall be increased 1'/: in. per 
degree of curvature. When the fixed obstruction is on tangent track, but the track is curved 
within 80 ft. of the obstruction, the lateral clearance each side of track centerline shall be 
increased as follows: 

Distance from Obstruction Increase per Degree 

to Curved track in Ft. of Curvature in In. 

0-20 l'/2 

21-40 V/s 

41-60 3/4 

61-80 3/8 

(b) Where legal requirements specify greater clearances, such requirements shall govern. 

(c) The superelevation of the outer rail shall be specified by the Engineer. The distance 
from the top of rail to the top of tie shall be assumed as 8 in., unless otherwise specified by 
the Engineer. 

(d) Where there are plans for electrification the minimum vertical clearance shall be 
increased to that specified in Chapter 28. ; '' 

(e) The clearances shown are for new construction. Clearances for reconstruction work 
or for alterations are dependent on existing physical conditions and, where reasonably pos- 
sible, should be improved to meet the requirements for new construction. 

2. On Page 15-1-5, change Figure 1 to Fig. 1.2.6, delete the words "Railway Bridges" at 
the top of Fig. 1 and change the word "connections" to "corrections" at the bottom of 
Fig. 1. 

3. On Page 15-1-8, revise Art. 1.3.4.2.4.(a) to read: 

(a) Where beams or girders are spaced symmetrically about the centerline of tangent 
track, the axle loads shall be distributed equally to all beams or girders whose centroids are 
within a lateral width equal to the length of tie plus twice the minimum distance from bottom 
of tie to top of beams or girders. Distribution of loads for other conditions shall be determined 
by a recognized method of analysis. 

4. In Art. 1.4, on Page 15-1-18 and Art. 2.4 on Page 15-2-7, change the basic allowable 
unit stress for Shear in A 325 bolts from 20,000* to 17,500* and for Shear in A 490 bolts from 
23,500* to 22,000*. 

5. In Art. 1.4 on Page 15-1-18 and Art. 2.4. on Page 15-2-8, change the basic allowable 

LF 
unit stress for Bearing on A 325 and A 490 bolts from "need not be considered" to -jj- or 1.5 

f„ (whichever is smaller) and add: 

where 

L = Distance, in., measured in the line of force from the center line of a bolt to the nearest 
edge of an adjacent bolt or to the end of the connected part toward which the force 
is directed. 

d = Diameter of bolts, in. 

Fu= Lowest specified minimum tensile strength of the connected part, ksi. (58 ksi for 
ASTM 36 or ASTM 709, Grade 36 Steel). 



102 Bulletin 690 — American Railway Engineering Association 



6. On Page 15-1-18. 1 , replace the values for the Minimum Tension in Kips for A 325 Bolts 
and A 490 Bolts in Table 1.4.1 with: 

Vi Bolts 12 15 

5/8 19 24 

Va 28 35 

'/s 39 49 

1 51 64 

iy« 56 80 

iy4 71 102 

P/s 85 121 

iy2 103 148 

7. On Page 15-1-29, add new subarticle (b) to Art. 1.9.3 to read: 

(b) The distance between high strength bolts measured in the line of force from the center 
line of a bolt to the center line of an adjacent bolt shall not be less than {IdfplFu) + -t^. 

where 

d = diameter of bolt, in. 

/p = computed bearing stress due to design load, ksi 

F„ = lowest specified minimum tensile strength of the connected part, ksi 

8. On Page 15-1-29, add new subarticle (c) to Art. 1.9.4 to read: 

(c) The distance between the center of the nearest bolt and that end of the connected 
member towards which the pressure of the bolt is directed shall not be less than IdfplF^. 

where 

d= diameter of bolt, in. 

fp = computed bearing stress due to design load, ksi 

F„ = lowest specified minimum tensile strength of the connected part, ksi 

9. On Page 15-2-5, delete subarticle (d) of Art. 2.3.2.3 and redesignate subarticle (e) as 
(d). 

10. On Page 15-6-45, revise subarticle (b) of Art. 6.6.3 to read: 

(b) All wire ropes shall be 6 x 25 filler wire construction with fiber core. Each strand shall 
consist of 19 main wires and 6 filler wires fabricated in one operation, with all wires inter- 
locking. There shall be four sizes of wires in each strand; 12 outer wires of one size, 6 filler 
wires of one size, 6 inner wires of one size, and a core wire. Fiber cores shall be hard-twisted, 
best-quality, manila, sisal, polypropylene, or equivalent; jute cores shall not be used. 

11. On Page 15-6-45, revise subarticle (a) of Art. 6.6.5 to read: 

(a) Manila and sisal fiber cores shall be thoroughly impregnated by the cordage manu- 
facturer with a suitable lubricating compound free from acid. All portions of wire rope-fiber 
core, wires and strands shall be lubricated during manufacture with a lubricant containing a 
rust inhibitor approved by the Engineer. 

12. On Page 15-6-46, add the following paragraph to subarticle (c) of Art. 6.6.7: 

The distance between the jaws of the testing machine may be 4 in. for wires up to 0.040 
in. in diameter and 6 in. for wires up to 0.060 in. in diameter. Wires with a 4 in. test length 
shall not break when twisted to one-half the revolutions specified above and specimens with 
a 6 in. test length shall not break when twisted three-quarters the revolutions specified above. 



Manual Recommendations 103 



13. On Page 15-6-46, revise Art. 6.6.7(f) to read: 

(f) Within a strand, the total variations in wire diameters shall not exceed the following 
values: 

Diameter of Wires Total Variation 

In. In. 



0.038-0.060 0.0020 

0.061-0.100 0.0025 

0.101-0.140 0.0030 

0.141-0.190 0.0035 

14. On Page 15-6-46, add new subarticle (g) to Art. 6.6.7 to read: 

(g) Wire rope for operating ropes obtained from stock may be accepted upon certifica- 
tion by the manufacturer that all provisions of the specifications are met; tensile strength and 
torsion tests may be waived, where test data are not available, but the tension test on the rope 
as specified in Art. 6.6.8 is required. 

15. In Art. 7.3.4.3 on Page 15-7-14, change the permissible stress for Shear in A 325 bolts 
from 28,800 to 25,200 and for Shear in A 490 bolts from 34,000 to 31,800. 

16. On page 15-9-14, change the values shown for Allowable Stresses in Table 9.1.4 to: 

CLASS A325 A490 A325 A490 A325 A490 

A 17.5 22.0 15.0 19.0 12.5 16.0 



B 


27.5 


34.5 


23.5 


29.5 


19.5 


24.0 


C 


19.0 


23.5 


16.0 


20.0 


13.5 


16.5 


D 


21.5 


27.0 


18.5 


23.0 


15.0 


19.0 


E 


21.0 


26.0 


18.0 


22.0 


14.5 


18.0 


F 


29.5 


37.0 


25.0 


31.5 


20.5 


26.0 


G 


29.5 


37.0 


25.0 


31.5 


20.5 


26.0 


H 


30.0 


37.5 


25.5 


32.0 


21.0 


26.5 



I 16.5 20.5 14.0 17.5 11.5 14.5 

17. On Page 15-9-14, change the allowable stresses shown in the third line of footnote (a) 
of Table 9.1.4 from 18 ksi for A 325 bolts to 16.8 ksi and from 24 ksi for A 490 bolts to 22.4 
ksi. 

18. On Page 15-9-2.3, revise Art. 9.1.2.6 to read: The requirements for clearances 
specified in the 1982 edition are slightly more severe than in previous editions (last changed 
in 1969). This was done to be consistent with the recommendations of AREA Committee 28 
to accommodate the increased dimensions of cars and of higher and wider loads. 

19. In Arts. 9.1.4 and 9.2.4, change "Art. 203" where it appears at the end of the first 
paragraph on Page 15-9-14.1 to "Art. 205". 

20. On Page 15-9-14.1, change "18 WF 45, 12 WF 45" in Art. 9.1.5.4 to "W 18 46 and 
W 16 45". 

21. Revise Parts 1, 2, 3 and 9 to include all revisions and additions required for the 
Fracture Control Plan for Fracture Critical Members. 

This "Fracture Control Plan" presents special requirements for the materials, fabrication, 
welding, inspection and testing of Fracture Critical Members and member components in steel 
railway bridges. The provisions of this plan are to: 

(a) Assign responsibility for designating which steel railway bridge members or member 
components, if any, fall in the category of "Fracture Critical". 



104 Bulletin 690 — American Railway Engineering Association 



(b) Require that fabrication of Fracture Critical Members or member components be 
done in plants having personnel, organization, experience, procedures, knowledge and equip- 
ment capable of producing quality workmanship. 

(c) Require that all welding inspectors demonstrate their competency to assure that welds 
in Fracture Critical Members or member components are in compUance with this plan. 

(d) Require that all non-destructive testing personnel demonstrate their competency to 
assure that tested elements of Fracture Critical Members or member components are in 
compUance with this plan. 

(e) Specify material toughness values for Fracture Critical Members or member com- 
ponents. 

(f) Supplement recommendations for welding contained elsewhere in Chapter 15 and in 
the Structural Welding Code— Steel, AWS Dl.l. 

The implementation of the Fracture Control Plan for "Fracture Critical Members" will 
help to ensure that a steel bridge with critical tension components will serve a useful and 
serviceable life over the period intended in the original design. Some bridges do not have 
fracture critical members. However, it is most important to recognize them when they do exist. 
The Fracture Control Plan should not be used indiscriminately by designers to circumvent 
good engineering practice. 

Copies of these proposed additions to Chapter 15 regarding Fracture Critical Members 
are available from headquarters at the cost of reproduction, which is $3.30 for this document. 

22. Editorial revisions to Parts 1 thru 8, inclusive, as revised subsequent to comments 
received when Letter Ballot was taken. 



COMMITTEE 16— ECONOMICS OF PLANT, EQUIPMENT 
AND OPERATIONS 

The Committee recommends the following revisions to Chapter 16 of the Manual: 

Change 3.1.4 "Adhesion" paragraph 2, last sentence 

At 60 MPH, for instance may be 20 percent . . . (Rather than 15% so that it agrees with 
3.2.2.2, last sentence). 

Add to paragraph 3.1.6 "Locomotive Classification" 

Modern Diesel — Electric locomotives generally are either B-B or C-C. 

Change paragraph 3.2.3.2 item 3 to read: 

Higher safe speed on down grades because of increased braking capacity (rather than 
reliability). (Reliability of Dynamic brake is less but increased capacity allows higher speed 
with equal or greater safety). 

Change 3.3.1 Sentence 1 to read: 

A diesel electric locomotive unit is powered by a diesel engine prime mover direct coupled 
to a DC or rectified AC generator. 



Manual Recommendations 



105 



Add to material now in 3.3.3.1 

The amount of braking force will be determined by the number of traction motors, the 
current (amperes) flowing through the traction motors and the speed. Under normal condi- 
tions, braking force will drop rapidly as speed is reduced below 20 to 25 mph, and it is 
necessary to supplement the dynamic brakes with air brake application. 

Extended range dynamic brakes permit the full use of dynamic brakes at much lower train 
speeds. A typical brake force-speed diagram for a six axle locomotive with normal dynamic 
brake and with extended range dynamic brake is shown in Figure 7. 



Crid Shoftinf CwiucUfi 
Op«rau Duriaf EilandW 
Rtnft Ofntmit trtkuxg 
To Dtcraai* Total Cnd 
Ratiiunc* 



r-^ 



*Eit*»d«d Rant* Curvai kit 
Rcpaaud Al Lot>*> Valuta Fo 
Each baking L«T<r Peiilion 




DrK*B>t Brak* Rtfvlatw DBR Op«ra(*t 
To Madtiiau TractlMi Motor Flold Curronl 
And MaiaUin Tracoaa Motor Anaataro/Crid 
CorroM Al A HaiioMta of 700 Amparoi 



MILES PER HOUR 
40 



nc. 7 

DYNAMIC BRAKING CURVES 
BRAKING EFFORT/MILES PER HOUR 



With dynamic brakes, much of the force is concentrated at the head end of the train. This 
can create serious problems with excessive buff forces in the forward portion of the train, and 
for this reason may railroads limit the total number of active braking axles located at the front 
of the train. 



106 



Bulletin 690 — American Railway Engineering Association 



COMMITTEE 28— CLEARANCES 



The Committee recommends the following six figures to replace the seven appearing on 
pages 28-1-2 through 28-1-8 of Manual Chapter 28. 

1 .2 GENERAL OUTLINE 







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■Only installations necessary Par train operat ions- 
a I I owed in these areas. 

'Passenger train operat ions only 

TANGENT TRACK 

See Special Notes, page 2B-1-1, which apply to this diagram. 
Bracketed dimensions are in mm. 
Page 2B- 1 -2 



Manual Recommendations 



107 



1 .3 RAILWAY BRIDGES 









IB' 


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<2743.2> <2743.2> 

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<914.4^ 







TANGENT TRACK 

See Special Notes, page 28-1-1, which apply to this diagram. 
Bracketed dimensions are in mm. 
Page 28-1 -3 



108 



Bulletin 690— American Railway Engineering Association 



1.4 SINGLE-TRACK RAILWAY TUNNELS 











6'- 


0" 


6'- 


0" _ 










<182B 


.B> <1B28.8> 

1 








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So© Special Notes, page 2B- 1 - 1 , which apply to this diagram. 
Bracketed dimensions are in nun. 

Page 2B- 1 -4 



Manual Recommendations 



109 



<£'^89!> 



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no 



Bulletin 690 — American Railway Engineering Association 



1.6 RAILWAY SIDETRACKS AND 
INDUSTRIAL TRACKS 



















IB' 


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<5'436,4> 












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doors» 


doors • 


















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<1676.4> 


<I930-4> 















TANGENT TRACK 

So© Special Notes, page 28-1-1, which apply to this diagram. 

The 6' -4" <1930.4> dimension will accomodate cars with either 
riush slldlna doors or plug doors. Cars with hinged double doors 
require B'-O* <243B.4> clearance. Where 6'-4'' <1930.4> platPorm 
Is used. Pull clearance should be provided on the opposite side. 

* Enclosed tr I - levels and other special I zed high equipment 
will require additional door height. When necessary and 
justified, <env Iromentat controls, etc.>, railroad approval for 
reduced building clearance can be given provided approval of 
exceptions to any governmental clearance laws Is chtalned. 

Bracketed dimensions are in mm. 

Page 2B- I -6 



Manual Recommendations 



111 



<£-i'9S!> ®*"' ' ''^'^ S2 -loj <I ■10B£> A0-.6I 



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PORTFOLIO RECOMMENDATIONS 
COMMITTEE 5— TRACK 

The following changes are proposed to improve the Portfolio of Trackworlc Plans. 

Table of Contents will have: the title of Plan 350-55 corrected to Tee Rail Flares for Frog 
and Crossing Flangeways; and Plan 505-79 changed to 505-59. 

Table of Contents— Errata Section will have Plan 790-80-E-82 changed to 790-55-E-82. 

Plan 616-82 will have added section and wall thickness. 

Plans 617-82, 618-82, 619-82, and 620-82 will be corrected to include wall thickness and 
reference to Plan 616 instead of 621 in Note 3. 

Plan 761-80 will have added the title Manganese Steel Insert Crossings, Angles Below 25° 
and Above 14°15'. 



112 



PUBLISHED AS INFORMATION 



COMMITTEE 3— TIES AND WOOD PRESERVATION 

ADVANCE REPORT ON ASSIGNMENT 5 
SERVICE RECORDS 



K. C. Edscorn (Chairman, Sub-Committee); H. C. Archdeacon; L. C. CoUister; 
M. J. Crespo; E. M. Cummings; W. E. Fuhr; B. J. Gordon; C. W. Groh; J. E. Hinson; 
D. B. Mabry; H. E. Richardson; J. T. Skerczak; G. D. Summers 

Statistics providing information on cross tie renewals for 1981 as compiled by the Eco- 
nomics and Finance Department, Association of American Railroads, are presented on the 
following page in the Table shown. 

The 1981 statistics on new tie renewals by Class I, U.S. Railroads compared with 1980 are 
as follows: 

Total New Renewals 

Year Tie Renewals Per Mile 

1980 23,691,171* 88 

1981 23,627,532** 88 

By geographical districts, the Eastern Roads inserted in replacement 81 ties per mile; the 
Southern Roads 105 ties per mile and the Western Roads 88 ties per mile. Average for the 
United States was 88 ties per mile. 

"Indicated" wood tie life determined by dividing the total number of ties in track ('67 
figures) by the number of new ties inserted in 1981 is as follows: 

Eastern Roads 37 years 

Southern Roads 30 years 

Western Roads 34 years 

All US Class I Roads 34 years 

There was virtually no difference in cross tie renewals between 1980 and 1981 halting a 
steady decrease which began in 1979. Apparently maintenance which was deferred during the 
past couple of years was able to be rescheduled. The Eastern District experienced a 3.5% 
increase in renewals in 1981; an area which had seen substantial cutbacks in maintenance in 
the two prior years. The Southern District had an 11% decrease while the Western District 
continued to increase by 4.5%. 

There was no substantial change in the market in 1981 with prices continuing at about the 
same level as 1980. 



*Excludes 84,995 concrete ties and 1,005,096 secondhand ties. 
^'Excludes 313,285 concrete ties and 1,299,276 secondhand ties. 



113 



114 



Bulletin 690 — American Railway Engineering Association 



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116 Bulletin 690 — American Railway Engineering Association 



COMMITTEE 6— BUILDINGS 

EVALUATION OF JOINT CAULKINGS AND SEALANTS 



A. Forward: 

The purpose of this report is to review generic types of sealants and determine the proper 
material for each condition of use and the relative costs of each. To prevent failures from use 
of the wrong sealant and to determine proper sealant joint details and preparation. 

B. Sealant Failures Due to Improper Joint Design and Installation: 

I. Surface Preparation 

The sealant joint is no better than the surface to which it is attached. All of the rules for 
joint preparation come down to a few words ... it must be clean and dry. 

II. Masonry 

Concrete surfaces must be fully cured, clean and dry; curing aids and form release agents 
removed, if necessary, by sandblasting or grinding. Loose dust must be thoroughly brushed 
off. 

If curing or form release agents have been used, run test to determine their effect on 
adhesion of sealant. Concrete surfaces are often wet, either from retained water or rain. 
Surface may appear dry and still contain too much moisture for good bond. If this is the case, 
mechanical drying may be called for, or additional drying time may be required. 

III. Glass, Porcelain, Tile, Etc. 

Excellent seals can be made to glass and other surfaces. Absolute cleanliness is needed. 

IV. Wood 

Many sealants will adhere well to new, dry wood. If surface has been painted, it must be 
cleaned. Woods such as teak, redwood and oak contain oil which dries out very slowly. This 
type of wood may require use of primer. If wood is oil bearing, bond may develop slowly. 

Bond to painted wood is of no more value than bond of the paint to wood. Sealants will 
adhere to paint but, if possible, paint should be scraped away to expose the wood. 

V. Metal 

Seals can be made to steel, stainless steel, aluminum, brass or bronze, and most other 
metals. The surface should be wire brushed and solvent cleaned. Protective varnishes should 
be removed unless they are very firmly adhered. Baked finishes are usually as good as clean 
metal, but must be oil and wax free. Oxide films such as old aluminum, and some types of 
"rusted finish" steel, present some problems. 

VI. Primers 

Proper adhesion is an extremely important ingredient in a successful joint. In some 
circumstances, the joint material and the sealant will not generate good adhesion without a 
primer. Primers are not always desirable and may cause more problems than not using them. 
Consult the literature on the sealant and/or the product manufacturer or salesperson to 
determine if a primer is needed and which one. 



Published As Information 117 



VII. Backing Materials 

Since many joints are deeper than Vi (maximum usable depth for a sealant, usually Vi' 
is all that is necessary), a backing or filler is needed to control sealant depth. Most often used 
is a nongassing polyethylene or flexible polyurethane foam rod. If a joint is too shallow for a 
foam rod, use a polyethylene tape. 

VIII. Application 

After joint is clean, dry and backing properly placed, sealing can begin. 

Sealants can be applied by gun or knife. Two considerations must be kept in mind: 

a. Fill opening from bottom up or out; entrapped air is not a sealant. 

b. Use some force to help the sealant wet the surface; tool the joint. (See Item X) 

Sealed joint should not bulge out from excess material but be slightly concave. 

Non-sag or standard type sealant will do a very poor job of "wetting" to a rough surface 
such as concrete unless some force is applied. 

IX. Application Temperature (Winter Work) 

Water on surface to be sealed prevents the sealant from forming proper bond and 
interferes with proper adhesion. At temperatures near or below freezing, an invisible film of 
ice is usually found on exposed surfaces. It is impossible to form a bond under these condi- 
tions. If it is necessary to seal a joint when the temperature is below 40°F., the joint should 
be heated and/or wire brushed to remove ice and water immediately before application. The 
sealant should be stored at room temperature before using. Any water base sealants such as 
acrylic latex will freeze both in the tube and in the joint if not cured before freezing and the 
sealant will be destroyed. 

X. Tooling 

Surface of a sealant joint may be tooled or smoothed in order to obtain a better appear- 
ance. This tooling also has a favorable effect on obtaining seating of the sealant against the 
walls of the cavity. 

XI. Joint Movement 

The proper selection of a sealant includes the consideration of joint movement. If a joint 
that is 0.4 inches wide is anticipated to move 0.1 inches over a 130° F. temperature range, then 
the sealant selected must have a ±25% movement capability. If the same joint is expected to 
move 0.2 inches, then the sealant must have a ±50% movement capability. Knowing the 
coefficient of linear expansion of the material in which the joint occurs, it is possible to 
determine the amount of movement anticipated in a joint in any temperature gradient. 

XII. Design of Sealant Beads 

The object in joint sealant bead design is to prepare a joint which can expand in such a 
way as to stretch the sealant without applying undue force to the adhesive area. The cohesive 
strength of the sealant must not be so great as to cause a failure of the bond to the sides of 
the joint. The various sealant materials have greatly varying cohesive and adhesive strengths 
which must be taken into consideration and the following details will explain some of the 
desired characteristics of the joint design. 



118 



Bulletin 690 — American Railway Engineering Association 



Sealant 




Ratio of A:B 
should be 
about 2:1 



FIGURE 1: Good Joint Design 



Backer Rod is used 
in deep joints to 
control the sealan 
thickness. 

Sealant stretches 
without causing 
excessive stress 
on bond line. 




Normal Dimension 



Extended 



FIGURE 2: Poor Joint Design 



A:B ratio 
is too high 
Should be 2:1 



i 


. - ■■ > 


6 

f 







Sealant bead is too 
thick. Results in 
reduced stretchabil ity 
causing much higher 
stress on the bond line 
Result is bond failure. 




Normal Dimension 



Extended 



FIGURE 3: Shallow Joints 

Good Design Extended 



Poor Design Extended 




Sealant 



Polyethylene tape bond breaker allows 
sealant to stretch without resistance 
from bond to bottom of joint. 




Three sided adhesion causes 
failure because sealant can't 
stretch. 



FIGURE 4: "V" Joints 



Good Design 




Normal 



When the bond is broken at the 
bottom of the joint using tape 
or rod, the sealant can stretch 




Poor Design 




Normal 



Without the bond breaker, the 
sealant must stretch beyond its 
limits and the sealant may tear 




Extended 



Published As Information 119 



C. Sealants: 
I. Silicones: 

Usually a one-part sealant that moisture cures to a tough flexible rubber. 

A. Advantages: 

1. The best material to use where high temperatures are expected. 

2. One of the best materials for window glazing especially if the glass can magnify heat 
on the sealant. 

3. Good for use in food processing areas. 

4. Good adhesion and cohesion. 

5. Good weatherability — 20 year life. 

6. Superior performance in joints with very high movement. A low modulus silicone will 
accept 50% movement in a joint. 

B. Disadvantages: 

1. A very high cost product 

2. Not recommended for continuous water immersion. 

3. Attracts dirt. 

4. Once Silicone has been used in a joint, no other material can replace it. 

5. Many substrates require a primer for adhesion. 

6. Lower adhesive bond strength than urethane to many materials. 

7. Cannot be painted over. 

8. Not recommended for horizontal joints. 
II. Polyurethanes: 

A one or two part material that cures to a tough flexible rubber. 

A. Advantages: 

1. Good weatherability — long life, 10/20 years, depending on environment. 

2. Excellent cohesion and adhesion to most materials. 

3. Probably the most versatile sealant available. 

4. Does not attract dirt. 

5. Easy gunnability and application. 

6. Relatively long lasting under continuous water immersion. 

7. Very good flexibility for joint movement. ±25% 

8. Coal tar modified polyurethanes are available to seal around asphalt and coal tar. 

9. Moderate cost for quality material. 

B. Disadvantages: 

1. Requires primer and/or cleaner with painted metals, aluminum and stainless steel. 



120 Bulletin 690 — American Railway Engineering Association 

C. Comparison of Two Part and One Part Urethanes: 

1. Two part costs approximately 30% to 44% less than one part. 

2. Two part must be carefully mixed. 

3. Some waste usually with two part mixing. 

4. Two part is much more labor intensive and requires experienced tradesmen. 

5. Two part is chemical cure; thus, if properly mixed, is more reliably cured. One part 
is moisture cured and is more affected by temperatures and humidity. 

6. Two part is not always faster curing, but accelerators can be added to shorten curing 
time. Faster curing is important during early spring or late fall when extreme temperature 
ranges can cause severe early movement of sealant. If initial fast curing has not taken place, 
cohesive failure can occur. 

7. Any sealant that remains tacky for extended periods yvill attract more dirt. 

8. Fed. Spec. TT-S-00227E, Type II (Gun Grade), Class A. Above spec, encompasses 2 
pt. elastomeric sealants. 

Fed. Spec. TT-S-00230C, Type II, Class A. Spec, is for one component elastomeric 
sealants. 

III. Solvent Acrylics A non-curing sealant remaining flexible, but with low recovery. 

A. Advantages: 

1. Long lasting caulk which remains sticky and has fairly good weathering properties. 

2. Considered "self heahng" which means, if it ruptures, it will return to monolithic state 
if again compressed. However, if dirt or dust contaminates the rupture, the product cannot self 
heal. 

3. Can be used in joints with small movements. 

4. Very sticky, has good adhesive properties. 

B. Disadvantages: 

1 . Some have very disagreeable odor while curing. Check the particular product for odor. 

2. Limited to 7% to 15% joint activity, not for large joint movements. 

3. Not for use under water nor where subjected to foot traffic or with acrylics or poly- 
carbonates. 

4. Some tendency to become dirty. 

IV. Acrylic Latex 

A low priced sealant to be used indoors in non-moving joints. 
A. Advantages: 

1. Primary advantage is cost. 

2. Good gunnability and workable sealant. 

3. Adequate for indoor door and window joints, etc. 

4. Easily painted over and fast curing. 



Published As Information 121 



B. Disadvantages: 

1. Not recommended for exterior use as it dries with weathering, becomes brittle and 
cracks. Rain will wash it away if uncured. 

2. Low flexibility and poor recovery, thus not recommended in moving joints. 

3. Susceptible to freezing either in tubes, cans, or if sealant bead freezes before com- 
pletely cured. If freezing occurs, the material is destroyed. 

4. Not for use in wet areas. 

V. Polysulfides: 

A one or two part polysulfide based synthetic rubber sealant. 

A. Advantages: 

1. Superior sealant for continuous submersion in liquids such as swimming pools, water 
reservoirs, wastewater treatment plants, cooling towers, fountains, etc. 

2. Excellent resistance to many chemicals; however, the particular chemicals should be 
verified with the product manufacturer. 

B. Disadvantages: 

1. As a product of the petroleum industry, polysulfides have become very expensive. 

2. Deteriorate in ultraviolet exposure, sunlight. 

C. Recommendation: 

1. Except as needed for the times listed under advantages, where polysulfides have 
superior performance, other sealants will perform as well or better at lower cost for all other 
conditions. 

VI. Butyls 

A flexible sealant that cures to a rubber. Not recommended as a general construction 
sealant. 

A. Advantages: 

1. Relatively inexpensive. 

2. Usually used as glazing beads around glass in autos. 

B. Disadvantages: 

1. Should not be used as a construction sealant as any exposure to weathering and 
ultraviolet causes deterioration. Should be completely shielded or enclosed. 

2. Has poor adhesion. 

3. If exposed, it leaches out an oily substance and ages rapidly, turning brittle. 

VII. Neoprenes 

A versatile black sealant that cures to a flexible rubber. 

A. Advantages: 

1. A good sealant for sealing and repairing cracks in roof surfaces, flashing, gutters, 
downspouts, and tacking down shingles. 



122 Bulletin 690 — American Railway Engineering Association 

2. Dries to touch in 4 hours, cures in 3 to 7 days. 

3. Good resistance to oil, gasoline, grease, chemicals, and sunlight. 

4. When fully cured, can expand and contract with joint movement up to 100% with full 
recovery. 

5. Has good adhesion and cohesion. 

6. Has life expectance of 20 years. 
B. Disadvantages: 

1. Only color available is black. 

2. Should not be applied below 40° F. 

3. Fairly high shrinkage, 35%. 

VIII. Hypalon 

A sealant made from synthetic hypalon rubber that cures to a durable flexible rubber. 

A. Advantages: 

1. Good life expectancy, 20 years. 

2. Resistant to ultraviolet, ozone and general weathering. 

3. Paintable surface. 

4. Good adhesion and cohesion. 

5. Non-staining. 

6. Good shelf life — 1 year at 70° F. 

7. Can be used with most common building materials. 

8. Excellent elongation and recovery. 

B. Disadvantages: 

1. The major disadvantage is a very long cure time of 30 to 120 days. Any large joint 
movement during cure will cause deformation of the sealant bead; therefore, it is not generally 
recommended in joints with large movement unless the joint will not move during cure. In 
non-moving or joints with moderate movement, the sealant should perform well. 

2. The sealant is not recommended for interior use due to its long cure time. 

3. Cost is relatively high. 

IX. Oil Base 

A non-curing, very inexpensive caulk, not generally recommended for general construc- 
tion. 

A. Advantages: 
1. Low cost. 

B. Disadvantages: 

1. Oils leach out causing staining and contamination of the joint, making it almost 
impossible to use any other sealant to replace it. 

2. Very poor weathering resistance which causes drying out, brittleness and cracking. 



Published As Information 123 



3. Have a very short life expectancy. 

4. Poor adhesion and cohesion. 

5. Attracts dirt. 

D. Recommendations: 

If any t\pe of sealant could be selected for most construction materials and exterior 
applications, the choice would most often be the polyurethanes. They adhere to most materi- 
als, have excellent life expectancy, are moderate in cost, have excellent resilience, and are 
somewhat more forgiving to inexperienced application. 

In certain glazing and curtainwall applications, silicone sealants should be considered. 

For interior nonmoving joint applications, a lower cost sealant such as acrylic latex can 
be considered. 

Around roofs and roofing materials, consider the neoprenes. 

Always evaluate a sealant based on compatibility with substrate, flexibility compared to 
joint movement, smell, fumes, temperature at application and operating temperature and 
weatherability or life expectancy. 

Since the failure of a sealant can be very expensive, the selection of a top grade sealant 
is important, especially since in most jobs the cost of the sealant is a very minor part of the 
overall cost of the project. 



COMMITTEE 13— ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING 

Report of Subcommittee No. 1 



Sophisticated industrial treatment plants utilizing gravity separation, dissolved air floata- 
tion, chemical treatment and pH adjustment, as well as sludge treatment, are commonplace 
on most large railroads to handle discharges from diesel shop, fueling, and car cleaning 
operations. This necessitates providing state approved operators, in most instances, to effec- 
tively operate these plants. 



124 



Bulletin 690 — American Railway Engineering Association 



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Published As Information 129 



COMMITTEE 22— ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY 
CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE 



Report of Subcommittee No. 1 



"Analysis of Operation of Railways that liave Substantially Reduced the Cost of Construction 
and Maintenance of Way Work" 

B.G. Hudson (Chairman — Subcommittee No. 1), R.W. Bailey, M.H. Dick, 

W.J. English, P. Fatula, T.D. Mason, J.M. Rankin, M.S. Reid, M. Rougas, 

R.W. Simmons, E.H. Steel, J.T. Sullivan, J.D. Vaughan, T.P. Woll, B.J. Worley 

Commentary on the subcommittee's walking tour of FAST was submitted to headquarters 
and is available there for reference. 



Report of Subcommittee No. 5 



"Yard Rehabilitation" 

H.G. Webb and N.E. Smith (Chairman — Subcommittee No. 5), J. Hunsberger, 

G. Liljeblad, CD. Barton, D. Boger, G.M. Christy, J.R. Clark, E.Q. Johnson, 

R.D. Johnson, J.R. Miller, J. A. Naylor, M.S. Reid, M. Rougas, W.B. Stackhouse, 

E.H. Steel, W. Thompson, G.E. Warfel, D. Worfel 

(A condensed version of the report is published below) 

This study will endeavor to establish guidelines on how to go about upgrading your 
railroads' yards including an example of a yard inspection form. A questionnaire was sent out 
to the committee as well as other railroads to get an overall opinion of how most Chief 
Engineers would accomplish this most difficult task. Fourteen railroads responded with a 
rather surprising consistency in their opinions. Three of the answering railroads had under 
1,000 miles of track with as few as 15 yards, eight railroads had over 10,000 miles of track with 
as many as 600 yards. Thus, it can be seen a considerable cross-section of the railroads' yard 
problems, and their recommended solutions, were received. 

In the reporting of the importance placed on their yards, it was interesting to note that 
about two-thirds of all main Hne yards were classed as "important", while less than one-half 
of the branch line yards were called "important." This might tend to be more of an operational 
classification than a maintenance classification. Most important main line yards were reported 
to be in fair to good condition. In response to rating the general condition of their yards as 
poor, fair or good; unimportant main line yards were rated as fair; important branch line yards 
were rated as fair to poor; and unimportant branch line yards were rated as poor. We would 
imagine these ratings are as much as one might have expected. 

Seventy-eight percent of those responding said they were planning some type of a yard 
upgrading or rehabilitation on their railroads. The following is a general consensus of their 
recommendations on how to proceed with the task of rehabilitating a railroad's yards: 

I. First define the overall problem. 



130 Bulletin 690 — American Railway Engineering Association 



II. Establish criteria, goals, and budget limits. 

III. Establish an inspection party. 

IV. Define the inspection party duties. 

V. Analyze the inspection party reports and set priorities; establish both long- and 
short-range plans. 

VI. Set system established methods for yard rehabihtation. 

VII. Establish supervision, goals, and system of project control and monitoring. 

Now let's see in more definitive terms how these recommendations can be accompHshed. 
First, a definition of rehabilitation is to imply restoration of a yard to its original condition, 
with perhaps the installation of heavier or at least welded rail to meet today's heavier wheel 
loads. Upgrading would be defined to imply rehabilitation and improvement in track config- 
uration, modulus, grades, turnouts, track centers, automatic controls and such to meet today's 
technology and yard operation demands. This study will give some guidelines on how to go 
about upgrading your yards. It surely will not and could not establish a set procedure for any 
railroad or any yard since there never seems to be two alike in problems or solutions. 

In defining overall yard condition problems, the first thing to do is collect all available 
data to include plats, engineering data on locations and sizes of the yards, and their track 
details. From these a list should be made showing all pertinent information in an easy-to- 
analyze order. A person with a good general knowledge of the railroad should then be 
designated to establish the operating importance classification of these yards. In addition, a 
general condition, from top engineering officers, can be added to the list to assist in establish- 
ing the most critical yards. These two ratings can be of considerable assistance when making 
the decision of just where to start. 

A most difficult to define decision must then be estabhshed, before proceeding, and that 
is just what do you want to accomplish. What class of rehabilitation do you want to accomplish 
in each class of yard? This definition must be in all phases of work to be done; that is, ties, 
rail (both body and lead), ballast, turnouts, drainage, and so on. Of course, another approach 
is to go out and get the specific present condition of designated yards and then establish the 
criteria of the rehabilitation to be accomplished. In either approach, once the Hst is established 
and a designation placed on which yards are to be worked, the recommended approach is to 
establish an inspection party to make an on-the-ground inspection of each yard. 

The inspection team should consist of a system maintenance of way supervisor, a local 
division engineer, roadmaster, and a system or local operating officer. This inspection team 
will only inspect pre-selected yards and should not try to encompass the entire system. Some 
form of consistency of the inspection should be established. Attached in Exhibit "A" and "B" 
is a sample of a yard inspection report which will give the inspection party a means of reporting 
the same information on each yard. With this standard type report, it is easier for the Chief 
Engineer to establish his final priorities. The inspection team would be expected to report the 
condition of the following track details: 

1. Main line running track ties. 

2. Main line running tack turnouts. 

3. Yard track lead — line and surface. 

4. Body track — line and surface. 

5. Switch ties — ^leads. 



Published As Information 



131 



DIVISION 



DATE INSPN. 



EXHIBIT "A" 
YARD INSPECTION REPORT 



Sh. 



of 



DISTRICT 



INSPN. PARTY 



YARD 



MP LOCATION 



TO 



FACTUAL DATA: 
M.L. Track— Ln. Ft. 

M.L. Turnouts — No. 

Turnouts — Other 

Body Tracks — No. 

Body Tracks — Ln. Ft. 



COMMENTS: (Operation— Designation) 



6. Body track ties. 

7. Lead turnouts — switch material. 

8. Body tracks — rail. 

9. Body tracks— OTM. 
10. Lead — ballast. 

n. Body tracks — ballast. 

12. Drainage — leads. 

13. Drainage — body tracks. 

14. Walkways. 

15. Mechanical inspection facilities. 

In making this inspection, the team should make a rather detailed spot check to determine 
the entire yard's needs. The following is the recommended percentage of each track's details 
to be checked: 



132 



Bulletin 690 — American Railway Engineering Association 



U 























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Published As Information 133 



Cross ties — 30% of all tracks. 

Body track rail — 50% of all tracks. 

Switch ties — 100% of all turnouts. 

Turnouts — 100% of all turnouts. 

Ballast — General condition 50%. 

Drainage — Use local supervisor's advice and general observations. 

To assist the inspection party, they should be provided with: 

A. A plat or map of the entire yard with track designations and lengths. 

B. Present use or traffic of the yard. 

C. Predicted use or traffic changes in the yard. 

D. Changes in yard operations. 

The inspection party would be expected to estimate the resources needed to rehabilitate 
the yard to the level designated. They would be expected to equate this estimate to material, 
labor, machinery, and other needs. This estimate would then be roughly equated to dollars in 
both operating and capital funds needed. At the end of the inspection of all yards designated, 
the inspection party would establish its recommended priorities of work to be accomplished. 

Once the field inspection is complete and reports and recommendations of the inspection 
party are submitted, it is then the Chief Engineer's responsibility to establish final system 
priorities. These priorities should be established using the following guidelines as criteria and 
are listed in order of recommended importance: 

1. Present use or traffic. 

2. Field inspection report of the yard. 

3. Derailment statistics. 

4. Money available. 

5. Local M of W supervisor recommendation. 

6. Local operating supervisor recommendation. 

7. Predicted use because of operational changes and forecasted traffic. 

8. Management dictate. 

In the establishment of priorities, some consideration should be given to analyzing the 
yard in relation to upgrading instead of rehabilitation. In this consideration, a network analysis 
should be performed to insure the yard is properly located for railroad operations and alter- 
native locations established. Perform present and forecasted demand analyses to determine if 
the yard is properly configured as to number and length of tracks for all phases of operations 
such as receiving yards, classification yards and marshalling areas. An additional consideration 
is a possible consolidation of various yards to improve utilization, operations and efficiency. 
Another consideration in a major upgrading and rehabilitation is to perform profiles over 
humps, switching ladders and classification tracks. Consideration of increasing turnout size, 
track centers, crossover locations and runaround tracks should be made. 

Once the final priorities for the yard rehabilitations have been set by the Chief Engineer, 
a cost benefit analysis should be performed to add an additional incentive to upper manage- 



134 Bulletin 690 — American Railway Engineering Association 



ment that the recommended rehabilitation is a valuable project to the company from both an 
operational improvement and an economical expenditure. In this calculation, the following 
are recommended to be included in the savings that will occur following the rehabiHtation: 

1. Reduce engine hours per car handled. 

2. Reduce engine cfew labor. 

3. Fuel savings. 

4. Reduced loss and damage. 

5. Reduced car hire. 

If the cost benefit analysis does not prove to be of sufficient amount to be thought sellable, 
the following details could be presented to prove the need of the rehabilitation: 

1. Field inspection report of the facility. 

2. Derailment statistics including estimated costs. 

3. Present and predicted traffic. 

4. Local operating management recommendations. 

Once the yard rehabilitations have been presented to the Vice President of Operations for 
final approval of priorities and funding, the establishment of short- and long-range goals is 
well-advised. In this matter, the overall plan of the railroad's yard rehabilitation can be kept 
in proper perspective beyond a one-year plan. The next step is to establish a system method 
of operation for the performance of the designated rehabilitation task. 

A comprehensive plan should be made for each separate yard rehabilitation. It is recom- 
mended that a Division level supervisor be assigned to the rehabilitation job. The work should 
be done with extra gang forces and not by trying to accomplish the work using section crews. 
Rehabilitation of the body tracks should be accomplished by using three tracks at a time during 
daylight eight hour shifts, giving back one track each night to yard operations. Night work is 
not recommended due to lost efficiency, safety, and the fact that little operating savings can 
be achieved since most yard switching is performed around the clock. 

Some form of checklist or progress report on the rehabilitation plan should be estab- 
lished. This will allow the Chief Engineer to keep abreast of the work, as well as the funds 
expended. This will also give him current information to convey to upper management as 
opportunities present. 

The following are recommendations in performing various rehabilitation tasks: 

Body Track Ties — Renew only the bad ties by using standard tie gang operations with the 
possible addition of a track jack and the assistance of cranes and work trains to carry ties into 
the yard job and remove bad order ties to a remote area. 

Body Track Rail — Replace with welded rail if funds allow. If not, then replace only the 
broken rails, bars and bolts necessary. 

Turnouts — Renew completely by panel method either constructing alongside the lead or 
at a remote facility. This will be necessary due to the limited track time on the lead and the 
normal deteriorated condition of the complete turnout. If this is not possible due to funds, 
then only replacement of the individual bad order parts is recommended. 

Switch Ties — If the turnout is renewed by the panel method, then 100% of the switch ties 
would have been replaced. If not, then only the replacement of bad order ties is recommended 
using a conventional switch tie gang. 



Published As Information 135 



Ballast — Dump necessary additional new ballast and raise over the old ballast, thus using 
it as a sub-ballast. If clearances are a problem, then undercutting may be necessary. 

Walkways — In the final dress after surfacing, screenings must be added and compacted 
to walkways to insure safety of yard operations crews. 

Road Crossings — Recommend complete renewal. 

Fabrics — Recommend using only at selected locations. No out-of-face use is recom- 
mended. The use under turnouts, ladders, crossings, or even body tracks known to have 
problems may be of some help. 

Drainage — Any rehabilitation plan of a yard must recognize the problem of drainage. 
Most yards suffer seriously from a lack of good drainage. Although the recommendations from 
this study are to handle the drainage problems separately from the overall rehabilitation, due 
to its solution normally being a much larger problem, it is felt every effort must be made to 
carry out these projects at the same time or even before all the other work is being accom- 
plished. Such drainage rehabilitation projects, such as cleaning ditches, surface drains, inlets 
and storm sewers, should be included in the study and work to be performed. Drainage 
problems with their recommended solutions must be included in the rehabilitation study. 

It is thought the following life can be expected from each of the yard components shown: 

Cross Ties — 26 to 50 years 

Body Track Rail — 26 to 50 years 

Switch Ties — 16 to 25 years 

Turnouts — Lead — 16 to 25 years 

Turnouts — Other — 26 to 50 years 

Ballast — Less than 15 years 

In summary, yard rehabilitations are a necessary maintenance function. This work cannot 
be left to daily maintenance forces because the task is just too great. Considerably more 
planning must be done to efficiently perform the needed work in an orderly and economical 
manner. Yard rehabilitation must be accomplished in priority order, thus getting the most 
used-most needed repaired first. An on-the-ground field inspection must be performed by 
knowledgeable track maintenance supervisors along with supervisors who know the oper- 
ations of the yard. From these detailed inspections, the Chief Engineer must designate final 
system priority and establish methods in which the job is to be performed. To insure a 
continuing rehabilitation of all yards, a short- and long-range plan must be established, thus 
committing upper management to the entire plan of improving the yards of the railroad. 



Report of Subcommittee No. 7 

"Economics of Variable Working Hours in Maintenance of Way Functions" 

G. Liljeblad (Chairman — Subcommittee No. 7), H.B. Berkshire, D.J. Bertel, 
D.L. Boger, H.R. Davis, H.B. Durrant, C.R. Harrell, W.H. Hoar, W.A. MacDonald, 
M.J. Marlow, K.A. Olsen, G.S. Pearson, C.L. Robinson, R.W. Simmons, J.T. Sullivan, 

J.T. Ward, D. Worfel 

Your committee submits the following report as information. 



136 Bulletin 690 — American Railway Engineering Association 



The following questionaire was circulated to the member roads and thirty-four responses 
were received. A tabulation of the replies indicating various special work agreements in force 
and their economic effect follows the questionnaire. 

Objective of the Study 

The committee recognizes that Maintenance of Way operations which include production 
gangs, as well as multi-shift maintenance crews, require special work agreements with the 
employee brotherhoods to maximize productivity and reduce costs. The survey report sum- 
marizes the contracts negotiated by the several responding carriers with their Maintenance of 
Way union for the information of the industry. 

Summary 

Of the thirty-four completed questionnaires received, twenfy-orie indicated special labor 
agreements in effect. The Brotherhood of Maintenance of Way Employees is party to twenty 
and United Steelworkers with the one remaining. 

Each special agreement is designed to cope with a particular problem, and it is evident 
that considerable success has been achieved in solution of those problems to the benefit of the 
parties. As an example, several member roads indicated that production gangs work all of the 
work days in a month consecutively to completion, prior to taking their accumulated rest days 
earned in the period. No penalty pay is required, regardless of hohday or other calendar day 
worked, however, hoUdays are observed on what would be the last work day of the work 
period. Special work weeks of three — thirteen-hour days or four — ten-hour days are also 
utilized as appropriate to maximize track time and equipment utilization. Variable starting 
times for the work day have been negotiated by several carriers in excess of the national norm. 

Economies resulting from the various agreements vary from percent to an estimated 50 
percent, compared to previous practice. 

Several respondents commented that the union involved had been very cooperative in 
negotiating the necessary agreements, and the results were quite satisfactory from the manage- 
ment viewpoint in reducing absenteeism, increasing production, and stabilizing the work 
force. 

Response to the question regarding night work for production crews is largely negative. 
Of the nine replies which indicated experience, two stated statisfactory results. However, the 
necessity to expand night work, regardless of added cost, is recognized by others. 

Overall, the data submitted displays positive results by management and labor in solving 
some of the productivity and labor relations problems generated by a high degree of mechani- 
zation and the need to maintain maximum continuity of rail service. 

Questionnaire Sent to Member Roads 

1 . Are your Track and B&B employees represented by Brotherhood of Maintenance of Way 
Employees? 

Yes No 

Other (Please Indicate)__ 

2. Have you negotiated special agreements with the Brotherhood of Maintenance of Way 
Employees or other representatives to permit: 

a. change of starting time of shift beyond normal one hour allowable? 
Yes No 

b. special work week such as four — ten hour days, three — twelve hour days plus one — 
four hour day, etc? 

Yes No 



Published As Information 137 



c. Special work month such as twenty — eight hour consecutive days with rest days then 
consecutive for balance of month? 
Yes No 



d. special night shifts? 
Yes No_ 



e. other special arrangements such as variable starting day for work week, etc? 

Yes No 

Are you interested in any of the above if not already in operation? 

Yes No 

3. If Question No. 2 is answered yes, please describe operation involved, special agreement, 
and penalty or premium pay, if any. Copies of rules and/or agreement involved would be 
appreciated. 



4. How long has the special agreement been in effect? 

5. Please comment on the work ability of the agreement regarding productivity, equipment 
utilization, and maintenance. 



6. Is your maintenance of way equipment maintained by Brotherhood of Maintenance of 
Way Employees also? 

Yes No 

7. Please comment on any unusual arrangements necessary for maintenance of equipment 
associated with the special shift work agreement. 



8. To what extent is associated gang equipment protected by backup or standby machines? 



9. Is the special agreement performing as expected from a labor relations point of view? 



From labor cost point of view? 



10. Can you estimate in percentage the labor cost saving compared to the alternate method? 



11. If you have experience in operating a production crew after dark (i.e. surfacing), please 
comment on the practicability and productivity. 



138 



Bulletin 690 — American Railway Engineering Association 



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O H W CO C/l CO ; 



MEMOIRS 

George D. Brooke 
1878-1982 

George D. Brooke, former AREA president and the AREA's oldest living member, died 
August 23, 1982, less than one month before his 104th birthday. 

Brooke was born on September 15, 1878 — the son of a country doctor. He graduated from 
Virginia Military Institute in 1900 at the top of his class, went to work for the B&O Railroad 
in 1902, became an AREA member in 1907, was elected to the AREA Board of Direction in 
1926, and was AREA president from 1930 to 1931. He later became president of the Chesa- 
peake and Ohio, Nickel Plate, and Pere Marquette Railroads, which were affiliated at that 
time. Upon reaching the mandatory retirement age of 65 on those railroads in 1943, he went 
to work for the Virginia Railway (now part of N&W), retiring from that railroad as chairman 
of the board in 1959 when he was 80 years old. 

Louis T. Cerny 



Alfred Hedefine 
1906-1981 

Alfred Hedefine, a distinguished bridge and structural engineer, died on January 26, 
1981, in Englewood, New Jersey. He directed the design of many notable bridges, including 
the Newport suspension bridge in Rhode Island, the Arthur Kill Bridge between Staten Island 
and New Jersey, and the Fremont Bridge at Portland, Oregon. He was a member of AREA 
from 1952 until his death, serving 21 years on Committee 15 as an active member and eight 
years as a member emeritus. 

He was born in Newport News, Virginia, March 9, 1906. He studied civil engineering at 
Rutgers University (BSCE 1929) and the University of Illinois (MSCE 1931, CE 1942). 

Hedefine began his engineering career with Waddell & Hardesty, where he worked on the 
design of the Mill Basin bascule bridge of the Belt Parkway in Brooklyn. This was followed 
by the design of the Marine Parkway vertical lift bridge in Brooklyn, the Rainbow Arch over 
Niagara Gorge, and the St. George's tied arch over the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, each 
of which established new standards for excellence in Bridge Design for its type. 

Alfred Hedefine was selected to prepare the structural designs for the Trylon and Peri- 
sphere, the theme buildings for the 1939 New York World's Fair. His paper on those designs 
won for him the Thomas Fitch Rowland prize of the American Society of Civil Engineers in 
1942. 

In 1948 Hedefine moved to Parsons, Brinckerhoff, Hall and MacDonald, where he 
started as head of the bridge department. He was admitted to the partnership in 1952. He 
became subsequently a Senior Vice President of Parsons, Brinckerhoff, Ouade & Douglas, 
Inc., and served as President from 1965 until his retirement in the early 1970's. While at 
Parsons Brinckerhoff he was responsible for pioneering efforts in the planning, design, and 
construction of bridges, tunnels, rapid transit systems, airfields, and marine terminals 
throughout the world. 

Among Hedefine's many outstanding bridge projects, the Arthur Kill Railroad Bridge 
between Staten Island and New Jersey still holds the record (558 feet) as the world's longest 
vertical lift span. The Newport Bridge across Narragansett Bay in Rhode Island, New En- 

145 



146 Bulletin 690 — American Railway Engineering Association 



gland's longest span, includes a pioneering use of shop-fabricated parallel wire strands in a 
suspension bridge. The Fremont Bridge in Portland, Oregon, is the world's fourth longest arch 
and the longest tied arch. 

Hedefine was active in many other professional societies, including the International 
Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering, for which he served on the U.S. Council 
and the International Permanent Committee Policy-Making Body. He was a Fellow of the 
American Society of Civil Engineers, serving in various offices from 1942 to 1954, and of the 
American Isntitute of Consulting Engineers. His other professional memberships included the 
Society of American Military Engineers, the National Society of Professional Engineers, the 
Engineering Institute of Canada, and The Moles (the honorary tunnehng fraternity). 

His academic attainments earned him membership in Phi Beta Kappa, Tau Beta Pi, and 
Sigma Xi — one of the few individuals ever to receive high recognition in liberal arts, engineer- 
ing, and science. He was a member of the National Academy of Engineering and of the New 
York Academy of Science. In 1975 he was awarded an honorary degree of Doctor of Science 
by Rutgers University, where he was a member of the Board of Trustees and active in many 
of its committees. 

He is survived by his wife, the former Julia Ann Fullagar, a son, Alfred II and three 
grandchildren. 

Committee 15 — Steel Structures 



Raymond T. Reilly 
1890-1982 

Raymond T. Reilly, chairman of the board, Conley Frog & Switch Company, Memphis, 
Tennessee, died May 20, 1982, at his home at the age of 92. 

Ray Reilly served Conley Frog & Switch Company 39 years in many capacities, including 
financial and manufacturing areas, after joining the company in 1943 as vice president. He 
established the Conley Forge Division in September 1943. He became president in 1944 and 
chairman of the board in 1967. 

He became a member of the AREA in 1952 and a hfe member in 1981. He was a veteran 
of World War I having served in the Army Corps of Engineers with the Allied Expeditionary 
Forces in France. He was an active and contributing member of many engineering societies as 
well as civic and charitable organizations, giving generously of time and financial assistance. 

He is survived by his wife, Ruth Besley Reilly of Memphis, as well as four children, 
Thomas R. Reilly, Fremont, Nebraska; William C. Reilly, Memphis, Tennessee; Barbara Jean 
Knox, Longmont, Colorado; and John E. Reilly, Denver, Colorado. 

Committee 5 — Track 



Turn Your 
Rail and Track 
Material Problem 
Over... 

To A&K 



You'll talk to a specialist. He'll 
understand your questions, you'll 
understand his answers. 

You'll deal with the largest supplier 
of relaying rail and track material 
in the Gnited States. From the 
commonplace to the obscure, 
we have the supplies you need . . . 
on hand. 

You'll get action. With their 
24-hour-a-day communications 
network and 38 storage yards 
coast to coast, our national 
operations team will get your 
order moving. Fast. 



ASK FOR OGR FREE CATALOG, TODAY 




A & K Railroad Materials, Inc. 

P.O. Box 30076 
Salt Lake City, aT8413C 
Call Toil-Free (800) 453-881 2 
TLX 389-406 A&KSLC 





Neoprene 
Bridge Bearing 
Pads 



Meets A.R.E.A 
specifications 




Neoprene bearings 
between bridge 
girders, beams, and 
abutments absorb 
thermal expansion 
and contraction 
better than mechanical 
assemblies. 

Neoprene's resistance 
to weather-aging, 
compression set, oil, 
and ozone insures a 
long service life and 
no maintenance in 
this application. 

Use Neoprene Bearing Pads for 
Elevated roads, Walk ways, Col 



• Accommodates thermal 
movement 

• Provides uniform load" 
transfer 

• Prevents structural fatigue 
from expansion-contraction 
and vibration-shock 

• Available in hardness, 
durometer A, grades 50, 60, 
and 70 

• Neoprene bearing pads 
withstand temperatures from 
-50° to +200° F. 

• Durable and maintenance-free 

• Isolates components of 

- bridges, building, or structures 
against vibration, noise, and 
shock 

Rails, Bridge spans, Approach ramps, 
umn to footing isolation. 



H L E ^ I manufa during and supply co. 



1848 Wilmot Avenue • Chicago, III. 60647 
Phone:(312)452-6480 




TRACKS 



AVERY 

DURABRITE 

SHEETING 

When Safety Is First. 

Railroad crossings are serious 
business. To assure safe visibility, 
remember our name, Avery. 

First, there was Avery's Fasign® 



QM 



Engineer Grade. Our top of the line 
beaded reflective sheeting. In 
flexibility, quality, and superior 
performance, you couldn't find 
a better value. We even backed 
it with Avery's 7-year warranty. 
Now we've gone one step 
further, one step safer. Introducing 
Durabrite™ Hi-Intensity Grade Reflective Sheeting. 
With a unique prismatic design, it has 372 times the 
specific Intensity of most beaded reflective sheeting. 




That means greater visibility around the clock. And 
"Durabrite" Hi-Intensity Grade is tough, too. With a 
unique, solvent-resistant film, "Durabrite" is protected 
against severe handling, vandalism and harsh 
weather. For all your railroad signage and 
markings, remember "Durabrite" Hi-Intensity 
and "Fasign" Engineer Grade products from 
Avery. The first name when 
safety is first. 

Avery International 

Reflective Products 

250 Chester Street Painesville, Ohio 44077 (216)352-4444 





The Allegheny Insulated Rail Joint 

Designed to withstand the heaviest traffic 
in welded rail 



This modern joint cements rail ends in position and thereafter 
resists all forces imposed by temperature and simultaneous forces 
of live loads to move them. 

This joint makes welded rail truly continuous. It promises you years 
of service v/ithout maintenance costs. It reduces rail and wheel batter 
^o a previously unknown minimum. It employs the safety of steel splice 
bars. It can be assembled in the shop or field. It has been tested in 
service and AAR laboratories. It saves you lots of money. 

Allegheny Drop Forge Company 

Subsidiary of Tasa Corporation 



2707 Preble Avenue • Pittsburgh, Pa. 15233 




Quality and Progress 
1924 ^Gi^ 1982 for 58 years 
\_J7 in Chemicals and 

Application . . . 

RAILROAD VEGETATION CONTROL 

The R.H. Bogle Company 

P.O. Box 588 
ALEXANDRIA, VIRGINIA 22313 

Memphis, Tenn. Alva, Okla. 

Jacksonville, Fla. 



Bridges, General and 
Incidental Construction, Grading 
Gravel, and Crushed Stone Surface, 
and Railroad Structures 

EDWARD KRAEMER 

and 

SONS, INC. 

General Contractor Plain, Wisconsin 53577 Phone:546-2311 



ESCO 



• Rail Saws — Drills — Abrasive Saws 

• Anchor Applicators — Trak-Skans 

• Boutet — Field Welds 

• Grinding Wheels — Cut-Off Wheels 

• Yard Cleaners — Switch Undercutters 
Tie Destroyer — Welded Rail Trains 
Track Patrols — Portable Ramps 

Tie Un loaders — Tower Cars 

• Hydraulic Testers — System Fuel Trucks 

• Rail Welding — Hydr. Rail Stressors 

CHICAGO, IL — 312 939-0840 

PHILADELPHIA, PA — 215 752-0133 

ST. LOUIS, MO — 314 421-6499 



BURRO 

LOCOMOTIVE CRANES 



and 

MAINT^NANCE-OF-WAY 

ACCESSORIES 

• Panel Track Lifters 

• Multi-rail Lifters 

• Rail Threaders — CWR or Jointed 

• Rail Tongs 

• Ditching and Brush Cutting 
Equipment 

• Modernization and OSHA 
Equipment Kits 



BURRO 



BURRO CRANE INC. 

1300 S. Kilbourn Ave. Chicago, III. 60623 
312/521-9200 



CONSTRUCTION 
EQUIPMENT 



• Hi-Rail Telescoping 
Boom-Type Excavators 

• Hydraulic Excavator — 
Tractor-Type Crawler 

• Hydraulic 40 & 55 Ton 
Self-propelled Cranes 




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT CO. 

DIVISION OF BURRO-BADGER CORP 
1 300 S. Kilbourn Ave. Chicago, III. 60623 
312/521-9200 



INOVimVE NEW RAIL 




intermeciiate 
Strength" Rail. 
A lot more rail 
for a lot less 
than you think. 

CF&I has succeeded in producing 
a superior carbon rait at a very 
economical price. 

"Intermediate Strength" Rail has 
a guaranteed minimum Brinell 
hardness 8.5% above the 
minimum standard carbon rail 
hardness. The average hardness of 
the new rail is an 18.5% increase 
over standard carbon rail. 

With its improved hardness and 
yield strength, "Intermediate 
Strength" Rail is capable of serving 
in either tangent track or light 
curved track. 

Available for your immediate 
requirements in standard and long 
lengths, "Intermediate Strength" 
Rail is an innovative breakthrough 
from CF&I. For more information, 
write Railroad Sales Department, 
RO. Box 1830, Pueblo, 
Colorado 81002, or 
call (303) 561-6000. 



A subsidiary of Crane Co. 





Quality Steel Making People 



RIGHT ON 




Chevron industrial weed i 



Get in touch with your nearest distributor: 



Asplundh Tree Expert Co. 

Blair Mill Road 
Willow Grove,PA 19090 

The R. H. Bogle Co. 

R 0. Box 588 
Alexandria, VA 22313 



Washburn Agricultural Servio 
Rt. 1, Box 2650 
Davis, CA 95616 

J. C. Ehrlich Chemical Co., Inc 

800 Heister Land 

Reading, PA 19605 

Spray Services, Inc. 

4711 Piedmont Road 

Huntington, W. VA 25704 



THE TRACK! 

Today literally thousands of miles of railroad track are kept free of weeds 
and grasses with two efficient weed killers from ORTHO— Chevron 
Industrial Weed & Grass Killer and Diquat 2 Spray. These herbicides 
kill weeds and grasses on contact, with extraordinary speed. You 
can begin to see results just hours after spraying. Both materials stay 
active even at low temperatures. 

While Chevron Industrial Weed & Grass Killer is a Restricted Use 
Pesticide, Diquat 2 Spray is not. Both materials are non-explosive 
and non-flammable. They're water soluble and rapidly absorbed by 
weeds so you don't have to worry about rain ruining your spray 
job after application. Both of these effective contact weed killers are 
compatible with most residual herbicides on railroads. 

Use one of ORTHO's dependable weed killers in conjunction 
with your regular herbicide program and reduce the problem of weed 
escapes. For best results, apply with ORTHO X-77 Spreader 



DANGER Paraquat is highly toxic it swallowed and should be kept 
out of the reach of children To prevent accidental ingestion, never 
transfer to food drink or other containers Read the label carefully 
and follow all directions danger statements and worker safety 
rules Restricted Use Pesticide Use all chemicals only as directed 



"^ Ortho 

Chevron Chemical 
Company 

Grass Killer- contains Paraquat. 



Railroad Weed Control, Inc. Applied Chemical Division 
Lockhouse Road Mobley Co., Inc. 

Turnpike Industrial Park P. 0. Box 1640 

Westfield, Mass 01085 Kilgore, TX 75662 

For additional information contact: 

CHEVRON CHEMICAL CO., SPECIALTY SALES 

P.O. Box 3744, San Francisco, CA 94119 

Phone 415-894-3750 



The tough couple 
for weed control. 



If you need a tough couple for 
right-of-way weed control, ask for 
Ontrack 8E® and Atratol.® 

A pre-emergence or early 
post-emergence application (be- 
fore weeds are 6 inches high) of 
Ontrack 8E delivers top-notch 
grass control that'll last the sea- 
son. And coupled with Atratol 
you'll get the broad spectrum 
control you insist on — control 
of foxtails, crabgrass, quack- 
grass, pigweed, kochia and 
Russian thistles. 

What's more, Ontrack 
8E is an easy-to-mix liquid. 



And since it's concentrated ; 
goes a long way. In fact, the conven- 
ient 30 gallon plastic drum will 
cover 60 aaes. 

Like to know more? Your 
Ciba-Geigy railroad specialist can 
explain all the benefits. To con- 
tact the specialist nearest you, 
call or write the Railroad and 
Industrial Herbicide Sales 
Dept., Ciba-Geigy Corpora- 
tion, RO. Box 18300, 
Greensboro, NC 27419. ^g 
Telephone: 919/292-7100. 

Ontrack 8E+ Atratol 
The Tough Couple. 




DUPONT 

ihas the people and producls 
to serve you 

There's a DuPont Railroad Vegetation Management 
Specialist in your area. Let him bring his technical 
knowledge and experience to help you solve your weed 
and brush control problems. Du Pont is represented by 
the most qualified railroad applicators available. 



Midwest 



Southern 



Northeast 



Central 



Western 








Lee W. Pershke 

904 Hawthorne Court 
Franklin, TN 37064 
(615) 794-6031 



Peter Sarin 

PO. Box 872 

Apt 303 

1305 North Broom Street 

Wilmington. DE 19806 

(302) 655-2472 



R. H. Koester 

4109 Three Oa((s Drive 
Arlington. TX 76016 
(817)429-0668 



Thomas E. Nishimura 

17454SW Canal Circle 
Lake Oswego OR 97034 
(503)635-5804 



The Du Pont Railroad Vegetation Management Products. 

KROVAR® I HYVAR® X VELPAR 



WEED KILLER 

Gives you broad-spectrum 
weed control at a low cost. 
A single application of 
Krovar I can substantially 
reduce the need for 
follow-up sprays later in 
the season. 



WEED KILLER 

Especially effective on 
hard-to-kill perennial 
weeds and grasses such 
as Johnson, Bermuda, nut, 
quack, vasey and other 
grasses. 



® 



WEED KILLER 

Gives you both contact 
and residual control of 
a broad-spectrum of weeds, 
grasses and vines. 
Velpar is non-volatile, 
minimizing chances of 
drift. 



i 



With any chemical, follow labeling instructions and warnings carefully. 



mm 



RAILROAD HERBICIDES 



HYDRAULIC POWER FOR 
RAILROAD EQUIPMENT 



Cut cost and increase efficiency 
in the production and heavy-duty 
repair of railroad equipment. 
ENERPAC has the right Hydraulic 
Tools for: Car Fabrication, Machin- 
ing and Fastening. 

Hydraulic Maintenance Tools 
for: King Pin Coupler Repair, Sill 
Straightening and Rebushing, Journal 
Bearing Maintenance and many 
other jobs. 

ENERPAC HydraulicTools ideal 
for railroad applications: Cylinders 
including the new RR-5020 Double- 
Acting Cylinder with 20" stroke. 
Pumps, Presses, Pump and Cylinder 
Sets, Cutters, Punches and the 
Pullpac System. 

Go with the power and versatility 
of ENERPAC Hydraulic Tools. 





See your local ENERPAC Distributor 
for the New Hydraulic Tool Catalog. 
Or write ENERPAC, Butler, Wl. 53007. 



MORE 

POWER 

TO YOU 



ENERPAC 



•® 



What you need 
is what you get! 



A good maintenance-of-way pro- 
gram solves yf)«r track, tie and 
roadbed problems through y<)«r 
methods . . .loyour specifications. 

EVANS offers you ideal alter- 
natives to selecting, purchasing and 
using equipment. We sell our own 
line of manufactured products. Ad- 
ditionally, we provide the means for 
sharing equipment and time with a 
program you want. 

There are hundreds of pieces 
of completely re-conditioned 
equipment in our leasing fleet. 
Gaugers. adzers. cribbers, tampers, 
vibrators, cranes, track skeletoniz- 
ers and a host of other items neces- 
sary for the complete outfitting of 
rail, tie and surfacing gangs. 



Equipment inventories are 
located in the East, Midwest, 
and West, ready for immediate 
shipment to yourjob site, with 
in-service placement by expe- 
rienced field service technicians. 
These same engineers also provide 
on-site equipment repair 

Leasing plans range from short- 
term to 7-year leasing. Our terms 
and equipment help you overcome 



finance restraints and problems in 
scheduling and propcrequipment 
selection and availability. 

For the dependable, efficient way 
to resolve your MOW needs, con- 
tact Walter Kilrea. V. P. Marketing. 
Engineered Products Division. 
Evans Products Co. , 2550 Golf 
Road. Rolling Meadows. IL 60008. 
312/640-7750 
or call toll free 800/528-3343. 



MAINTENANCE-OF-WAY OPERATIONS 

Railway Track-Work Evans Track-Woric Leasing Evans Track Products & Conslruction 

evRnsiPRODUCTS Division 

PttooucTs compwyy / TRnnsRORra-non SYsrems c tnousTRitiL group 




ONE TIE GANG. 
L500+ TIES PER DflK 




1,518 ties per day, under traffic, 
is an impressive average for a 
railroad tie gang. Yet Regional 
Tie Gang #2 of Burlington 
Northern's Springfield Division 
has often beat that average, re- 
placing as many as 2,046 ties in 
less than 5y2 hours with just 45 
men and 19 pieces of equipment. 
Most of the latter were made by 
Fairmont. 

Find out how Fairmont 
maintenance-of-way equipment 
can help you upgrade the pro- 
ductivity of your own crews. 
Write or call Fairmont Railway 
Motors, Fairmont, Minnesota 
56031.(507)235-3361. 



FAIRMONT PRODUCTS INCLUDE: 

• Inspection, section, and gang 
motor cars • Tie shears, handlers, 
removers, inserters, and sprayers 

• Spike pullers and drivers • Hy- 
Rail equipment • Rail grinders • 
Track liners • TVack lining light 
and wire • Push cars and trailers 

• Tow tractors • Derrick cars • Rail 
lifters • Tie bed scarifiers • Tie 
plug inserters • Hydraulic tools 



jtufunont 

...for help along The Way. 

A DIVISION OF 

Oharsco 
CORPORATION 



What does LB.Fosler 
supply to rail users? 




That's because L. B. Foster Company 
can provide a rail. Or a railroad. Or 
anything in between. 

In fact. L. B. Foster is the country's 
leading one-stop shop for rail, track- 
work, rail accessories and tools. We 
nnanufacture frogs, switches, turnouts 
and pressure treated cross ties. 

Beyond all this, we provide 
industrial users with a track inspec- 
tion service. Trained experts work 
with users to maintain installations, 
then provide the know-how and the 
inventory to keep the railroad in 
working shape. 

And if theres a need for replace- 
ment or repair parts, they're available 



erything. 



fast from any of Foster's coast-to- 
coast stocking locations. 

If you're an industrial rail user, 
theres a lot more you ought to know 
about L. B. Foster. Write for the 
latest information about rail and rail 
products and our track inspection 
program. 

Then you'll see we do supply 
everything. 

Write: L. B. Foster Company, 
Foster Building, 415 Holiday Drive, 
Pittsburgh PA 15220. 



FOSTER 



L.B.FOSTER 
COMPANY 




FULL-LINE 
SUPPLIER 

OF RAIL SIGNALING CONTROL SYSTEMS 

For more than 75 years, GRS has been a world leader in the 
design and manufacture of transportation control systems -- 
and equipment -- fc '^very type of railroad. Here are a few 
examples: 



SYSTEMS 

• Automatic train control 

• Computer-controlled cTc 
and NX interlocking 

• Computer-controlled automatic 
car classification 

• Automatic train operation 

• Coded track signal control 

• Rail-highway crossing warning 

• Cab signals/speed control 

• Automatic block signaling 



EQUIPMENT 

• Electric switch machines 

• Safety relays 

• Wheel presence detectors 

• Car retarders 

• Color - light signals 

• Highway crossing flashers 

• Traffic control consoles 

• Rectifiers and transmitters 

• Hot journal detectors 

• Electric switch locks 



Plus many more. For more information about how we can 
help you, see your GRS sales engineer or write for Bulletin 200. 



GENERAL RAILWAY 5ICNAL 



B. C. HAMMOCK 
CONSTRUCTION CO. 

RAILROAD CONTRACTORS 

SPECIALISTS FOR OVER 1 5 YEARS 

• New Track Construction 

• Repairing Old Tracks 

• GenerallVlaintenance 

• Site Preparation & Excavation 



P.O. Box 577 
Gray, GA 31 032 
Phone: 743-0470 



"^^ LONE STAR INDUSTRIES, INC. 

We Sell Pre-stressed 

Concrete Railroad 
Cross Ties 



David A. Pittinger 
National Sales Manager 
Railroad Products 



6416 Halsey Drive 
Woodbridge, IL 60517 
Bus: 312 964-9775 
Res: 312-964-1259 



Bridges 
Docks 
Hump Yards 



Earth Excavation 
Rock Excavation 
Pile Driving 



Track Work 
Coal Handling 
Facilities 

killiiJ 

THE HARDAWAY COMPANY 

P.O. Box 1360, Columbus, Georgia 31993 (404) 322-3274 



Heavy Construction 
Projects since 1891 . . 



Bruce Bird 
Marketing Mgr. 



Ore haulers, slag pots, coal, cement and gravel trucks 
will inevitably challenge the staying power of your rail- 
.road grade crossing surfaces. 

"^^^^j^ur strength to the integrity of ypur track structure by 
|^|£^|^jyig]g|^u s t o m - b u^^^^l^ g r a d ejc r o s s i n g s , 
toffiaBB sffiMSfh lelel llogilBH I^Su^^ n^ t s . 







R R CROSSINGS I 

INC 



SPECIALISTS 
^^ M HEAVY WHEEL LOADING 



r4«?iW75 



What 11 Greal Way to Hold 
II Railroad Ihgether 

□ Standard and insulated track joints 

□ Motive power and rolling stock 

□ Bridges and other RR structures 

Send for our newest FREE CATALOG 
on how to hold it all together: 

HUCK MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

8001 Imperial Driven Waco, Texas 76710 



HUCK 






JACKSON 

TAMPERS 

MODELS 

900 6500 
2400 6000 
2600 7000 

and Hand Tampers • Tie Inserters • Automatic Switch Tampers 

JORDAN 

DITCHERS 
SPREADERS SNOWPLOWS 

IVe sell, lease, rent, rebuild 

JACKSON JORDAN. INC. 

O.F.Jordan Division 

P.O. Box 95036, 1699 East Woodfield Road • Schaumburg, IL 60195 
(312) 843-3995 Cable: JAKTAMP 



WORLD-CIASS 
TRACK SfARS 




Kershaw Ballast Regulators 

. . . first in ballast maintenance 
with railroads throughout the 
world. Kershaw machinery 
stands out because it is 
designed and built tough for 
long lasting dependability. 

Run with the winner. Make sure 
you have one of the Kershaw 
stars on your team. For more 
information on our complete 
line of Ballast Regulators call 
or write: 

KERSHAW 

Kershaw Manufacturing Company, Inc. 
Post Office Drawer 9328 
Montgomery, Alabama 36196 
Telephone: 205-263-5581 



Ballast Regulator 26 





Ballast Regulator 24 






Ballast Regulator 46 







The Ever-Dependable Wood Crosstie 

(Good news down the line) 



in this world of shrinking natural 
resources, it's comforting to know 
mere s at least one resource that is 
literally growing The proven, 
dependable wood crosstie Were 
growing them taster than we re 
using them 

It's a good thing On down the line 
well need 30 million new crossties a 
year to keep America rolling That s 
a pretty tall order But Man and 
Nature — working together — began 



filling it years ago 
In the century and a half since 
crosstie technology emerged from 
the stone age. modern improvements 
in drying and treating wood have 
extended the average lite of the 
crosstie five fold from about six 
years to 30 years and up 
Today, the modern wood crosstie 
lasts longer than il takes to grow a 
tree big enough to make one or 
more new crossties 



Nature is doing her part, too 
Hardwood growth now exceeds 
annual cutting by more than 75% 
And that inventory— especially in 
crosstie-size trees— is increasing 
American Commerce has a lot 
riding on the strength and growth o' 
the Nations Railroads And our 
Railroads can bank on the ever- 
oependable wood crosstie to carry 
Its share of the load Right down 
the line, 

Koppers Company, fnc. 
Pittsburgh. PA. 15219 

KOPPERS 

Architectural and 
Construction Materials 



These heavyweights out-maneuver 

and out-perform all comers 

where it really counts. 



In the yard. 

On the balance sheet. 

Marathon LeTourneau s LeTro 
Porters meet the operating and 
economic demands of the intermodal 
industry better than any competitive 
equipment . . . even equipment with 
greater lift capacity ratings. 

Our Model 2682CH is rated at 
80.000 lbs. compared to the 90,000 
lb. rating of our largest competitor. 
However, with its articulated frame 
our Model 2682CH has a tipping 
factor range and the competition has 
none. In the full steer position the 
80.000 lb. LeTro Porter has a greater 
static tip load rating than the 90,000 
lb. competitor's. The LeTro Porter has 
a more favorable horsepower to 
weight ratio ... 1 HP drives 464 lbs. 
as opposed to the 1 HP 600 
lbs. of the competition. 

It's 10% longer for * 
even better weight 
balance characteris- 
tics. And it has . 
a 1 2° o shorter 
turning 



radius for greater maneuverability. 
The Model 2682CH is more stable, 
stronger, more efficient and more 
maneuverable than the competition. 
It's simply the "smart money lift 
machine " in the intermodal industry. 
For a line-by-line "smart 
money lift machine" 
comparison, contact Fred 
Boone. Call toll-free. 
1-800-238-5591. 

LeTourneau Railroad Services, inc. 



dip 



PO Drawer 18986 
Memphis.TN38118 
(901) 365-8600 or 
(800) 238-5591 



Distributors for Marathon uUS LeTourneau Company 
Longview.TX 




Continuous Welded Rail 



We will furnish everything for Cropping and Welding 
All we need is a level site and a pile of rail 



LEWIS RAIL SERVICE COMPANY 

44050 Russia Road Elyrla, OH 44035 
(216) 323-1277 



Shoulder Ballast Cleaner 




LORAM'S ALL-PRO TRACK 
REHABILITATION TEAM 



Loram has not only built but actually developed some 
of our industry s most innovative tracl< machinery. The 
sled, plow and shoulder ballast cleaner are examples 
of Loram ingenuity. They re part of a broad line of 
dependable track rehabilitation equipment that 
includes: 

LORAM RAIL GRINDERS (24-. 36-, 72- and 88-stone 
models) grind down to the rail corrugation valleys 
instead of into them, as other grinding methods do. 
Loram grinders restore rail without wasting rail metal. 

LORAM S DOUBLE TRACK AUTO PLOW, which 
plows ballast to the field side of double-track terri- 
tory, sets up faster than any competitive machine, 

LORAM S SHOULDER BALLAST CLEANER has the 

highest capacity of any machine on the market. It 
cleans ballast from the tie end to shoulder edge while 
a scarifier tooth breaks out fouled ballast. One pass 
and the track is broomed and ready to use. 

LORAM S AUTOSLED/PLOW, with plowing and sled- 
ding components built right in, can be set up fast- 
actually in about 11 minutes. 



LORAM S TIE INSERTER inserts five or more ties a 
minute and can be easily adapted to handle concrete 
ties. Design simplicity and very accessible parts make 
the 1015 easy to maintain and repair 

LORAM S WINCH CART sets up solid as a rock and 
has 70.000 pounds pulling power Replaces the work 
locomotive and crew normally used to pull undertrack 
equipment. 

For purchase or lease information contact: 

LORAM MAINTENANCE OF WAY, INC. 

3900 Arrowhead Drive • Hamel. Minnesota 55340 
(612) 478-6014 • Cable LORAM; Telex 29-0391 



LORAM 




Nobody buiMs it tougher. 
Or services it better. 



Manufacturers 

Since 1938 
The Original 

HI-BALL 

OIL BURNING SWITCH HEATER 

BURNS 4 DAYS 



l\/IISSISSIPPI SUPPLY COIVIPANY 

20-A Railway Exchange BIdg., 

611 Olive St. 

St. Louis, Missouri 63101 

Phone: Area Code 314 - 231-0930 




SEALTITE HOOK BOLT 

Fastens timbers and ties to steel beams. Easy 
to install, long-life. Fins prevent turning. 
Spring lock holds tension. 




SEALTITE SPRING LOCK 

Maintains tension as timber 

changes by weather or wear. 



SEALTITE DOME HEAD DRIVE SPIKE 

Fastens timbers and plank decking on grade crossings, 
bridges and docks. Wide, smooth head seals opening, 
wears well. 




LEWIS WASHER HEAD TIMBER DRIVE SPIKE 

Fastens highway crossing planks, bridge guard rails and 
general timber construction. One-piece head. Easy to 



e 



install and remove. 

^ I-iE3'WIS BOLT & NUT COMPANY 



504 MALCOLM AVE. S.E., MINNEAPOLIS, MINN. 55414 



FROM MARMON TRANSMOTIVE 
A BETTER WAY 




CLEANS DITCHES 18 FEET FROM TRACK 
CENTER! 

CAST MATERIAL TO EITHER SIDE OR 
LOAD INTO AIR DUMP CARS. EQUIPPED 
WITH OUR CAR TOP CONVEYORS, RIG CAN 
LOAD, HANDLE AND DUMP TWO 50 YARD 
SIDE AIR DUMPS. WILL MOVE THESE 
CARS UP A 1 Vi GRADE AT 10 MPH. 



m 



ill 



Marmon Transmotivc 



P.O. Box 1511 

Governor John Sevier Highway 
Knoxville, Tennessee 37901 U.S.A. 
615/525*224 • TELEX 557-486 



ifSo 



WILL DIG UP TO FOUR FEET BELOW 
T.O.R. GREAT FOR TUNNEL AND 
CROSSING DRAINAGES! 



I 



HEAVY-DUTY 



Rail Lubricators 

0, 




• Easy Installation— no grinding or drilling 
required 

• No valves to stick or wear out 

• Gear pump and ratchet arnn submerged in 
grease 

• Effective distribution far beyond trackside 
location 

• Available in both single and double rail units, 
2-port or 4-port design 

• Extends rail life; reduces M/W costs 

Moore & Steele Corporation 

Owego, Tioga County, N.Y. 13827 U.S.A. 

(607) 687-2751 



Switch Point Protectors 




• Low initial cost, low replacement cost 

• Replaceable blade made of drop-forged alloy 
steel, heat-treated 

• Long service life 

• Quick installation 

• Fits right or left-hand switches 

• Available for prompt delivery 

• A quality product matched with quality service 

Call or write for our brochures 



n&iS 



MCXDnEdi 




Proven Performer 

National's helical spring washers have been giving 
proven performances for America s railroads since 
1887. 

National railway washers have proven time and again 
their ability to keep bolts tight by maintaining constant 
bolt tension. They have proven their ability to with- 
stand the extreme stresses and strains of continuous 
heavy traffic and reduce maintenance costs systems 
wide! 

National . . . the oldest name in railway track washers 
with the newest innovations . . . still the name to 
specify for quality, concepts, economy and service. 

NRTIONRL LOCh WRSHER company 

Industrial Parkway • North Branch, N.J. 08876 
(201 ) 526-1 234 — Cail collect. Send for free catalog. 



A CDMPLEX 
CROSSING 




complex crossing, a crossing 
within a crossing, is an example of the 
highly technical engineering and 
craftsmanship developed by Nelson Iron 
Works to meet industrial railroad track 
requirements. 

We specialize in the manufacturing of 
railroad track material, such as frogs, switches 
and crossings. 

Complete Trackwork Catalog available on 
request — no obligation. 



INELSON, 



iMOisr WORKS, inrc. 



Mailing address: P.O. Box 80816, Seattle, Wa. 98108 
3423 Thirteenth Ave. S.W., Seattle, Wa. 98134 
Telephone: (206) 623-3800 



iJirect fixation fasteners tvoulant work 
on my track... but new TRAK-LOK wilV: 





**With longer traina, increased 
density, higher tonnage and faster 
speeds, my track is taldng a beating. 
I need a good direct fixation 
fastening system.** 



St aren't designed for wood ties. Trak-Lok • 

_. fit my budget. Trak-Lok does. It welds 

fright onto my standard high and low carbon tie plates in seconds 
... don't have to buy new plates. And Trak-Lok goes on fast, I 
don't have to worry about disassembling the track ... or about 
scheduling. That saves me a fortune in crew time . . . particularly 
in overtime. I don't even have to remove spikes or worry about 
anchors. And it works. My tests show it'll give me 25% more clamp 
force than the leading competitive system. And, when it comes to 
transposing or replacing rail, my maintenance crew can get in and 
out in a fraction of the time . . . without disturbing traffic." 



its time for iKMn'i 




CALL (609) 424-1718 



OMARK INDUSTRICS Q 



OMARK TRAK-LOK ' RAILWAY FASTENERS 
2091 Springdale Rd.. Cherry Hill, N J 08003 



I would like to see samples and literature of the new 
Omark Trak-Lok ' Railway Fastening System variations 



TELEPHONE ( 



the solution 
to3 rotten 




II w 




"Add years to the life of your 

ties and timbers for a fraction of 

their replacement cost." 




ACTUAL 
SIZE 



Would you pay a fraction of replacement costs to extend the 
life of your timbers and ties? With replacement costs increas- 
ing annually, Tie-Gard™ is the answer. Tie-Gard^" is the 
clean way to treat, in-place. No spray — just insert Tie-Gard'''" 
cartridges into the unused spike holes or treatment holes 
bored in critical stress areas. Tie-Gard^" preservatives are 
absorbed into wood by osmotic action, spreading fungus 
protection quickly and effectively. 

FOR FREE SAMPLE OF 

PRODUCT AND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION, 

CALL TOLL FREE 1-800-356-5952 



RAILROAD DIVISION 

4546 Tompkins Drive 
Madison, Wisconsin 53716 
Phone 608-221-2292 





rrympnny 

27th & Martha Streets • Omaha. Nebraska 68105 

For full details call or write. Mr. C. H. Petersen 

(402) 345-6767 



in^EtoT 



DOUBLE TIE LIFE OIM CURVES AT A SIIMGLE STROKE 



Ties take a beating on curves. When you 
replace rail frequently, your tie life may be 
doubled by using the "Pandrol" brand rail 
fastening system. 

NO SPIKE KILLING ...no need to pull spikes 
to replace rail. 

REDUCE Piy\TE CUTTING, mechanical 
wear is reduced. 

EQUAL LOAD DISTRIBUTION... loads ^^e 
carried equally by each tie. 

NO CREEP, LESS ROLL OVER, the strong 
clamping force stops creep and resists rail 
roll over. 

EASY TO INSTALL, clips can be easily 
installed o^ removed using standard track 
tools. 

SAVES TIME. rapid installation and easy 
rail replacement reduces track time \o^ 
required maintenance. 

The "Pandrol" system 




Box 44, 505 Sharptown Road, Bridgeport, 
New Jersey, 08014 Tel (609) 467-3227 



Appleton Takes a Long Look at Parkco 
291 Feet Long. . . 



Running diagonally across the heavily 
trafficked thoroughfare of Newberry 
Street, Appleton, Wisconsin on the 
C&NW track are 291 feet of smooth, 
safe, reliable PARKCO rubber grade 
crossing. This installation was a joint 
venture, with the city furnishing the 
PARKCO crossing and the C&NW 
preparing the track structure and in- 
stalling the PARKCO material. 

"Our most important require- 
ment in selecting a grade crossing 
system is the virtual elimination of 
maintenance problems," explained 
Tom Harp, City Engineer, Depart- 
ment of Public Works, Appleton, 
Wisconsin. "The elimination of 
spikes and lag bolts in the Parkco 
system did much to convince us that 
we could achieve this objective." 




Thomas L. Harp. P.E.. Otv Engineer 

Tom also stressed the fact that 
"we were pleased with the method 
and speed with which this system 
went together. It took only two days 
to install 291 track feet and busy 
Newberry Street was again open to 
traffic. We had done considerable 
research to determine that, in the 
long run, the Parkco system would 
be more economical ... a prime 
factor in our final decision because 
Appleton purchased the crossing 
material for the project." 

Write us for more detailed in- 
formation on both the Appleton in- 
stallation and other locations where 
there are PARKCO crossings you 
can inspect. See for yourself how a 
PARKCO system can be the answer 
to safe, smooth and economical 
grade crossings. 
Transportation and Products Division 

Park Rubber 
Compciny dffl: 

80 Genesee Street. Lake Zurich, iL 60047 
(312) 438-8222 




Geotextiles may be a new word to many 
people, but it's a fast-growing familiar term to 
railroad engineers and contractors concerned 
with economical, long-term reinforcement, 
stabilization and drainage of soil structures. 

Supac, a versatile series of nonwoven 
polypropylene geotextile fabrics developed 
by Phillips Fibers Corporation, largest and 
the most diversified manufacturer of 
needlepunch, nonwoven fabrics in the country, 
is typical of the dedication to research and 
development Phillips devotes to preparing 
products engineered for specific end 
use requirements. 

Supac fabrics fill needs for sturdy 
long-lasting reinforcement and separation of 
track bed ballast from subsoil for greater load 
bearing and contamination 
control . . . helping maintain 
subsoil drainage for safety 
and lower long-range 
maintenance costs. 

Supac fabrics increase 



subsoil load bearing for more efficient us 
fill materials and aggregate, and provide 
water drainage without becoming cloggei 
blinded. They are flexible, tough and eas; 
install. They will not rot or mildew and he 
excellent resistance to soil chemicals. Th( 
physical properties are designed to cover 
many railroad engineering applications— 
and secondary lines, switches, turnouts, g 
crossings, access road substructures, 
earthwork dams, storage yards, work are 
silt fences, erosion control and other 
soil problems. 

Supac fabrics in weights of 4, 5, 8, an( 
to 16 oz. per square yard engineered to a 
broad range of requirements are availabji 
for railroad geotechnical use. 



SUPAC 



® 



NONWOVEN 




FABRIC 



FOR MORE INFORMATION TOLL FREE 800/845-5737 IS AT YOUR SERVICE 



PHILLIPS FIBERS CORPORATION 

A SUBSrDIARY OF PHILLIPS PETROLEUM COMPANY 
ENGINEERED PRODUCTS MARKETING. P O BOX 66, GREENVILLE SC 29602 (803) 242-6600 



MAI 
FIBEI 



AG£NX 

United Statks Railroad Services. 
103,C 13368 Polo Road W. 
W^EST Palm Beach. FL 3341 1 
(305) 793-8243 



Inc. 



THE PLASSER PTY-16 TAMPER 



». ■ ... 



^. 




______--- z:^==^ contractors: 

tamper tor Q^ ^^^^ ^^\\ do pr^ 

There's only °"^ 'f,,3'^he Plasser PTY 16^ ,.,„g, swrtch 

tamping. P'°^";*°"gangs. 

behind rail an o,v-l6does it- ;„hs in both 

He«'^ ^°" r^Ido- straight tamP-ng f : " 
The basic niach'"e a ,, ^^ ,wo » 

open track and *'Ough ^ „,.,ch ca" b^ -^ ^„,, 

^,,nsverseiY *e «"«« ^^ hydraul.c^W P0«^ can also 

te ttacK with ^l^^^^X^a cross-level -.3-"^- ^^^, 

'^^ra^p^s^-^^^^^^ 

features and you have . ^ ..^ allied 

PT'^-'' ®- . . D„«er's wire-lining device ,ignment 

Finally. «* Plass^'^^ _^^^^.^^ ,^,t «,« correc 
equipment, you ha ^^^^^^ ^^^.^^^ .,, ^an 

-r r; :^r:'^--« -r .rnled ^otno tu^h. tnan 
handle all your tamp-ng lohs. y^^ ^^^.....^^^Peop^ 



PLASSER AMERICAN CORPf 

2001 Myers Road, P.O. Box 5464, Chesapeake, Va. 233r' ^"^ 



AlVllzKII^MIM OV-ll-lh'. 

*, Chesapeake, Va. 23324 (804) 543-3526 




our specialty. . . 

effective sighs for the Railroad and 
Transportation Industry . . . crossbucks 
caution, depot & station, track, targets, 
caboose markers, trade mark decals, 
any standards, plus caution styles 
that you may be considering . . . 
we can make them ALL . . . and at 
sensible, economical prices! 




"Service so good . . . it's Better 
than having your own sign shop!" 



5^ 



POWER PARTS ^f]ai4t COMPANY 

I860 North Wilmot Avenue • Chicago Illinois 60647 ^ (312) 772-4600 • TWX 910 221-5507 



A DOZEN (and one) WAYS to 

IMPROVE your M/w PROGRAM 




ANCHOR- WATIC 





PLUS A FULL SELECTION OF HYDRAULIC TOOLS. " ^ m_bi_R 

■ IS* 




RAILROAD PRODUCTS, INC. 

1524 FHEIBERICK STREET RACINE WISCONSIN 5340J 



^ 





railroad builders, inc. 



Railroad Engineering, Construction 
Rehabilitation, and Take-up 

"By the foot or by the mile" 



4039 South Santa Fe Drive 

Englewood, Colo. 80110 

303 761-1994 




PROVEN PROTECTION! 



1/2" 



4*WV^^4^^^^^0^^ 



liUXlL 

Four Fluted Steel Dowels 



ANTI-SPLITTING AND LAMINATING 

DEVICE FOR TIES AND OTHER 

WOOD PRODUCTS 

LENGTH AS SPECIFIED 1 1/8' 



3/4" 



WRITE - WIRE - PHONE 




PO Box 6122 • Akron. Ohio 44312 • Area Code 216 733-8367 



DOWELS CONFORM TO 
ALL AGENCY SPECIFICATIONS 

PRECISION MADE TWISTED STEEL 

GIVE ADDED LIFE 

IN EACH APPLICATION 



DEPENDABLE, PROVEN PRODUCTS 
FROM RAILS COMPANY 

SWITCH HEATERS 

to protect switch points from freezing 

HAB SWITCH HEATERS 

Proven in use at sub-zero temperatures. 
High pressure blower distributes hot air 
steadily, evenly through a duct and nozzle. 
Manual or automatic. Oil fired, natural gas 
or propane. Easily installed and serviced. 

RAIL-TEL SWITCH HEATERS 

Advanced design assures correct 
combustion under all conditions. Improved 
unit burner increases efficiency. Dispatcher 
controlled or automatic operation with 
Rails Company Snow Detector. Long- 
lasting, easy to install. Proven in thousands 
of installations. 

TYPE LP SWITCH HEATERS 

Improved air inspiration design assures the 
best combustion regardless of weather or 
humidity. Uses low pressure natural gas. 
Provides uniform heat. ..dependable, long 
life operation. ..easy installation. ..minimum 
maintenance. ..automatic ignition. 

TUBULAR ELECTRIC SWITCH HEATERS 

All voltages and wattages available. Supplied with adjustable hardware. 
Control panels with ground fault detection for all requirements. 




RAIL FASTENINGS 
for high spaed transit 



^t^ 



FLEXICLtr 

RAIL FASTENERS 

for concrete ties 

Resists ran 

movement wnh 

positive holding 

power in all 

directions Fast 

installation with regular equipment 

For lointed or welded rail Insulated 

fastenings available 

COMPRESSION 

RAIL ANCHORS ^gi m, 

tor wood ties 

Anchors m both 
directions, providing 



RAIL ROD 

the one-man track cart that 
can be carried by one man 




Totally insulated, will not activate 
switches Safely clutch and brake 
system 2-wheei drive Rugged 
construction Folds up for shipping 
and storage Proven on major class 
one railfoads 

Other RAILS COMPANY products to protect and maintain your track include: 
Track Lubrication Systems, Automatic Switch Point Locks. Wheel Stops, 



SNOW DETECTOR 
starts heaters or removal 
equipment 

Provides local 

control at remote ££'^-a, 

healers, grids, etc. MM 

building entrances, ^B* 

Sidewalks clear of ice or snow 
Acltvales highway warning signs 
Compact, easily installed, 
maintenance free Foolproof operaif 
only in snow, freezing ram, hail or ici 
not during normal ramfan Complete 
with sensing head, control box, 
mount, temperature control 



welded, turnouts, 
bridges, crossings 



J^AILS 

' ■ COMPANY 



Maplewood. N.J 07040 

Chicago, III 60604 • Oakland. Calil. 94607 

In Canada: lEC-Holden. Ltd. 



1^ 





NABLA- 
FORTAX 



safety - durability - economy 

selected by the French Railways for the new TGV high speed line and tor its whole network, as we(l as by 
other leading railways In the world. Outcome of 35 years of experience and 500 nnillion elastic fastenings 
in 50 countries. Specially developped for continuous welded rail on wood, concrete or metal ties. 



STEDEF 11 7 bureaux de la Colline - 9221 3 SAINT-CLOUD CEDEX 
. France - T«l. (1 ) 602.70.85 - Tx : 200 888 F 

' STEDEF INC. 7657 Leesburg Pike Tysons Office Park 1 4 

FALLS CHURCH VA. 22043 U.S.A. - Tel. (703) 790-8777 - Tx : 901 124 



Pt90aAIU 



SSviS£;ffi;,„„s.B«^i2S 



STREET 



.HIGHNNAV 



NEED A 
REALLY SMOOOOOTH!!! 
RAILROAD/HIGHWAY CROSSING? 




'^ If you think the ^t> 

"BEST" example of a product Is 

the product Itself 




SMOOOOOTH 



We Invite you to use 
THE "BEST" 




TOUGH 



member: 
AREA-ARFNRC/MAI-RDMREMSA-RPI 



GENTLE 




" AHOY ESTAMOS PREPARADOS PARA 

MANDAR CARGAMENTOS PARA MEXICO " 



The Crossing Designed witli tlie "Driver in Mind' 



C)2arKa &n\orpri6Q6y sjnc. 



P.O. Box 2027 

Livonia, Michigan 48151 

Phone: (313)427-5535 



STM 




THE VERSATILE TAMPER . . . 



Designed for today's busy work schedules, 
this Tamper offers big tamper quality on a 
smaller tamper frame. Driven by a Perkins 
Diesel and a 3-speed hydraulically driven 
transmission v\/ith chain drive to the alloy 
steel axle, the STM tamper track travels at 30 
MPH. By using Tamper's proven vibratory 
squeeze method of tamping, it assures 
uniform consolidation of ballast under the 
tie. Working in tandem with our bigger tam- 
pers, the STM produces quality track and 
speeds tandem tamping operations by 
decreasing the number of ties the main tam- 
per tamps. As a tamper, the STM can handle 
your tamping requirements. 

SEE YOUR NEAREST TAMPER REPRESENTATIVE TODAY. 



Tamper ^r 



2401 Edmund Road 
West Columbia 
South Carolina 29169 
Tel. (803) 794-9160 
Telex 573423 



TELEWELD 



INC. 



Serving the railroad industry 
with technology you can depend on. 
Call on Teleweld for field-proven 
rail maintenance systems: service 
and equipment. 

SERVICE Rebuilding of Frogs, Crossings, 
Switches • Rail End Reclamation • CWR 
Joint Repair • Thermite Welding 

EQUIPMENT Rail Heaters • Rail Grinders • 
Power Cars • TELEFLEX Equipment Cars 
•CWR Heating Cars • CWR Cooling Cars • 
SONIRAIL Flaw Detectors • Power Plants 
• TELEBRINELLER Hardness Testers 

Call or Write for new corporate booklet, showing 
capabilities and product line. Details and 
specifications of any service or equipment listed 
also available. 

TELEWELD, INC. 

Dept. 11, 416 No. Park St., Streator, IL 61364 
Phone: 81 5/672-4561 TWX: 510-359-0897 

NOW OPEN— TELEWELD FIELD SERVICE 
CENTER and WELDING SCHOOL 

1555 Hawthorne Lane, West Chicago, IL 60185 




Installation of the True Temper oil containment system requires 
minimum labor and no special equipment. 



TrueTemper 

has an oil 

containment 

system 

that saves 
you money! 



TRUE TEX IT-10 
TRUE TEX MG FABRIC SAND BARRIER" 



o^r^^^or^ 




TRUE TEX MG-100 DRAIN PIPE WRAP 
6" ID PERFORATED PVC DRAIN PIPE 



RECOVERY PIPE 



If oil containment is a problem for you, we have the 
solution. ..the oil containment system from True Temper. 

The True Temper oil containment system is not only 
easy to install, but cost effective as well. And with today's 
spiraling fuel costs, the system allows you to recover oil 
that might otherwise be lost. 

The capacity of a standard True Temper oil containment 
system is approximately 10,000 gallons. ..that's about six 
times more than other systems. In addition, the surface 
recovery area is alomst double that of other systems. 
And unlike the others, the True Temper oil containment 
system can handle major spills and permits standard 
track maintenance without disturbing the system. 

The True Temper oil containment system features a 
top layer of a needle-punched polyester True Texiw engi- 
neering fabric to prevent sand from fouling the system 
^/lile permitting spilled diesel oil to enter it. The entire 
containment basin is constructed of a continuous sheet 
of True Temper's unique True Tex IT-10. ..a tough, 

IRUE lEMPER. 

RAILWAY APPLIANCES, INC. 



impermeable, nitrile rubber impregnated 
fatjric designed specifically for use in oil 
containment systems. The True Temper oil 
containment system. ..designed and 
engineered for efficient oil containment and 
effective recovery. 

So, if oil containment has been a problem 
for you... give us a call at (216) 696-1715 



MAIL TODAY! I want to find out more about oil 
containment and recovery! 

D Please mail informalion and literature. 

□ Have a representative call and deliver a sample of IT-10 

True Temper 

Railway Appliances, Inc. 

320 Hanna Building, Cleveland, Ohio 44115 

Name 



Company 
Address _ 



City 

State 

Teleptione_ 



-Zip_ 



AREA 68C 



WESTERN-CULLEN-HAYES 

Railroad Products 

rugged quality and dependability 




Delectric Operator 

Used with 
HB sliding derail. 
Available as door 
protection system 




Rail Benders 

25 and 35 ton jacks 
for rail up to 155 lbs. 



Derails 

Sliding, hinge, 
portable, remote 
controlled 



Bumping Posts 

All-steel, 
universal fit, 
6 types 




Equipment 
Shelter Boxes 

Cable Boxes 

Lightning 

Arresters 




Crossing 
Signals 

Gates, cantilevers, flashing light 
signals 




Switch Lamps 
and Targets 

Aluminum or poly- 
carbonate-colors 
to meet railroad 
requirements 



For more information, 
write: 




WESTERN-CULLEN-HAYES, Inc. 

2700 West 36th Place • Chicago, Illinois 60632 

Telephone: 312/254-9600 • Telex 25-3206 

120 North 3rd Street • P.O. Box 756* Richmond, Indiana 47374 

Telephone: 317/962-0526 



78-9 



DIRECTORY OF CONSULTING ENGINEERS 



FRANK R. WOOLFORD 

Engineering Consultant — Railroads 

24 Josepha Ave. 

Son Francisco, Co. 94132 

(415) 587-1569 

246 Seadrif) Rd. 

Stinson Beach, Co. 95970 

(415) 868-1555 



FREDERICK A. KAHL 

CONSULTANT 
Lightning and Surge 
Voltage Protection 
Signals— Microwave- 
Power — Locomotives 
P.O. BOX 58 805-96&-5998 

SUMMERLAND, CA. 93067 



Swerdrup A Parcel 
d Associates, Inc. 



Railroads • Transit • Tunnels 
Bridges • Electrification 

• Design 

• Planning 

• Construction Management 

Boston • Jacksonville • New York • Phoenix 
San Francisco •Seattle • St Louis • Washington DC. 




BAKKE KOPP BALLOUi McFARllN. INC. 
CONSULTING ENOINEERS 



Bridges 
Special & Heavy Structures 
Investigations & Reports 



7505 WEST HIGHWAY SEVEN 

ST. LOUIS PARK, MINNESOTA 55426 

(612)933 8S80 



® 



Colder Associates 

CONSULTING GEOTECHNICAL 
AND MINING ENGINEERS 



2950 Norlhup Way 
Bellevue (Seattle) 
Washington. 98004 
Tel (206)827-0777 
DENVER 
TUCSON 
ANCHORAGE 
ATLANTA 
HOUSTON 
WASHINGTDON DC 



Route selection, soil 
and rock slopes, 
tunnels, retaining 
structures, briijge 
foundations, landslide 
control, groundwater 
studies. 



CANADA • U.K • AUSTRALASIA 




Railway Consultants 

8200 Greensboro Drive 
Suite 1000 
McLean, VA 22102 
703-442-7740 

One Penn Plaza 
New York, NY 10119 
212-239-7900 

30 national and international offices 



joodkind 
ODea,Inc. 

ENGINEERS 
PLANNERS 



RAILROADS • RAIL FACILITIES • BRIDGES 
PLANhWNG • DESIGN • INSPECTION 

Clifton, N.J. New York^ N.Y. 

Hamden, Conn. 




BERNARD JOHNSON INCORPORATED 

ENGINEERS • ARCHfTECTS • PMNNERS 

TVackwork • Terminals • Railroad Relocation 

Maintenance Facilities * Signalization 

Bridges (Design. Rating. Rehabilitation) 

Communication Systems • Systems Evaluation 

Operations Analyses • Equipment Modernization 

5050 WESTHEIMER • HOUSTON. TEXAS 7.7056 

713/622-1400 
HOUSTON • WASHINGTON, D.C. • ATLANTA 



HARDESTY & HANOVER 

Consulting Engineers 

BRIDGES — FIXED and MOVABLE 

HIGHWAYS and RAILWAYS 

SPECIAL STRUCTURES 

Design, Inspection, Valuation 

1501 Broadway New York, N.Y. 10036 

Jersey City, N.J. 



Railroads • Rapid Transit 

Electric TracMon Power 

Signals and Train Control 

Communications • Substations 

Operations Analysis and Simulation 

Power Generation • Urban Planning 

Gibbs a Hill, Inc. 

ENGINEERS. DESIGNERS. CONSTRUCTORS 

393 Seventh Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10001 

A Subsidiary of Drove Corporation 



K-] 



HARRINGTON & CORTELYOU, INC. 
ConsMlting Engineers 



1004 Baltimore, Kansas City, Mo. 64105 
Telephone: 816-421-8386 

RAILWAY AND HIGHWAY 

• FIXED AND MOVABLE BRIDGES • 

• Condition Inspections 

• Investigations & Reports 
• Design, Construction Plans 

• Contract Documents 

• Constnjction Supervision 

• Cost Negotiations 



ALFRED BENESCH 
& COMPANY 

CONSULTING ENGINEERS 

233 NORTH MICHIGAN AVENUE 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 60601 

Railroads ^ Highways — Airport* 

Bridges — Buildings — Subways 

Reports — Construction Observation 



C^ 




SOROS ASSOCIATES 


CONSULTING ENGINEERS 


PLANNING 


PORT OEVELOPMENT 


DESIGN 


BULK HANOLING SYSTEMS 


SUPERVISION 


OFFSHORE TERMINALS 


(BIS) saa 8700 


373 LEXINGTON AVE. 


TELEX SS4SS9 


NEW YORK. NY looaa 


4S3479 


CABLE SULKONSULT 




SANTIAGO SYDNEY 




ter 



Engineers Architects Planners 

Booker Associates. Inc. 

1139 Oiive Sueet 
St. Louis. Missouri 63101 

343 Walle^ Avenue 
Lexington, Kentucky 40504 

10905 Fort Vv'ashington Road 
Fort Washington, Maryland 20744 



THOMAS K. DYER, INC. 

Consulting Engineers 

Railroads Transit Systems 
Track, Signals, Structures 

Invotlgatlont ond Feosiblllty Reports 
Plonning, Detign, Controct Documenti 

1762 MossQchusetts Avenue 

Lexington, Mass. 02173 

(617) 862-2075 

Washington, D.C. Chicago, III. 

(202) 466-7755 (312) 663-1575 



EDWARDS AND KELCEY S 

70 SOUTH ORANGE AVE, LIVINGSTON, NJ 07039||^^ 
TEL 1201) 994-4520 

PLANNING • ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES 
DESIGN •CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT 



RAIL AND BUS TRANSITWAYS 

RAILROADS, TERMINALS, TUNNELS 

BRIDGES, PARKING, UTILITIES 



Boston>C(iicago>Mlnneapolis'New YoriePhilodelphio-Woshington, DC. 



w 



RALPH WHITEHEAD & ASSOCIATES 

Consulting Engineers 

1936 East Seventh Street 

P Box 35624 

Ctiarlotte, Nortti Carolina 28235 

704-372-1885 



BRIDGES • HIGHWAYS • RAILROADS • RAIL i BUS TRANSIT • AIRPORTS 



mii t w 



CONSULTING ENGINEERS 
PLANNERS • ARCHITECTS 

Route Studies — Refueling — 
Terminals — Pollution Control 
— Storm Water Treatment — 
Aerial Photogrammetry — 
Bridges — Structures — Foun- 
dations — Solid Waste Disposal 

913827 3603 

609 W. NORTH ST. 

SALINA, KANSAS 67401 

816 363 2696 

9140 WARD PARKWAY, SUITE 100 

KANSAS CITY, MO 64114 



BRANCH OFFICES 

3300 NE Expressway, Atlanta, GA 30341 
1033 Wade Avenue, Raleigti, NC 27605 



(404)452-0797 
(919)832-0563 



/^ Bennett-Carder 
^^ & Associates, Inc. 

Engineering Services 

507 Fifth Street 

Rock Springs, Wyoming 62901 

(307) 382-5445 



COWIN & COMPANY 

INC. 

Mining Engineers and Contractors 

Phone 205-780-7700 

1 South West 18th Street 

Birmingham, Alabama 3521 1 

Tunnels — 

Construction. Repair, Enlargement, 
Consulting 



M 



A.J. HENDRY. INC. ^ 

rONSLLTINC ENGINEERS * 



1512 PIONEER BUILDING ST. PAUL. MN 55101 16121 222-2787 
•RAILROADS 'RAIL TRANSIT 

• SIGNALS •COMMUNICATIONS .ELECTRIFICATION • AUTOMATION 

• ELECTRIC UTILITIES •LANDLINE COMMON CARRIERS 'PIPELINES 

• INDUCTIVE COORDINATION •ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE 



ffj"jims i .i;iwiiinii'»j;i^j ' 'j! 



@ 



Gilbort/ 
Commonwealth 

ammtmmfceimuvaktm 



• Electrical Systems Studies 

and Engineering 

• Construction Management 

• Quality Assurance 

• Management Consulting 



Readincj, PA/ Jackson, Ml 



K/rJG a GAVARIS{^ 



CO'vSi-*LT.r>JO E^s-GcwEEnS. 



PLANNING • DESIGN 
CONSTRUCTION SUPERVISION 

Railroads 'Mass Transit 
Ports • Highways 

500 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY. 10036 

(212) 594 - 2410 

A STEEGO CORPORATION SUBSIDIARY 



Berger, Lehman Associates, P.C. 

Railroads • Transit* Bridges 
Design* Inspection* Rehabilitation 

550 Mamaroneck Avenue 
Harrison, New York 1 0528 

(914)698-2260 

(212)772-0617 




Bridges and Structures 
Environmental Studies 

Highway Design 
Transportation Planning 

BENNETT, RINGROSE, WOLSFELD, JARVIS, GARDNER, INC 

2829 University Avenue S.E. 

Minneapolis, Minnesota 55414 

612/379-7878 

MINNEAPOLIS-CHEYENNE-DENVER 




INTERNATIONAL 
ENGINEERING 

A MOflRISON-KNUOSEN COMPANY 



Railroad Design & Electrification 
Shop Facilities 

Planning • Design 
Construction Management 

ISO Howard Street Sart Francisco. California 94105 

Boise- Denver- Phoemx • Hou'sion • New London- Anchorage 



Gannett Fleming 

Engineers and Planners 



Railroad/Mass Transit 

Bridges • Tunnels • Inspection 

Maintenance Facilities 

Repair Shops • Equipment 

Trackwork • Yards 

Environmental Studies 

P.O. Box 1963 • Harrisburg, PA 17105 
Regional Offices Located in 1 8 Other Cities 



HAZELET 


& ERDAL 


Consulting 


Engineers 


Design Investigations Reports 
Fixed and Movable Bridges 


547 W. Jackson Blvd. 

uwitviru 


Chicago, III. 60606 
QnclnnaH 


_ 





STV ENGINEERS 

11 Robinson St , Pottstown, PA 19464 
215/326-4600 

RAILROADS • TRANSIT • DESIGN 

FIXED FACILITIES • ROLLING STOCK 

VALUATION • OPERATIONS • PLANNING 

CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT 

Member Firms 

Sanders & ThomM 

Pottstown, PA 215/326-4600 

Seelye Stevenson Value & Knecht 

New York, NY 212/867-4000 

S&T Western 

Newport Beach, CA 714/955-2732 

STV/Management Consultants Group 

New York, NY 212/344-3200 



ROBERT W. HUNT COMPANY 

INSPECTION & LABORATORY TESTING SERVICES 
Rail, Trackwork, Rolling Stock & Structural Inspection 
Serving The Railroad Industry Worldwide 
Since 1888 
11 / 26 US Locations, 8 in Europe & UK 
rl) Headquarters: 810 S Clinton Street 

Chicago, Illinois 60607 
312 922-2872 
Telex: 25-3176 



Anderson- 
Nichols 

Engineers • Environmental Consultants 
Planners • Architects 



1 50 Causeway Street w^ 

Boston, Massachusetts 021 14 (617)742-3400 f^ 



Concord NH / Harttofd CT / Providence Rl / Ricrimono 4 Palo Alio CA 



the southwestern railroad 

construction co., inc. 

a«iih«iiiii I 

OIMI 09IMMMnC9 

AuodoHon 




The Railroad People 
Specializing in Route 3-Box 186N 

Railroad Construction Amarillo, Tx 79107 

Maintenance (806) 383-9351 

Consulting 




tack 



INCORPORATED 

RAILROAD AND MASS TRANSIT ELECTRIFICATION 

• Feasibility and Utility Impact Studies 

• Power Control and Substation Design 

• Catenary Design and Systenn Design 

• Project Management and Quality Assurance 

6525 Belcresi Road, Suite 209, Hyattsville, MD 20782 
Telephone: (301) 779-6868 
Also, Scarborough, Ontario 
Telephone: (416) 755-7121 



D 



MODJESKI AND MASTERS 

Censu/ffng Engln*«rt 
FIXED A MOVABLE RAILROAD BRIDGIS 

Datign • Inipccllon of Conttrvdion 

Mgchlncry • Electrical Werii 

Intpactlen, Maintananc*, Rating, 

Str«ngth«nlng 

Rehabilitation • Recondructlon 

P.O. BOX 2345 

HARRISBURG. PA. 171 OS 

New Orleans, La. Arlington, Va. 
Poughkeepsie, N.Y, Charleston, S.C. 



UNIT TRAIN UNLOADING 

SYSTEMS FOR COAL. ORE. 

PHOSPHATE ROCK. WOODCHIPS. 

BULK MATERIALS 

113St. Clair Ave., NE 

Cleveland, Ohio 44114 

(216)621-9934 



DeLEUW 
GATHER 



Engineers and 
Planners 



De Leuw, Gather & Company 

121 1 Conneclicut Avenue, N W 
Washington, D C 20036 
(202) 828-3800 

Offices in Uniled States and Worldwide 



Ellerbe Associates, Inc. 
Engineers & Architects 

One Appletree Square 

Bloomington, MN 55420 

612 853 2000 

Railroad Maintenance Facilities 
Locomotive/Railcar/Support 



HEIIerbe 



TAMS 



ENGINEERS, ARCHITECTS 
AND PLANNERS 




^ 



N DREWS CONSOIT.NO 

LARK ^-e'"""* 



RAIL k HIOHWAV SYSTEMS 
PUBLIC WONKS FACILITIES 



TRANSroRTATION AND 
UNSAN DEVELOPMENT 



STRUCTURAL EVALUATION ti DESIGN 
CONSTRUCTION INSPECTION 



306 E*>t 63'° SI 

New York, NY 10021 
212 ' 838 -2600 



Gat«wiv On* 
Newark, N.J 07102 
201-623 3336 



RAILROADS & MASS TRANSIT 
BRIDGES & TUNNELS 
TRANSPORTATION PLANNING 



TIPPETTS-ABBETT-McCARTHY-STRATTON 

655 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017 

(212) 867-1777 

Anchorage • Boston ■ Seattle ■ Washington, DC 

22 Overseas Offices 



®Fittsburgh 
Testing 
Laboratory 



m 



ELECTRIFICATIDN 

RAILROADS & MASS TRANSIT 

PLANNING* DESIGN • PROJECT MANAGEMENT 

DAY & ZIMMERMANN. INC 

1818 MARKET STREET 
PHILADELPHIA, PA. 19103 
18001 523-0786 Ext. 8456 



(J8 HARLAND BARTHOLOMEW 
^ & ASSOCIATES/ INC. 



Professional Consultants 

PLANNING 

ENGINEERING 

LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE 



Alljntd 

Austin 

Birminghdm 

Chicago 

Jacksonville 

Memphis 

Richnvond 

Washington, D.C 



Sill 



SHANNON & WILSON, INC. 

Geotechnical Consultants 

Soil & Rock Mechanics • Seismic Response 

Foundation Engineering • Instrumentation 

Geology & Geophysics • Hydrogeology 

Seattle • Portland • Spokane 

Fairbanks • St. Louis • Houston 

Corporate Headquarters. Seattle: (206) 6328020 
1105 N. 38th, Seattle. WA 98103 



Trackage ■ Bridges 

Structures • Terminals 

Load/Unload Facilities^ 

Maintenance & Repair Shops 

Power a Utility Systems 
o Environmental Studies 
Waste Treatment 

lurns & MCDonnel 

ENGINEERS - ARCHITECTS - CONSULTANTS 

P.O. Box 1 73 Kansas City. MO 641 41 
816333-4375 



MICHAEL BAKER 
CORPORATION 



Baker Engineers 

BMwr, Panruylnnia Jackson. MiulMppI 

(412) <«5-7711 (801) 362-6481 

OfticM throughout th« U. S. 



NOTES 



NOTES 



;; 



NOTES 



> 



PROFILES IN 
RAIL LIFE: 

SPEND 





Speno's exhaustive research into the 
science of rail grinding pays dividends 
in our ability to restore optimum rail 
profile, often virtually doubling its 
performance life. 

Best results are possible only through 
effective equipment control, and Speno's 
reprofiling techniques have it. Speno's 
Autoload'" control automatically 
maintains optimum effectiveness of all 
grinding wheels — without manual 
adjustment. 

Speno's patented Active Long Wave 
system, with positive pressure control, 



assures pinpoint action on high or low 
welds and other similar defects. The 
result: continuously varied grinding effort 
according to need. 

For the full benefit of a planned rail 
maintenance program, rely on Speno 
experience and technology. We save 
the rails. 



3pGno 

« Speno Rail Services Co. 



PC Box 309 

East Syracuse, New York 13057 

(315)437-2547 





Jljll ilK 


^^ 


lilt' w|-' 




Hh^^V^^i^ 


HH 


■^^^^^^^^H|i|imF'.«^^BM^^ 




R.E. Bodkin, President 



The Trasco Car Retarder 

We not only stand beside 

our Trasco Car Retarder, we stand 

behind it. 

This one has been in 

track for 18 years — the retarding 

rails have been replaced once, 

but most of the parts are original equipment. 

P.O. Box 729 • 18 South Sylvan Road 

Westport, Conn. 06881 

(203) 226-3361 




W 



AMERICAN RAILWAY 
ENGINEERING ASSOCIATION 



\ 



% 



BULLETIN 692 
VOL. 84 (1983) 



MAY 1983 




ROOM 403 

2000 L St., N.W. 

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20036 

U.S.A 



JUN 17 19S3 



CONTENTS (Details Inside) 

Cutting Through (Cover Feature) 147 

Reports From 1983 Technical Conference 163 

Special Reports 207 

Published as Information (Comm. 7, 22, 27) 301 

Memoirs 317 

1^1 M 



BOARD OF DIRECTION 
1983-1984 

President 

H. L. Rose. Assistant Vice President — Maintenance of Way & Structures, Southern Railway, 99 
Spring St., S.W., Atlanta, GA 30303 

Vice Presidents 

V. R. Terrill. Vice President — Engineering, Boston & Maine Corporation, High Street, 

North Billerica, MA 01862 
P. R. Richards, Chief Engineer, Canadian National, Box 8100, Montreal, Que., H3C 3N4 

Past Presidents 

Mike Rougas, Chief Engineer, Bessemer & Lake Erie Railroad, P.O. Box 471, Greenville, 

PA 16125 
R. E. Haacke. District Engineer, Western Districts, Union Pacific Railroad Company, 1515 

S.W. Fifth Avenue, Suite 400, Portland, OR 97201 

Directors 

W. E. Brakensiek, Assistant Chief Engineer, Missouri Pacific Railroad, 210 N. 13th St., 
Rm. 1211, St. Louis, MO 63103 

J. D. Jardine. Assistant Chief Engineer, Canadian Pacific Limited, Windsor Station, 
Montreal, Quebec H3C 3E4 

D. E. TURNEY. Jr., Assistant Chief Engineer — Maintenance, Norfolk & Western Railway, 8 N. 
Jefferson St., Roanoke, VA 24042 

H. G. Webb, Assistant Chief Engineer, Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway, 4100 S. Kedzie 
Ave,, Chicago, IL 60632 

R. E. Frame. Chief Engineering Officer, Seaboard System Railroad, 500 Water St,, Jack- 
sonville, FL 32202 

M. D. Kenyon, Assistant Chief Engineer, Denver & Rio Grande Western Railroad, Box 5482, 
Denver, CO 80217 

A. L. Maynard, Director — Engineering Material Control, Chessie System, Box 1800, Hunt- 
ington, WV 25718 

W, B. Peterson, Chief Engineer, Soo Line Railroad, Box 530, Minneapolis, MN 55440 

J, R, Clark, Chief Engineer Maintenance of Way, Consolidated Rail Corporation, 6 Penn 
Center Plaza, Philadelphia, PA 19104 

R, W, FONDREN, Chief Engineer, Florida East Coast Railway, 1 Malaga St., St. Augustine, FL 
32084 

G, Rodriguez, Chief Engineer, Ferrocarriles Nacionales de Mexico, Av, Central 140, 8 Piso, 
Ala "B", Mexico 3, D,F., Mexico 

T. P. Schmidt, Chief Engineer, Delaware & Hudson Railway Company, 40 Beaver St., Albany, 
NY 12207 

L. F. WooDLOCK, Assistant Vice President — Engineering, Burlington Northern Railroad, 176E. 
5th St., St. Paul, MN 55101 

Treasurer 

W. S. Lovelace. Asst. Vice President — Engrg. & Research, Southern Railway, P.O. Box 
1808, Washington, D.C. 20013 

HEADQUARTERS STAFF 

Executive Director 

Louis T. Cerny. 2000 L St., N.W. Washington, D.C. 20036 

Manager — Headquarters 

JuDi Meyerhoeffer, 2000 L St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036 

Director of Engineering 

W. Arthur Grotz, Jr.. 2000 L St., N.W. Washington, D.C. 20036 

Published by the American Railway Engineering Association. March, May and October 

at 

2000 L St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036 

Second class postage at Washington, DC. and at additional mailing offices 

Subscription $45 per annum 

Copyright © 1983 

AMERICAN RAILWAY ENGINEERING ASSOCIATION 

All rights reserved 

(ISSN 0003—0694) 

POSTMASTER: Send address changes to: AREA Bulletin, 2000 L Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036 

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in an information or data retrieval system, or transmitted, 

in any form, or by any means — electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recordmg, or otherwise — without the prior written 

permission of the publisher. 




RAILWAY 
ENGINEERING- 
MAINTENANCE 
SUPPLIERS 
ASSOCIATION, 
INC. 



REMSA and its More than 290 Member 
Companies Stand Ready to Serve the 
Railroad Industry's Needs 



President 
JOSEPH H. BUSH 

Jackson Jordan, Inc. 

First Vice President 
J. KNOX KERSHAW 

Kershaw Manufacturing Co., Inc. 

Second Vice President 

F. K. SEMANS 

Portec Inc. 

Railway Products Division 

Treasurer 

R. L. McDANIEL 

Burro Crane, Inc. 

Secretary 

G. W. CHRISTIANSEN, JR. 

Racine Railroad Products, Inc. 

Executive Secretary 
L. D. McGUAN 



Railway Engineering-Maintenance Sup- 
pliers Association, Inc. member companies 
listed on the following pages, and its pre- 
decessor organizations, are justifiably proud 
of their unique record of nearly a century of 
dedication to supplying the World-Wide Rail- 
road industry. 

For nearly 100 years, REMSA members 
have joined with the railroads to develop new, 
sophisticated and dynamic machines, equip- 
ment and supplies sorely needed to answer the 
increasing pressures for technological ad- 
vances to meet the challenge of current and 
future railroad engineering and maintenance 
problems. 

As the railroads continue upgrading rights- 
of-way and their general program of more 
thorough maintenance, REMSA members 
stand ready to supply the massive amounts of 
tools, equipment, machines and supplies 
needed for the tremendous task. 

REMSA's periodic International Exhibits 
of railroad work equipment and products rep- 
resent another service to the railroad industry. 



REMSA IS PROUD TO PRESENT THE HONOR ROLL 
OF ITS MEMBERS IN THE FOLLOWING PAGES 



HONOR ROLL of REMSA Railway Engi 

As of April 1, 1983 

A& K RAILROAD MATERIALS. INC Charles Clarke, Jr 

ABEX CORP . Amsco Welding Products R L. Chavanne 

ABEX CORP , Railroad Products Group Calvin E Smith 

ABRASIVE SPECIALISTS. INC Dennis L Olsen 

AEROQUIP CORPORATION (Industrial Division) HA. Pullis 

AIR RESEARCH. INC Jim Upchurch 

AL-CHEM. INC Wm. R. Allen, Sr. 

THE ALGOMA STEEL CORP . LTD Alex Stewart 

ALLEGHENY DROP FORGE COMPANY. Subsidiary of TASA Corp Rennie Fontham 

AMERICAN EQUIPMENT COMPANY Thomas L. Mabr>' 

AMERICAN HOIST & DERRICK CO W. A. Kallas 

THE ANDERSON COMPANY Kenneth C. Davis 

APEX RAILWAY PRODUCTS COMPANY Norman F Woods 

ARMCO. INC.. Construction Products Division Robl. Evans 

ARTHUR RAILROAD SPIKELOCK CORP H. K, Levy 

ASPLUNDH CO. RAILROAD DIVISION Frank B. Grant 

ATLANTIC MAINTENANCE OF WAY CO Karl L. Lindmark 

ATLANTIC RAILROAD SUPPLY CO Bernie Carey 

ATLANTIC TRACK & TURNOUT CO John L. Schafer 

ATLAS RAILROAD CONSTRUCTION CO Wm. F. Stout 

AVERY INTERNATIONAL James T. Keefe 

B K RAILWAY SUPPLY CO R. H. Katzenberger 

BALTEAU ELECTRIC CORPORATION Tony Ruiz 

R. BANCE&CO. LTD R, Bance 

BELCO INDUSTRIES. INC Carolyn Cantrell 

BEREMA. INC Robt. J. Giacobbe 

BERMINGHAMMER CORP.. LTD MA. Fine 

BETHLEHEM STEEL. CORP W.T. Anthony 

THE R. H. BOGLE COMPANY John B. Bogle 

BRASON CONSTRUCTION CO.. INC James D. Bragg 

BTREC. INC John R. S. Baxter 

BUFFALO CRUSHED STONE, INC Fred W. Finger 

BURRO CRANE. INC C. G. Edwards 

CF& I STEEL CORPORATION F.O. Johnson 

CALORITE. INC Gerald R. Dolce 

CAMCAR-TEXTRON John Kostka 

CANREP LIMITED B. T. Faughnan 

CENTRAL ENGINEERING CO., INC Thomas J. Goulet 

CHEMETRON CORPORATION Chas. H. Brandstrom 

CHEMGROUT. INC Doring Dahl 

CHEMI-TROL CHEMICAL COMPANY Jas. R. LaBenne 

CHEVRON CHEMICAL COMPANY W. W. Hancock 

CIBA-GEIGY CORP E. C. Carver, Sr. 

THE CLEVELAND STEEL TOOL CO Everett Ball 

COMET EQUIPMENT CO.. INC Lloyd Muirhead 

CONLEY FROG & SWITCH CO Wm. Conley Reilly 

CONSTRUCTION & MINING SERVICES. INC N. W. Hillegass 

COSGROVE ENTERPRISES, INC J. C. Cosgrove 

CROWN ZELLERBACH Dale Meyer 

DAPCO INDUSTRIES, INC Dominick A. Pagano 

DAVIDSON-KENNEDY COMPANY J. A. Isaacs 

DAYCO CORP.. Railroad Products Division D. L. Kleykamp 

JOHN DEERE OEM SALES Michael A. Shaw 

C. DELACHAUX Jacques Darre 

DESQUENNE-GIRAL J. C. Fouilland 

DEUTZ CORPORATION Werner Schmitz 

DIFCO. INC Robt. J. Ward 

DIVERSIFIED METAL FABRICATORS. INC Douglas S. Davis 

DOW CHEMICAL USA G. L. Ytzen 

E. I. DuPONT deNEMOURS & CO T. J. Hernandez 

DU-WEL STEEL PRODUCTS CO Ivo Zoso 

EFSA C. R. Shabetai 

EASTERN RAILWAY SUPPLIES. INC John W. Samson 

ELANCO PRODUCTS COMPANY J. N. Cash 

ELASTIC SPIKE CORP. OF AMERICA Hans von Lange 

ENERPAC Michael Kleinhans 

ESCO-EQUIPMENT SERVICE CO T.L. Hoffman 

EVANS/RAILWAY TRACK-WORK CO Geo. B. Lynch 

FAIRMONT RAILWAY MOTORS, INC.. Div. of Harsco Corporation Avon Lane 

FEDERAL SIGNAL CORPORATION, Security Products Division James A. Murray 

FEDERAL STEEL & WIRE CORP Arthur L. Lemer 

FERROSTAAL CORPORATION Peter H. Elting 

FIL-TEC, INC Vincent Schoeck 

FINNING TRACTOR & EQUIPMENT CO Bruce Wright 

FONDERIES ET ACIERIES DOUTREAU M. Vannieuwenhuyse 

L. B. FOSTER CO R. A. Pietrandrea 

FOUNDATION EQUIPMENT CORP Allan MacKinnon 

FULTON SUPPLY COMPANY Idus O. Cooper 

GALION MANUFACTURING CO T. R. Westrope 

GENERAL RAILWAY SIGNAL CO Jas. W. Rafferty 

THE GENERAL TIRE & RUBBER CO Gary L. Fordyce 

GENSTAR COSTAIN TIE CO. LTD J. G. White 

DON L. GIBSON Don L. Gibson 

GOOD EARTH TOOLS. INC Keith P. Williams 

GOODYEAR TIRE & RUBBER COMPANY D. E. Johnson 

J. J. GRACIANOCORP John V. Goray 

GRADALL DIVISION, WARNER & SWASEY/BENDIX Rod. J. Reese 

GRAYSTONE CORPORATION R. A. Weber 

GRINAKER PRECAST (PTY) LTD J. C. Havinga 

HABCO. INC Donald E. Home 

D. W. HALLBERG COMPANY D. W. Hallberg 

HECKETT DIVISION OF HARSCO CORPORATION Fred Schaffner 

HERZOG CONTRACTING CORP Wavne E. Wilson 



—Maintenance Suppliers Association, Inc. 



HIGH-LITE CORK)RATION Wayne Comsiock 

DONALD J IKXiAN & CO Donald J. Hogan 

HOLLAND COMPANY, Railweld Division R. H. Walsh 

HOLLHY hNGINHLRINCi CO . INC John Holley 

HOUSTON RAIL A; LOCOMOTIVt. INC Patrick O'Neal 

HOVhY & ASSCX'IATKS (1979) LTD Dick Boogen 

HL'CK MANL I AC TIRING COMPANY. Industrial Fastener Division bdward Siames 

HYDRO AIR KNGINLhRlNG. INC R. B Robinson 

IKHOLDLN LTD Wm. Zackarkiw 

INDl STRY RAILWAY SUPPLIERS. INC N. J. Grcgorich 

INI I RNATIONAL CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT. INC T. P. Cunningham 

INTKRNATIONAL TRACK SYSTEMS. INC Alfred E Carey 

ISRINGHAUSKN CRANE MANUFACTURING. INC D Isnnghausen 

J & A MACHINERY CO Joseph Mazoff 

JACKSON JORDAN. INC Joseph H. Bush 

T. C JOHNSON COMPANY T. C Johnson 

KERSHAW MANLF.ACTURING CO.. INC J. Knox Kershaw 

K I M. STEEL & RAIL CO. LTD D W Sharman 

KLCXTKNER. INC Klaus Koelhng 

KOEHRING CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT Wm A Kalcic 

KOEHRING CO ■ KOEHRING EXCAVATORS John M Hussin 

KOPPERS COMPANY. INC R L Lamz 

LSP INDUSTRIES. INC Raymond LaMamia 

LANDIS RAIL FASTENING SYSTEMS. INC R. J Quiglcy 

LASER ALIGNMENT. INC H.J Lannmg 

HARRY LEE & SONS. INC L. E Martin 

LEFTON IRON & METAL CO Robi Radmsky 

U-MATERIEL de VOIE M L Riboi 

LEWIS aOLT & NUT CO Duanc Hansen 

LEWIS RAIL SERVICE CO Phil L Uwis 

LISTER DIESELS. INC Peter L. Frayling 

LITTLE GIANT CRANE & SHOVEL. INC Jerry Heckman 

LODI EQUIPMENT. INC J. B Carter 

LORAM MAINTENANCE OF WAY. INC G. A. Farris 

LUEBKE& AS.SOCIATES R. W Luebke 

M & W TCX)L COMPANY J E Crowell 

MACCAFERRI GABIONS. INC Alan D CrowhursI 

THE MARINDUS CO . INC Paul Vomvouras 

MATERIAL SERVICE CORPORATION M. E Winter 

MATIX INDL'STRIES Marcel Mutti 

McKAY RAIL PRODUCTS L. A. Sheppard 

MERCEDES BENZ OF NORTH AMERICA B. A L. Herberling 

MIDWEST SIEEI. CORPORATION Joseph Guilloyle 

MILWAUKEE WIRE PRODUCTS Ue Eberhardt 

MINER ENTERPRISES. INC Joseph G. Stark 

MISSISSIPPI SUPPLY COMPANY Clarence Gush 

MOBILE INTERNATIONAL CO.. INC W. H Shelton 

MODERN RAILROADS George Sokulski 

MODERN TRACK .MACHINERY. INC Jas. W, Lawson 

MODULUS C<)RI>ORATION Robl. T. Talabay 

MONSANTO COMPANY John W. Lcmkc 

.MONTEL METALS. INC Chas. K Heiden 

MCX)RE & STEELE CORP S. Lounsberry. Jr. 

MORRISONKNUDSEN CO . INC.. Railroad Division Joseph Fearon 

MORRISON METALWELD PROCESS CORP Gary L. Smith 

.MOTOROLA COMMUNICATIONS & ELECTRONICS. INC J. Almcrantz 

THE NATIONAL RAILROAD CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE ASSN.. INC lary shields 

NELSON IRON WORKS. INC Gerald Nelson 

THE NOLAN COMPANY W. Richard Werner 

NORTON CCJMPANY Jas W Hum 

OCEAN COATINGS LTD J. B. Ledingham 

THE CMIO LCKOMOTIVE CRANE CO R E Wcmz 

OMARK TRAK LOK im RAILWAY FASTENERS Angelo DAlioma 

OSMOSE - RAILROAD DIVISION John W Slorcr 

PACIFIC GRINDING WHEEL COMPANY. INC Ronald J Olsen 

PACIFIC RAILWAY SALES. INC Arthur Aguiar 

PANDROL INCORPORATED Jon Schumaker 

PARK RUBBER COMPANY Frank Perry 

PETRCXJEN. INC Milt Heft 

PETTIBONh CORPORATION R J Cizck 

PETTIHONh OHIO CORPORATION Lee Herron 

PLASSLR A.MLRICAN CORPC:)RATION Josef Neuhofer 

FRANZ PLASSER CCJMPANY, S. A Erwm Troeiss 

POCKET LLST OF RR OFFICIALS Mane Todor 

J H PCJMEROY & CO A. L. Brown 

K)RTEC INC . RMC DIVISION R. D. Jackson 

K)RTEC INC . RAILWAY PRODUCTS DIVISION F. K. Semans 

POWER PARTS SIGN COMPANY Bill Bond 

PRESSURE CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION CO Daniel D Cole 

PRICE RUBBER CO.MPANY John Price 

PRCXiRESSIVL RAILROADING Frank Richter 

BERT PYKE LIMITED C. E. Pyke 

QULINH CORPCJRATION Ronald P Marsh 

RPC CORPORATION Eugene 1. Ocas 

RACINE RAILROAD PRODUCTS. INC G. W. Christiansen. Jr 

RAFNA INDU.STRIES LIMITED Gordon W. Frail 

RAILHEAD CORPORATION Harry Robenson 

RAILMASTERS ABRASIVES DIVISION. Universal Grinding Wheel Co John A Baker 

RAILROAD CONTRACTORS. INC J. M. McGrath 

RAILROAD FRICTION PRODUCTS CORP E.W. Kojsza 

RAILROAD MAINTENANCE & CONSTRUCTION. INC L. N. Hambrick 

RAILROAD WEED CONTROL. INC John B Roy 

THE RAILS COMPANY W C Sneed 



REMSA Member Companies, Cont. 

RAILTRACK INC R. P. Underwood 

RAILWAY EQUIPMENT CO David Fox 

RAILWAY PRODUCTS/MARMON TRANSMOTIVE :.., R. C. Crosby 

RAYCHEM CORPORATION H. K. Malkani 

REACH ALL SALES. INC Ralph L. Daniel 

REFORESTATION SERVICES, INC G. E. Liming 

THE REINFORCED EARTH COMPANY D. P. McKittrick 

REMAFER Marc LePeu 

REXNORD INC.. Railway Equipment Division Don Himes 

ROADWAY STABILIZATION. INC Buddy Payton 

RUSSELL RAILWAY SUPPLY H. F. Russell 

RUST-OLEUM CORPORATION Robt. Hoffmeyer 

SAB HARMON INDUSTRIES, INC Robt. G. Clawson 

S. E. I Jacques Darre 

SRS AMERICA Wm. Moorhead 

SSI INDUSTRIES. INC.. Railway Products Division Edw. B. Lee 

SAFETRAN SYSTEMS CORPORATION Wm. F. Cogdill 

ST. ANN'S MFG. INC. 4 C. H. LaMorte 

SATEBA INTERNATIONAL S. A Claude Cazenave 

H. A. SCHLATTER AG Slephan Kunz 

SCHROEDER BROTHERS CORP W. J. Donoughe 

SECURITY LOCKNUT. INC David C. Cameron 

SEFAC TRADING CORP H. T. Hawkes 

SENECA RAILROAD* MINING INC John E. Miller 

SILIKAL NORTH AMERICA, INC Manfred Grove 

SIMMONS-BOARDMAN PUBLISHING CORP Wm. J. Semioli 

STANLEY H. SMITH & CO.. INC Roland G. Hargreaves 

WM. A. SMITH CONSTRUCTION CO., INC Chas. C. Smith 

SNYDER COMPANY Geo. H. Snyder 

SOCADER Jean Ronco 

SOUTHERN MACHINE PRODUCTS, INC Ross H. Francis 

SPENO RAIL SERVICES, CO B. G. Hudson 

SPERRY RAIL SERVICE DIVISION W. J. Gallagher 

SPERRY VICKERS R. J. Mitchell 

STANLEY TOOLS John Tabellione 

STEDEF INC John Harmsen 

STORBURN David R. Stempin 

STRATOFLEX, INC R. J. Ghiz 

STRUCTURAL RUBBER PRODUCTS CO Jacob O. Whitlock 

SUMITOMO CORPORATION OF AMERICA Yasuhisa Iwanaga 

SWEDISH RAIL SYSTEM AB SRS Ingvar Svenson 

SZARKA ENTERPRISES, INC Paul J. Szarka 

3M COMPANY Hugh Wooldridge 

TAMCO, INC Joseph Soffer 

TAMPER (DIV. CANRON CORP.) Frank Ross 

TELEDYNE WISCONSIN MOTOR CO Robert L. Hergert 

TELEWELD, INC H. L. Slough 

TEMPLETON, KENLY & CO David B. Scott 

THREE-D STEEL .SUPPLY, INC Mark Hubener 

TIPCO, INC. (Track Bit Div.) J. Tickens 

TRAKLEASE, INC B. Payton 

TRANSIT PRODUCTS, INC Hugh M. Mize 

TRANSPORTATION PRODUCTS CO John D. Miller 

TRAVAUX DU SUD QUEST Loic Perron 

TRAX, INC Jim Pugh 

TRUE TEMPER CORPORATION, Railway Appliance Division Chas. H. Brandstrom 

TUBE-LOK PRODUCTS, Div. Portland Wire & Iron Works M. E. McGahan 

UNION CARBIDE AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS CO J. Mih Nunn 

THE UNION FORK AND HOE COMPANY C. E. Gifford 

UNIT RAIL ANCHOR COMPANY D. C. Trites 

UNITED RAILWAY MACHINE SHOP C. C. Hutchinson 

UNITED STATES RAILROAD SERVICES Ken MacKinnon 

UNITED STATES STEEL CORP Stewart N. Pool 

UNITED STEEL & FASTENERS, INC Ike Sargis 

U. S. THERMIT. INC T. J. Wooley 

VALE-HARMOR ENTERPRISES LTD Harvey J. Vale 

VAPOR CORPORATION. Transportation Systems Division A. M. Jarzombek 

VELSICOL CHEMICAL CORP George F. Stover 

VICTAULIC COMPANY OF AMERICA Millard S. Cover 

VULCAN MATERIALS COMPANY Joe K. Lynch 

WABCO-UNION SWITCH & SIGNAL DIVISION C. Biehl 

WACKER CORPORATION Hans Tielgen 

JAMES WALKER MFG. CO Roy Berwick 

THOS. W. WARD (RAILWAY ENGINEERS) LIMITED James J. Hancock 

WARNING LITES OF ILLINOIS Daniel C. Donovan 

THE WARREN GROUP. Div. Warren Tool Corp W. A. Stephenson, Jr. 

WELLINGTON INDUSTRIES, INC Rebecca E. Stiles 

WESTERN-CULLEN-HAYES. INC R. L. McDaniel 

WESTERN SLING CO Harry L. Truitt 

WESTERN STATES SUPPLY CO C. W. Turner 

WESTINGHOUSE BRAKE & SIGNAL CO. (AUSTRALIA) PTY. LTD C. L. Kent 

WHEELING-PITTSBURGH STEEL CORP Paul J. Kotsenas 

WHITE ENGINES, INC Edgar H. Hannum 

WILLIAMS & WORKS, INC Harlen W. Myers 

WINTER'S RAILROAD SERVICE, INC Edwin R. Winter 

WOODBINE CORPORATION Paul Wright 

WOODINGS CANADA, Division of G S P Management Ltd D. N. Noseworthy 

WOODINGS-VERONA TOOL WORKS W. F. Siebart 

WOOLERY MACHINE CO L. E. Woolery 



OFFICERS 1982-1983 

(Current March 21, 1983) 




R. E. Haacke 

PresUienl 

District Engineer 

Union Pacific Railroad 




H. L. ROSE 

Sr. Vice President 

Asst V.P., MoW & Structures 

Southern Railway 




V. R. Terrill 

Jr. Vice President 

Vice President-Engineering. 

Boston & Maine Corp. 



Mike Rougas 

Past President 

Chid Lnginccr 

Bessemer & Luke l;ric 



I 




Wm. Glavin 

Past President 

Vice President-Administration 

Grand Trunk Western 

(Retired January 31, 1983; W. S. 

Autrey assumed this position for the 

last two months of his term) 



W. S. Lovelace 

Treasurer 
Assistant Vice President 
Engineering and Research 
Southern Railway System 




L. T. Cerny 

Executive Director 

American Railway 

Engineering As.sociation 



DIRECTORS 1982-1983 




B. J. Gordon 

Chief Engineering Officer 
Consolidaled Rail Ciirp 




J. C. HOBBS 

Chief Engineer 
RF&P Railroad 




JR. Masters 

Chief Engineer-Maintenance 
Burlington Northern 




P. R. Richards 

I9S2-I9KJ 

Chief Engineer 

CN Rail 




G. Rodriguez 

I9HI-I9li3 

Chief Engineer 

Nde M 




W. E. Brakhnsiek 

I9HI-I9H4 

Assistant Chief Engineer 

Missouri Pacific 




J. D. Jardine 

I9HI-I9H4 

Assistant Chief Engineer 

Canadian Pacific Ltd. 




D. E. Turney. Jr 

I9HI-I9H4 

Asst Chief Engr.-Mainl. 

Norfolk and Western 




H. G. Webb 

I9SI-I9H4 

Assistant Chief Engineer 

Atchison. Topeka and Santa Fe 




R. E. Frame 

/w2-/y,s5 

Chief Engineering Officer 

Family Lines 




M. D. Kenyon 

I9K2-I9H5 

Asst Chief Engineer 

Denver & Rio Grande Western 




A. L. Ma^nak!) 

191^2 NX > 

Dir Engrg. Mat. Cntl. 

Chessie System 




. B. Peterson 

I9H2-I9H5 

Chief Engineer 

Soo Line 



> 



American Railway 
Engineering Association 

Bulletin 692 

MAY 1983 

Proceedings Volume 84 (1983) 



CONTENTS 

Cutting Through (Cover Feature) 14/ 

Address by President Haacke. 1983 Technical Conference 14J 

Headquarters Report by Executive Director L. T. Cerny 15C 

Treasurers Statement by W. S. Lovelace 15^ 

Luncheon Address by J. C. Kenefick 15J 

Reports From 1983 Technical Conference 

Line Relocations on the U. P 16C 

Rail Grinding Tests Carried Out on CP Rail 161 

Du Pont Safety Management and Safety on the Railroad 191 

Summary of Second International Heavy Haul Conference Papers 20C 

Special Reports 

Ballast Performance Evaluation with Box Tests 201 

Distribution of Temperature Stresses along the Continuously Welded Rails 

(CWR) 24- 

A Method for Determining the Track Modulus using a Locomotive or Car on 

Multi-Axle Trucks 26J 

Track Design to Prevent Long Pitch Rail Corrugation 28J 

Published as Information by Committees 

Timber Structures (7) 30' 

Economics of Railway Construction and Maintenance (22) 30; 

Maintenance of Way Work Equipment (27) 30{ 

Memoirs 317 



Cover Photo: Amtrak Tram No. 440 cuts through Washington Grove. Maryland at height 
of 21 inch snowfall of Feb. 11. 1983. 



Published by the 

American Railway Engineering Association 

2000 L St., N. W. 

Washington, D. C. 20036 




Neoprene 
Bridge Bearing 
Pads 



Meets A.R.E.A 
specifications 




Neoprene bearings 
between bridge 
girders, beams, and 
abutments absorb 
thermal expansion 
and contraction 
better than mechanical 
assemblies. 

Neoprene's resistance 
to weather-aging, 
compression set, oil, 
and ozone insures a 
long service life and 
no maintenance in 
this application. 

Use Neoprene Bearing Pads for: Rai 
Elevated roads, Walk ways, Column 



• Accommodates thermal 
movement 

• Provides uniform load" 
transfer 

• Prevents structural fatigue 
from expansion-contraction 
and vibration-shock 

• Available in hardness, 
durometer A, grades 50, 60, 
and 70 

• Neoprene bearing pads 
withstand temperatures from 
-50° to +200° F. 

• Durable and maintenance-free 

• Isolates components of 
bridges, building, or structures 
against vibration, noise, and 
shock 

Is, Bridge spans, Approach ramps, 
to footing isolation. 



HLC^ I manufacturing and 



supply CO. 



1848 Wilmot Avenue • Chicago, III. 60647 
Phone: (312) 452-6480 








Cutting Through 



I 



One of the great advantages of railways is their rehability in bad weather situations due to 
the high contact pressure between wheel and rail, which is often in excess of 50,000 pounds per 
square inch. This can cut through snow and ice, as well as crush many objects placed on the track 
by nature or vandals. This advantage is often overlooked in comparisons with proposed alternate 
high speed modes such as magnetically levitated vehicles, which could easily be disabled by a 
few inches of ice, a snowstorm, or an object like a brick, stone, or small log thrown on the 
guideway. 

The photo on the cover shows Amtrak train No. 440, the Chicago-Washington "Capitol 
Limited", running on the Chessie System through Washington Grove, Maryland at the height of 
the great northeast U.S. snowstorm of Februarv 11, 1983, which dumped 21 inches of snow and 
paralyzed other modes of transportation. Amtrak trains on other lines ran safely at 110 m.p.h. 
with snow over the tops of the rails. 

The photo above shows a westbound Chessie train heading through Gaithersburg, Mary- 
land, at normal speed the morning after the storm, confident of easily cutting through the packed 
snow and ice of the road crossing in the foreground. 



147 




The Allegheny Insulated Rail Joint 

Designed to withstand the heaviest traffic 
in welded rail 



This modern joint cements rail ends in position and thereaftef 
resists ail forces imposed by temperature and simultaneous forces 
of live loads to move them. 

This joint makes welded rail truly continuous. It promises you years 
of service without maintenance costs. It reduces rail and wheel batter 
fo a previously unknown minimum. It employs the safety of steel splice 
bars. It can be assembled in the shop or field. It has been tested in 
service and AAR laboratories. It saves you lots of money. 

Allegheny Drop Forge Company 

Subsidiary of Tasa Corporation 
2707 Preble Avenue • Pittsburgh, Pa. 15233 



Presidential Address 

Roland E. Haacke* 



Good morning. Members ot the American Railway Engineering Association, Ladies, and 
Guests. Welcome to the opening session of our 1983 Annual Technical Conference. 

We welcome the ladies, especially, and hope that you will attend as many of the sessions as 
you may find o\ interest. We invite you. particularly, on Wednesday morning, at l():()() AM, to 
the installation of officers for 19X3-1984. This will be one of the highlights of the Conference. 

Despite difficult economic times, this past year has been a productive year for your 
organization. Membership in the ARHA exceeds 4, (MX). In the United States alone, more than 
140 railroads. transit authorities, and railroads-related governmental organizations are represen- 
ted. Members also represent 36 railroads in 21 foreign countries. 

It is no surprise to anyone m this room that the past year has been one of extreme difficulty 
throughout the railroad industry. Remember, though, nothing is ever so bad but that the 
government could make it worse! 

There is no need to dwell on these economic circumstances, with which everyone here is 
entirely familiar. The current situation requires everyone to reassess and re-evaluate what we are 
doing-and where we are going. 

It's easy to take a pessimistic attitude. 

A lecturer held before his audience a sheet of typing paper on which there was a large black 
dot, and asked what they saw. Many responded at once, "A black dot." 

"Can't anyone sec the white paper?", he asked. 

It's easy to .see the problems-what are the opportunities? 

Obstacles are those scary things you see when you take your eyes off your goal. 

The stumbling blocks of today may be the stepping stones of a better tomorrow. 

We've heard the admonition, "When the going gets tough, the tough get goingi" 

Our charge is to do well with one dollar, what anyone could do with two. 

We can, and should, emerge from this trial period more efficient and more effective than we 
were before. 

There have always been those who would characterize the railroad industry as an ailing 
industry — or even an invalid. Where such may have been the case, it appears the wheels of the 
wheelchair are about to begin spinning. After decades of being a public whipping-boy, the nation 
has finally come to recognize the value of its rail system. No industrial nation can live without an 
efficient and effective rail network. 

Our industry is in a period of dramatic change. Gone are the "days of the 4()"s," when 
40-foot box cars carried 40-ton loads at 40 miles an hour. We now have 100-ton cars, in unit 
trains of 12,000 tons or more, which are one-fourth to one-third the tonnage of the Battleship 
Missouri. Trailer and container trains regularly surpass the schedules of former passenger trains. 

From the hand labor of yesteryear, the railway supply industry has provided a host of 
equipment of all varieties. 
There are machines... 

to surface the track... 

to align the track... 



'IJisincl hnginoor. L'nion Pacilic Railrouil 



149 



150 Bulletin 692 — American Railway Engineering Association 



to remove and replace cross ties... 
to clean the track and the ballast... 
and even to place an entire new track structure! 

There are computers to document all the records, the defects, the deficiencies... the 
accomplishments. 

But for all the advanced technology, the huge machines, and the computers, these alone do 
not construct nor maintain a railroad. 

"Recipes don't bake cookies." 

Someone must still get the work done... effectively... safely... economically. 

You can't go wrong with the time-proven basics: 
Do it once. 
Do it right. 
Do it safely. 
Finish the job. 
Clean it up. 

We live in the Age of Management. 

We attend Management Seminars. 

We have "Management By Objective." 

I recently read an excellent book, which is in tune with the times, entitled "Management 
Plus." 

We have computers as a management tool. . .computers to manage our records. . . computers 
to manage our inventories. 

Many position titles and job titles are "Manager of Such-and-Such." 

We are told to "manage our time." 

For a fee, someone will manage our financial affairs. 

This period of history is probably at the zenith of "management." 

Well, whatever happened to good, old-fashioned LEADERSHIP? I'll venture to say that 
one dynamic LEADER is worth a dozen managers. 

The names of managers appear on the periodic reports; the names of leaders will live in 
memory and in history long after the reports and the individuals are gone. 

Wars aren't won by managers — they are won by LEADERS. 

Nations aren't founded by managers — they are founded by LEADERS. 

A nation, or a railroad, flat-on-its-back, can be revitalized by the inspiration of a LEADER. 

Someone observed: "What you ARE speaks so loud I can't hear what you are saying!" 

What are we doing to develop the skills, and particularly the qualities of leadership, in our 
industry? 

We complain about the younger generation... that they aren't content to go through what 
earlier generations had to... that they are impatient... that they want the goodies without the 
struggle or the wait. Be that as it may, many of them are idealistic and looking for a LEADER. 

Do we provide the leadership? Dedicated... original... aggressive... innovative? 

We can! 



Address by President Haacke 151 



We have the opportunity... and generally we have the experience. 

How might this be done? 

Know your people. Support them and encourage their initiative. "To handle yourselt, use 
your head; to handle others, use your heart." 

Listen . 

Be available. 

"Try to find out who's doing the work, not whos writing about it, controlling it, or 
summarizing it." 

Nothing will motivate your people more than to see their boss put in an honest day's work. 

Maintain a sense of curiosity. 

Don't take anything tor granted. 

Be there to see for yourself. 

Even if you're on the right track, you may get run over if you just sit there — and it is best to 
know which direction you're going! 

Support your industry with ENTHUSIASM. 

"The biggest mistake anyone can make is to believe he is working for someone else." 

Thank vou. 



ESCO 



• Rail Saws — Drills — Abrasive Saws 

• Anchor Applicators — Trak-Skans 

• Boutet — Field Welds 

• Grinding Wheels — Cut-Off Wheels 

• Yard Cleaners — Switch Undercutters 

Tie Destroyer — Welded Rail Trains 
Track Patrols — Portable Ramps 
Tie Unloaders — Tower Cars 

• Hydraulic Testers — System Fuel Trucks 

• Rail Welding — Hydr. Rail Stressors 

• Rail Vacuum Systems — Salt Spreaders 

• Switch Point Protectors — Gage Rods 

• Back Hoes 

• Lubricator Repair & Replacement Parts 

CHICAGO, IL — 312 939-0840 

PHILADELPHIA, PA — 215 752-0133 

PITTSBURGH, PA — 412 335-4130 

ST. LOUIS, MO — 314 421-6499 



Manufacturers 

Since 1938 
The Original 

HI-BALL 

OIL BURNING SWITCH HEATER 
BURNS 4 DAYS 



MISSISSIPPI SUPPLY COMPANY 

20-A Railway Exchange BIdg., 

611 Olive St. 

St. Louis, Missouri 63101 

Phone: Area Code 314 - 231-0930 



Headquarter's Report 

L.T. Cerny* 

Somos una red ferroviaria de tres paises. De los climas frios de los inviemos del norte al 
calor de las costas tropicas de Mexico estamos una red. De los cuidades grandes del este a los 
desiertos del oeste somos una red. Nosotros. los ferroviarios de Canada, Mexico, y Los Estados 
Unidos damos las bienvenidas unos a otros en esta reunion. 

We are one railway network in three nations. From the deserts of the west to the large cities 
of the east we are one network. From the heat of the coastal plains of Mexico to the cold of a 
northern winter, we are one network. We. the railroaders of the three countries, welcome each 
other as we begin this meeting. 

1982 was a challenging year for the A.R.E.A. which was rewarded by the changes in the 
F.R.A. track standards which went into effect November 1 , a successful technical conference, 
and a fine regional meeting which was held in connection with the R.E.M.S.A show and 
Roadmaster's and B&B meetings in New Orleans. It was marked by significant increases in 
membership, which now stands at over 4000, and a full schedule of publications was maintained. 
Our 21 technical committees continued their fine work on keeping our recommended practices 
current and keeping themselves involved in the cutting edge of improvement in our profession. 

Due to the overall economic recession in 1982, A.R.E.A. income fell badly due to an 
important and sudden drop in publication sales, especially first-time sales of Manuals and 
Portfolios, and such sales have been the heart of A.R.E.A. finances. I urge you to keep this in 
mind, and to recommend the purchase of the Manual and Portfolio to people from outside the 
industry who may call you with questions. 

As will be detailed in the treasurer's report, which follows this, our 1983 budget is planned 
to maintain or improve our financial situation in 1983 even if it turns out to be a somewhat worse 
year than 1982. This has been done by eliminating one person from the headquarters staff, which 
has ofcour.se increased the burden on those remaining, by changing publication schedules and 
formats, and by increasing dues and conference fees. By .scrutinizing closely what we have been 
doing, we can end up with an improved situation at lower cost, and I believe the 1983 directory 
issue is a good example of this. 

It continues to be an exciting time of change in Railway Civil Engineering. New concepts in 
rail grinding are being used to increase rail life under heavy traffic and even the traditional 
concept of tamping is being challenged by the techniques of injecting stone under the ties by air 
pressure. Both these items will be covered by features at this conference. 

In the United States, line changes to improve our operations and new bridges to carry 
heavier loads continue to be built despite the adverse economic climate, as three of our features 
will detail . Major new lines and tunnel projects continue in Canada and new high-speed lines and 
other improvements continue to progress in Mexico. Work on the Northeast Corridor is now 
paying off in 2 hr. 49 min. schedules for the 224 miles between New York and Washington, 
including three intermediate stops, by far the fastest time ever for such a run on this line, and even 
faster schedules are proposed. Our tracks are generally in the best shape they have been for over 
20 years, ready to take the additional business that will come with economic recovery. New rail 
transit systems are now under construction or being expanded in over a dozen cities on our 
continent. 

We look forward with anticipation to many additional improvements, and to special 
A.R.E.A. events, such as the 1984 regional meeting, which will be held in MexicoCity October 
25 and 26. 1984. and of course the People-to-People professional railway engineering trip to 
China the month after next. 



•Executive Diretlor. AREA and Engineenng Division. AsstKialion of Amencan Railroads 

153 



154 Bulletin 692 — American Railway Engineering Association 



I have been especially grateful for my staff in Washington in this year of challenge. Judi 
Meyerhoeffer, who recently completed her first year with the organization, has done an 
outstanding job as Manager-headquarters, and has reduced many costs drastically without 
sacrificing quality, and has taken on many additional duties due to the reduction in staff. 

Art Grotz has also been very successful in handling many additional publication duties in 
addition to his fine work with the committees. 

Gary Wade was promoted to the position vacated by Cynde Kraft and is here helping with 
the conference for the first time this year, and has also taken on many additional duties to make up 
for the lost position. 

Maria Thomas has been my secretary since June and is now handling the headquarters office 
on her own during the convention, and has had a heavy work load this year. 

I want to express my appreciation to President Haacke and the rest of the Board for their fine 
support and guidance through a difficult year, and to Treasurer Scott Lovelace, who will be 
giving the next part of the presentation. 



ONE TIE GANG. 
L500+ TIES PER DfflC 




1.518 ties per day, under traffic, 
is an impressive average for a 
railroad tie gang. Yet Regional 
Tie Gang # 2 of Burlington 
Northern's Springfield Division 
has often beat that average, re- 
placing as many as 2,046 ties in 
less than 5V2 hours with just 45 
men and 19 pieces of equipment. 
Most of the latter were made by 
Fairmont. 

Find out how Fairmont 
maintenance-of-way equipment 
can help you upgrade the pro- 
ductivity of your own crews. 
Write or call Fairmont Railway 
Motors, Fairmont, Minnesota 
56031. (507)235-3361. 



FAIRMONT PRODUCTS INCLUDE: 

• Inspection, section, and gang 
motor cars • Tie shears, handlers, 
removers, inserters, and sprayers 

• Spike pullers and drivers • Hy- 
Rail equipment • Rail grinders • 
Track liners • Track lining light 
and wire • Push cars and trailers 

• Tow tractors • Derrick cars • Rail 
lifters • Tie bed scarifiers • Tie 
plug inserters* Hydraulic tools 



...for help along The Way. 



A DIVISION OF 



(fil hansco 

I5SI CORPORATION 



Fairmont Ad No 82-205 
Page BW (4' 2 x 6^4 ) 
A.R.E.A. Bulletin -Nov 
D'Arcy-MacManus & Masius Upls 




H! 



JACKSON 

TAMPERS 

MODELS 

900 6500 
2400 6000 
2600 7000 

and Hand Tampers • Tie Inserters • Automatic Switch Tampers 

JORDAN 

DITCHERS 
SPREADERS SNOWPLOWS 

We sell, lease, rent, rebuild 

JACKSON JORDAN INC. 



P.O. Box 95036, 1699 East Woodfield Road • Schaumburg, IL 60195 
(312) 843-3995 Cable: JAKTAMP 



Treasurer's Statement 
For 1983 Area Technical Conference 

W.S. Lovelace* 

Ladies and Gentlemen, 

1982 was a difficult year for many organizations due to the harsh economic situation that 
existed then and still exists today. 

The A.R.E.A., being a non-profit organization, has used surpluses in good years to balance 
losses in poor years, and so was able to absorb a S44.(X)() loss in 19X2 without anv serious effects 
on our organization. In the fouryears since headquarters was moved to Washington, our finances 
have been positive by over S6.0(K) for that period, which includes the loss of 1982. 

The Board of Direction. Headquarters staff and myself, have realized, however, that the 
organization had to prepare itself for the possibility of several lean years in a row, therefore, 
several cost-cutting measures were instituted, including a reduction in the Headquarters staff 
from 6 to 5. arid changes in publication formats and schedules. As you are aware, dues and 
conference fees were increased to avoid losses in these areas. 

A budget has been made for 1983 which will show a small positive cash flow; even if 1 983 is 
a worse year than 1982. and these costs will continue to be closely watched. 

Over the last 4 years, total assets have increased by approximatly $50,000, and our 
organization continues to have a sound financial basis. 

Thus, while the flnancial health of the organization requires careful watching, I believe we 
can be optimistic about weathering this recession in good shape and will see 1983 as a profitable 
year. 

As an early indication of this, I can report to you that the flrst two months of 1983. show 
expenses below budget and income above budget. 

Thank you. 



*As!.islant Vice President-Engineering & Research. Southern Railway 

157 




The Ever-Dependable Wood Crosstie 

(Good news down the line) 



in this world of shrinking natural 
resources, it's comforting to know 
there 5 at least one resource that is 
literally growing The proven, 
dependable wood crosslie We're 
growing mem tasler than we re 
using ttiem 

It's a good thing On down the line 
we'll need 30 million new crossties a 
year to keep America rolling That's 
a pretty tall order But l^an and 
Nature — working together — began 



tilling It years ago 
In the century and a half since 
crosstie technology emerged from 
the stone age. modern improvements 
in drying and treating wood have 
extended the average life of the 
crosstie five fold from about six 
years to 30 years and up 
Today, the modern wood crosstie 
lasts longer than it takes to grow a 
tree big enough to make one or 
more new crossties 



Nature IS doing her part, too 
Hardwood growth now exceeds 
annual cutting by more than 75°'ii 
And that inventory— especially in 
crosstie-size trees— is increasing 
American Commerce has a lot 
riding on the strength and growlh of 
the Nation s Railroads And our 
Railroads can bank on the ever- 
dependable wood crosstie to carry 
Its share of the load Right down 
the line. 

Koppers Company. Inc. 
Pittsburgh, PA. 15219 

KOPPERS 

Architectural and 
Construction Materials 



Luncheon Address 

John C. Kenefick* 

Thank you. for that kind introduction. I am pleased to be here in such distinguished 
company, particularly that of your honored president. Mr. Roland Haacke. Mr Haackc spends 
his time, when he is not at a convention, working lor a large western railroad. 

He has often said that engineers are highly paid and skilled professionals. I agree with some 
of that statement. 

As you may know, my education is also as an engineer. It is a revered calling. We have 
given the nation many of its most useful inventions. The Edsel comes to mind, but I am sure there 
are others. 

In a more serious vein, our profession is one that is being called on to perform better than it 
ever has before. The challenge of making the best engineering decision with an accountant 
looking over your shoulder is one of the hardest realities we face. 

Just as with us. I'm sure you've taken a hard look at what you are doing and why. No doubt 
you've found some fat- — so have we. It's gone and it won't be back. Not even when the good times 
return. 

If there is something good to be said about a recession, it would be that we are forced to get a 
better handle on expenses. 

We look at the number of people who are needed to handle maintenance, or whether we 
indeed need a particular project done at this time. Track doesn't require as much maintenance 
when trafffic is down. It's the number of trains you run and the speed at which you run them that 
dictates the amount of work you must do on the track. 

So. we cut our engineering budget several times last year. We hope we won't have to do the 
same this year. All the while we remain flexible so we have the people and money available to 
respond if and when they are needed. 

There's also another new situation facing all of us. For nearly a century, railroads have been 
under a tightly controlled federal umbrella that protected them from some of the forces in a free 
market. 

That all changed with passage of the Staggers Act and related actions of the ICC. 

Across-the-board rate increases are going out the window. Rate bureaus are beginning to 
look like buggy whips. In a way, we are like dozens of bidders at an auction. Long-range 
contracts with some of our shippers are now the order of the day. 

With all this facing us. we have to sharpen our pencils. Not only must we cut costs, we must 
also know more precisely what the bottom line costs are on every segment of our railroads. 

For example, assume Union Pacific is bidding on new business moving between Omaha and 
North Platte. One of the things we need to know is how much it costs us to maintain track over 
that particular segment of main line. 

Together with other cost information, this will tell us precisely how much we need to charge 
to make a profit on this one piece of business. 

That is why our engineering department is attempting to devise a quick, accurate way of 
calculating our track maintenance costs over any particular segment of our line. If we don't do it, 
we will either lose the business or lose money. That's what the free market is all about. 

In looking at our total engineering and maintenance costs, we can detemiine what our 
average cost has been over a period of time for our entire system. 

Let's say the average maintenance cost is assigned a cost factor of three. 



•Chairman. Union Pacific-Missouri Pacific. 

159 



160 Bulletin 692 — American Railway Engineering Association 

Now, the line between Omaha and North Platte costs less to maintain than does the line 
between Salt Lake City and Los Angeles. 

This less expensive track segment in Nebraska may end up being assigned a maintenance 
cost factor of 2 while the more expensive Salt Lake-to-Los Angeles segment might be assigned a 
cost factor of 4. 

With all the other operating costs included, we'll plug this maintenance cost factor into a 
formula that should give us a quick, easy way to calculate our total costs of handling any particular 
piece of traffic between any two points on our system. 

You can see how lowering engineering costs will help us to secure new business and hold 
what we have. 

So let's go back to what we are doing to slice away fat while maintaining a high service 
level. 

The best way to the poor house — as some railroads discovered too late — is poor track 
maintenance. 

There are some things we are doing — and intend to keep doing — so our track remains in top 
condition. 

For example, we use larger, heavier track materials than some might consider necessary. 
Eight and one-half by sixteen-inch tie plates are an example. 

We also use high quality ties. While we usually install about 600,000 to 750,000 ties 
annually, that's not a lot compared to most railroads of comparable size. The reasons for this are 
that we buy the best quality ties to start with, install large tie plates on them to eliminate 
mechanical wear, and, most importantly, don't take atie out of the track until there is no question 
in anxone' s mind about the need to do so. 

As our chief engineer Bob Brown was recently quoted as saying, "When we take out a tie, 
it's dead — or the guy taking it out will be." 

More than half of our 133-pound main line track now is continuous welded rail, which has 
extended our rail life and reduced our maintenance costs appreciably. A couple of years ago we 
also discontinued the practice of cutting in a short piece of rail whenever the detector cars found 
an internal defect in CWR . In most cases we now merely slice through the defect area with a rail saw 
and install a thermite field weld. This eliminates a lot of rail changeouts. 

We have also discontinued laying CWR on curves sharper than r30'. We now relay all of 
these curves with high strength alloy rail in 78-foot, jointed lengths. For many years we have 
practiced the policy of transposing the rail on curves once before the head becomes worn to the 
extent that it is necessary to relay. This practice increased the service life of rail in curves by 
approximately 25 percent with standard carbon rail. As traffic levels increased, however, the 
practice of transposing the rail in 1 , 440-foot strings became very time-consuming and labor 
intensive as there was not sufficient track time available between trains to get any productive 
work done. 

When we adopted the u.se of alloy rail in curves, we also adopted the practice of laying this 
rail in 78-foot, jointed lengths. This makes it possible for us to transpose or relay the rail under 
traffic and do it at a reasonable cost with a small force of men between train movements with very 
little delay to our time-sensitive traffic. 

We have been using alloy rail in all of our curve relays since 1979. It appears that this alloy 
rail will extend the service life of rail in curves from two to four times the life of standard carbon 
rail. 

We are also working with domestic steel producers to develop a higher quality standard 



Luncheon Address bv J. C. Kenetick 



carbon rail that is only available from foreign producers at this time. 

The standard carbon rail that we have been using for years, with its 248 minimum Brinell 
hardness, is simply not adequate to handle the heavy wheel loads and faster train speeds that we 
are now running. A rail steel with minimum 269 Brinell hardness is now available from domestic 
mills, but we are hoping to get them to produce a rail steel with a minimum 30() Brinell hardness 
for general use as standard carbon rail. 

Whether times are good or bad, we must keep up with the world of technology. It helps us to 
fight inflation and sf)end our dollars more wisely. 

In recent years the manufacturers of track maintenance machines have done a good job in 
developing machines that are more efficient, more productive and more accurate than their 
predecessors. While these modem machines did a lot to improve the quality of our track 
maintenance and reduce our costs, they became so sophisticated that they were extremely 
difficult to maintain in the field. This resulted in far too much down time with the machines in 
getting them repaired. 

Once again, technology is coming to the rescue as some manufacturers are now installing 
test circuits on their machines so that we can pinpoint the source of trouble immediately when it 
develops. Some are also now installing simple circuit boards that have eliminated hundreds of 
feet of wiring on the machines that make it possible in many cases to get the machine back into 
service quickly by merely changing the circuit board. 

Such developments help us do more with less. 

Even with all the new technology, we still believe there is no substitute for the men who do 
the day-to-day maintenance on our tracks. We continue to use section gangs, although they are 
not as large and have longer sections than in times past. 

You just can't go through an area once every one, two or three years with a big gang and 
expect everything to be sitting pretty until the next scheduled "cycle." 

In the end, you must inspect and repair on a day-to-day basis if you expect to keep up your 
track. 

Our detector cars hit heavily traveled parts of the main line every 60 days. This becomes 
even more critical during the colder months. 

That brings me to one last point: the merger. 

While Union Pacific and Missouri Pacific tracks are in good shape, we will need to do some 
extensive work on the Western Pacific line between Salt Lake and San Francisco over the next 
few years. 

We are committed to $90 million worth of track improvements on that thousand-mile line 
over a five-year period. It will involve a lot of improvements, including roadbed stabilization, 
rail relay work, including the use of high-strength alloy rail and large tie plates on curves, 
installing thousands of ties and other improvements. 

There will need to be more standardization of track parts among the three railroads to 
improve efficiency. We'll be able to take advantage of better price breaks through centralized 
purchasing. 

All of what I have talked about simply boils down to building more efficiency into our plant 
so that we can handle increased volumes at lower cost. More and more, our prices are going to be 
driven by our costs. 

In the end. the low-cost operator is going to be the one who survives. 

Thank you. 




SEALTITE HOOK BOLT 

Fastens timbers and ties to steel beams. Easy 
to install, long-life. Fins prevent turning. 
Spring lock holds tension. 




SEALTITE SPRING LOCK 

Maintains tension as timber 
changes by weather or wear. 



SEALTITE DOME HEAD DRIVE SPIKE 

Fastens timbers and plank decking on grade crossings, 
bridges and docks. Wide, smooth head seals opening, 
wears well. 




LEWIS WASHER HEAD TIMBER DRIVE SPIKE 
Fastens highway crossing planks, bridge guard rails and 
general timber construction. One-piece head. Easy to 
install and remove. 



e 



T i'Pl"^A7"I3 BOLT & NUT COMPANY 

504 MALCOLM AVE. S.E., MINNEAPOLIS, MINN. 55414 



HEAVY-DUTY 



Rail Lubricators 




• Easy Installation— no grinding or drilling 
required 

• No valves to stick or v»^ear out 

• Gear pump and ratchet arm submerged in 
grease 

• Effective distribution far beyond trackside 
location 

• Available in both single and double rail units, 
2-port or 4-port design 

• Extends rail life; reduces M/W costs 

Moore & Steele Corporation 

Owego, Tioga County, NY. 13827 U.S.A. 

(607) 687-2751 



Switch Point Protectors 




• Low initial cost, low replacement cost 

• Replaceable blade made of drop-forged alloy 
steel, heat-treated 

• Long service life 

• Quick installation 

• Fits right or left-hand switches 

• Available for prompt delivery 

• A quality product matched with quality service 

Call or write for our brochures 



n&'s 



® 



Line Relocations On The U.P. 

G.W. McDonald* 

Crestline, Nevada Main Line Change and Siding Relocation 

This project is located approximately 4 miles west ot the Utah-Nevada state line and 160 
milesnortheastof Las Vegas, Nevada in the Clover Mountains, and is the first of three locations I 
will be discussing on the Union Pacific Main Line between Salt Lake City and Los Angeles. This 
single track territory carries approximately 36 MMGT with CTC operation. 

Illustration # 1 shows an artist's conception of line change illustrating reduction of total delta 
506°-45' and with distance reduced 0.87 miles. The project included relocating and relaying 
6,900' of siding and 3.2 miles of main line change authorized in 9/8 1 at a total cost of $6,590 M. 



Crestline, Nev. 
Line Change 




Old Line 


10°02- 


5 67 Ml 


657-18 


NewLlM 


1°25' 


4.80 Ml 


150»33' 


Rsductlon 




a^TMi 


50e'45' 



4W 



% 



^ 



Barclay Line Change 

Authorization to construct 1 . 1 miles of line change atatotalcost of $1 .8 MM including 560 
M c.y. excavation at $1.64/c.y. within 180 calendar days. 

Illustration #2 shows an artist's conception of line change illustrating reduction in total delta 
of 70°-42' and distance reduced .07 miles. 



Barclay, Nev. 
Une Change 




MaxCurv* Total Langth IbW CMti 



Old Line 


9°15' 


1 41 Mi 


24r39' 


New Line 


5°00' 


1.34 Mi 


:^^■'^T 


Reduction 




0.07 Ml 


7a'42' 



^^si«L»"'^' 



*Dcsign & Conslruction Engineer. Union Pacific Railroad 



163 



164 



Bulletin 692 — American Railway Engineering Association 



Gait Line Change 

Construct 6,1 14 ft. siding and main line curve reduction. Authorized $1,467 M total on 
2/4/82. with contract awarded 2/ 17/82 which covered 195 Mc.y. excavation at $1.55/c.y. and 82 
M c.y. enbankment at $.40/c.y. for 120 calendar days. 

Illustration #3 shows an artist's conception of line change illustrating a reduction of 67°- 15' 
total delta and 0.12 miles distance. 



Gait, Nev. 
\ Line Change 




Old Line 


8<W 


1 34 Mi 


203°38' 


New Line 


5°00' 


1.22 Mi 


136°23' 


Reduction 




0.12 Ml 


67015' 



The Meacham Line Change 

The Meacham Line Change is approximately 1.5 miles long, on descending 2.0% grade 
from an elevation of 3680 MSL following Meacham Creek and included 4,200 ft. new track 
construction, as well as 4 new bridges and 4 major culvert locations, at a total cost of $4.63 
million, with 670 M c.y. excavation at $3.15/c.y. authorized 7/31/81. 

Illustration #4 shows an artist's conception ofline change illustrating a reduction of 200°-44' 
of total delta and 0. 1 1 miles in distance. 



Meacham, Oregon 
Line Chenge 




Old Line 


10°05' 


1 51 Mi 


478<'13' 


New Line 


6°00' 


1.40 Mi 


277°29' 


Reduction 




0.11 Ml 


200»44' 



ToPo«ll«nd- 



Continuous Welded Rail 



We will furnish everything for Cropping and Welding 
All we need is a level site and a pile of rail 



LEWIS RAIL SERVICE COMPANY 

44050 Russia Road Elyrla, OH 44035 
(216) 323-1277 



Shoulder Ballast Cleaner 




LORAM'S ALI^PRO TRACK 
REHABILITATION TEAM 



Loram has not only built but actually developed some 
of our industry's most Innovative track machinery. The 
sled, plow and shoulder ballast cleaner are examples 
of Loram ingenuity. They're part of a broad line of 
dependable track rehabilitation equipment that 
includes: 

LORAM RAIL GRINDERS (24-, 36-, 72- and 88-stone 

models) grind down to the rail corrugation valleys 
instead of into them, as other grinding methods do. 
Loram grinders restore rail without wasting rail metal. 

LORAM S DOUBLE TRACK AUTO PLOW, which 
plows ballast to the field side of double-track terri- 
tory, sets up faster than any competitive machine. 

LORAM S SHOULDER BALLAST CLEANER has the 

highest capacity of any machine on the market. It 
cleans ballast from the tie end to shoulder edge while 
a scarifier tooth breaks out fouled ballast. One pass 
and the track is broomed and ready to use. 

LORAM'S AUTOSLED/PLOW, with plowing and sled- 
ding components built right in, can be set up fast- 
actually in about 11 minutes. 



LORAM'S TIE INSERTER inserts five or more ties £ 
minute and can be easily adapted to handle concrete 
ties. Design simplicity and very accessible parts make 
the 1015 easy to maintain and repair. 

LORAM'S WINCH CART sets up solid as a rock anc 
has 70,000 pounds pulling power Replaces the worl- 
locomotive and crew normally used to pull undertrac(« 
equipment. 

For purchase or lease information contact: 

LORAM MAINTENANCE OF WAY, INC. 

3900 Arrowhead Drive • Hamel, Minnesota 55340 
(612) 478-6014 • Cable LORAM; Telex 29-0391 




Nobody buiMs it tougher. 
Or services it better. 



Rail Grinding Tests Carried Out on CP Rail 

W. Pak* and R. Gonsalves** 



SUMMARY 

The effect of an experimental rail grinding profile on wheel /rail 
contact configuration was evaluated on CP Rail through a series of tests 
on three curves (2, 4 and 8 degrees) with a captive test train consist. 
The tests comprimised one element of an overall test program to determine 
the effect of the experimental rail profile grinding on rail corrugations, 
shelling and high rail lateral forces. In addition, the effect of high 
rail flange lubrication and wheel profile variation on the steering 
behaviour of 100-ton freight car trucks were investigated. 

It was discovered that grinding the high rail gauge corner to 
alleviate shelling adversely affected lateral curving forces and wheel set 
angles-of -attack on curves of 4 degree and above and induced rapid 
plastic flow which restored the gauge corner profile to its naturally 
worn contour in less than 2 months (9 million gross tons of traffic). 
The grinding pattern on the field side of the low rail designed to 
alleviate corrugation was well retained on the three test curves following 
passage of the same tonnage. On the 2 degree curve a reduction of 
lateral forces and angles-of -attack was observed as a result of profile 
grinding. 

Field tests results confirmed that high rail flange lubrication 
induces a substantial increase in rail lateral forces and angles-of- 
attack. It was also noted that, on high curvature track, service worn 
wheels with higher effective conicity and larger flange clearance generate 
significantly less lateral force than new wheels. These results were 
also predicted by earlier curving simulation computer studies carried 
out at Canadian Pacific Research. 



'Position when paper was wrillen: Research Engineer. Research Dcpanment. Canadian Pacilic Limiled PresenI Position: Vehicle 
Dynamics Engineer. Locomotive Research and Development. Bombardier Incorporated. 
"Senior Research Engineer II. Research Depanment. Canadian Pacific Lid 

167 



168 Bulletin 692 — American Railway Engineering Association 



INTRODUCTION 

An experimental profile grinding pattern proposed for testing on CP 
Rail My the Canadian Institute of Guided Ground Transport (C.I.G.G.T.) 
was asymmetric with respect to the vertical axis of the rail and characte- 
rized by heavy grinding on the field side to alleviate false flange 
contact on the low rail. Additionally, the high rail gauge corner was 
ground to alleviate shelling. 

The objectives of the proposed profile grinding pattern were to 
delay the reoccurrence of low rail corrugations, to alleviate high rail 
gauge corner shelling and to reduce lateral forces and hence high rail 
gauge face wear by changing the wheel/rail contact configuration. This 
paper addresses the effect upon lateral curving forces resulting from a 
change in the wheel/rail contact configuration. The effect of high rail 
flange lubrication and wheel profile variation on curving performance of 
100-ton freight car trucks ves also investigated. 

The test program was divided into two phases. During the first 
phase baseline trackside data on lateral /vertical forces and wheelset 
angles-of -attack with a captive test consist was obtained. The second 
phase of testing ittmediately followed profile grinding of the rails. 
Identical measurements were repeated with the same captive test train 
consist to provide comparative data. 

TEST SITES 

Three test sites on CP Rail's Thompson Subdivision were chosen to 
generate comparative data on the effect of profile grinding on various 
degrees of curvature (2, 4 and 8 degrees). 

The three test curves were stringlined to measure track curvature. 
In addition, track gauge and superelevation were also measured (Ref. 1). 
One location in each of the three curves was chosen for installation of 
trackside instrumentation. Each test location was well within the fully 
developed section of the curve away from rail joints to minimize non-steady 
state curving behaviour of the test consist. 



Paper by W. Pak and R. Gonsalves 169 



TEST CONSIST AND PROCEDURE 

The captive test consist for the curving tests included 3 loco- 
nwtives, a dynamometer car and five laden 100-ton bathtub coal cars with 
Neumann profile wheels. The five laden 100-ton cars were withdrawn from 
revenue service between the two phases of the test program to avoid wheel 
profile variation between the two phases of testing. The test consist 
was as follows: 

3 6M SD40-2 locomotives 

Dynamometer Car 

CP 352439 - Barber-Scheffel Radial Trucks 

(Approx. 30,000 miles accumulated on wheels) 

CP 351530 - Barber S-2 Trucks with C-PEP 

(Approx. 30,000 miles accumulated on wheels) 

CP 351698 - Barber S-2 Trucks with C-PEP 
(Service worn wheels) 

CP 351580 - Barber S-2 Trucks (Service worn wheels) 

CP 349674 - Barber S-2 Trucks (Service worn wheels) 

The captive test consist, in the same orientation relative to the 
test curves, was run at various curving speeds through the instrumented 
test sites in both directions both before and immediately following profile 
grinding. At the end of each test series on the 4 and 8 degree curves, 
additional runs were made with the high rail gauge face lubricated by 
hand to investigate the effect of flange lubrication. 

TRACKSIDE INSTRUMENTATION AND DATA ACQUISITION 

Lateral/vertical forces at one location in each test curve on the 
high rail and low rail were measured by bonded strain gauges applied to 
the web and base of the rail. The strain gauge circuits used to measure 
lateral/vertical forces were of the chevron gauge pattern (Ref. 2). A 
vertical load measuring circuit was calibrated at three points on the rail 
head, ie. at its centre and on the field and gauge side to a maximum of 
30,000 lbs. and the lateral load circuit was calibrated to 20,000 lbs. 



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Paper by W . Pak and R. Gonsalvcs 171 

An angle-of -attack measurement system was used to determine the 
angle-of -attack of each wheelset relative to a radial line of the curve 
as well as the instantaneous wheelset speed during curve negotiation. 
This system was installed at the same location in the three test curves 
where the lateral/vertical forces were measured, in order to correlate 
measurements. The measurement system (Ref. 2) as illustrated in 
Figure 1, consisted of three low powered lasers and detectors on machined 
mounts, all affixed to an aluminum channel section. The aluminum channel 
was held on a rigidly fixed base in the ballast. A computerized processing 
unit computes and displays the measured angles and instantaneous axle 
speeds. 

Rail profiles at each of the three selected curves were recorded 
using CP Research Department's newly designed rail profilometer (Ref. 3). 
The rail profiles were obtained before grinding, immediately following 
profile grinding and approximately after 2 months (9 million gross tons 
of traffic). Wheel profiles on the five test cars in the captive test 
consist were measured using a Seiki wheel profilometer. 

EFFECT OF PROFILE GRINDING ON THE CURVING PERFORMANCE OF THE TEST CARS 

The two parameters chosen to compare curving performance before and 
after grinding were; lateral force at the leading outer wheel of each 
truck and the wheelset angle-of -attack. Lateral forces and angle-of- 
attack average data recorded on the three test curves before and after 
grinding are tabulated in Figures 2 and 3. 

From the high rail lateral force and angle-of-attack data, it can 
be seen that there was a consistent trend of decreasing lateral forces 
and angles-of -attack in the 2 degree curve whereas in the 4 degree curve 
there was an increase after grinding. In the 8 degree curve, at under- 
balance speed, average high rail lateral forces and angles-of-attack 
were unaffected by profile grinding. However, at higher speeds (track 
equilibrium speed of 25 mph), there was a more consistent trend showing 
that the lateral force increased after grinding (Ref. 1). The two 



172 Bulletin 692 — American Railway Engineering Association 



exceptions were the 'B' end truck of car CP 351698 and the 'A' end truck 
of car CP 349674 which showed a decrease in angles-of -attack after rail 
grinding. Car CP 349674 had unsyrranetrical worn wheel profiles and 
unstable angles-of-attack were recorded for these two trucks while 
traversing the test site. 

Since the rail grinding pattern was not identical for the three 
test curves, actual wheel and rail profile matching was carried out to 
investigate changes in lateral force and angle-of -attack on the three 
test curves. From rail profile matching, before and immediately after 
grinding as illustrated in Figure 4, it was found that the increase in 
lateral forces observed on the 4 degree curve after grinding resulted 
from heavy grinding on the gauge corner of the high rail on this test 
curve. Figures 5 and 6 illustrate the high rail flange contact con- 
figuration with a worn wheel before and after rail grinding. It can be 
observed that the non-conformal contact after grinding at the gauge 
corner of the 4 degree curve effectively shifted the tread contact point 
to a smaller rolling radius, thus adversely affecting effective wheel 
conicity and truck steering. 

On the 8 degree curve, high rail grinding was concentrated on the 
field side and less grinding was applied to the gauge corner and so did 
not alter the gauge corner profile significantly. However, light 
grinding likely resulted in unstable contact at the gauge corner, and 
was responsible for the increase in forces recorded during the higher 
speed runs (25 mph) on the 8 degree curve. On the 2 degree curve, gauge 
corner contact configuration is less important in truck steering, since 
the high rail lateral forces suggest that most trucks were either not 
flanging or only flanging lightly. The reduction in angle-of-attack and 
force is principally due to heavy grinding of the field side of the high 
and low rail to relieve false flange contact. 



The significance of gauge corner contact on different curvature 
track can be explained as follows: On high curvature tracks, when the 
lateral flange forces are generally high, the moment generated on the 



Paper by W. Pak and R. Gonsalves 173 

high rail has a tendency to rotate the rail head outward. This rail 
rotation tends to shift the contact point or the effective centre of 
pressure into the flange throat/gauge corner area. On low curvature 
track, lateral forces and rail head rotation is less severe, therefore 
the tread contact configuration is more dominant in affecting curving 
performance. 

Figure 7 illustrates the rail profiles at the 4 degree curve 
before grinding and approximately 2 months (9 million gross tons of 
traffic) after profile grinding was carried out. It can be seen that 
flange wear and plastic flow of metal into the gauge corner has completely 
restored the rail to its original contour in that area. However, the 
taper as a result of grinding on the low rail field side was still well 
retained and this was also found to be the case for the 2 and 8 degree 
curves. 

THE EFFECT OF HIGH RAIL FLANGE LUBRICATION ON TRUCK STEERING 

Theoretical Studies on High Rail Flange Lubrication 

In conjunction with the study on rail profile grinding, field data 
was collected to study the effect of rail flange lubrication on the 
steering characteristics of freight car trucks. Theoretical studies 
conducted, using a conventional 2-axle truck curving simulation program 
recently developed by CP Research, indicated that 3-piece trucks tend to 
parallelogram with high rail flange lubrication. The resulting equilibrium 
truck steering condition with flange lubrication generates higher angles- 
of -attack and lateral forces compared with the case when the rail gauge 
face is dry. 

The computer model used in the analyses was a non-linear steady 
state curving simulation model with 6 degrees of freedom, which included 
lateral displacements, yaw (angles-of -attack) , and angular velocities of 
the leading and trailing axles. Separate tread and flange contact 
points were assumed for the flanging configuration. The flange contact 
point is under a saturated slippage condition, with the friction force 




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Paper by W. Pak and R. Gonsalves 175 



vector computed directly from wheel/rail relative velocities. To 
simulate flange lubrication, different coefficients of friction were 
assumed at the flange contact (eg. 0.1) and tread contact (eg. 0.3) 
respectively. Figure 8 illustrates the simulated steady state force 
diagram of a 3-piece truck on an 8 degree curve with and without flange 
lubrication. This illustration shows that increased lateral forces and 
angles-of -attack with flange lubrication are primarily due to loss of 
the longitudinal high rail flange force which reduces a favourable 
steering moment. Secondly, since a lubricated flange effectively shifts 
the vertical wheel load back to the wheel tread, larger lateral creep 
forces are also generated at the leading outer wheel, and hence higher 
lateral flange reaction forces are induced from this effect as well as 
from the increased angle-of-attack. 

Field Data Collected With High Rail Flange Lubrication 

Tests were used to generate field data to validate theoretical 
findings from the simulation studies. It was found that the test runs 
conducted at the end of each test series, with flange lubrication 
applied on the high rail gauge face, showed a general increase in angle- 
of-attack and lateral force. Figures 9 and 10 illustrate some sample 
data on high rail lateral forces and angles-of-attack collected on the 8 
degree curve for lubricated and non-lubricated test conditions. The 
theoretical prediction of increased angle-of-attack and lateral forces 
from high rail flange lubrication was verified. 

THE EFFECT OF SERVICE WORN WHEEL PROFILES ON TRUCK STEERING 

Contact configuration between high rail gauge corner and the leading 
outer wheel is important in determining the steering characteristics of 
each truck. Therefore, it is logical to expect that a positive correlation 
exists between a wide range of lateral forces measured for different 
trucks with the state of wear on leading outer wheels. To illustrate 
this. Figures 11 to 13 show wheel profiles for three cars with typical 
high rail lateral forces measured when the wheelsets were leading or 
trailing, running either eastbound or westbound on the 8 degree curve. 



176 Bulletin 692 — American Railway Engineering Association 



Before discussing the data, it should be realized that unit coal 
train operation on CP Rail has a unique feature of running unidirectional 
for a period of six months, after which the whole consist is wyed for 
another six months of service. Since the leading axle wheelset of each 
truck wears much faster than the trailing axle wheelset, this explains 
the large differential in flange wear observed on most test cars. 
Wheel sets with different flange wear provide an excellent opportunity to 
study the effect of wheel profile wear on lateral curving forces, since 
the same truck generates significantly different forces in the eastbound 
and westbound directions. 

For example, wheel profiles and lateral forces on Car CP 349674 
suggest that among service worn wheels, lateral forces are lower if the 
leading wheels are more worn than trailing wheels (i.e. Eastbound forces 
greater than Westbound forces). In particular on Car CP 349674 with 
relatively new wheels on the second wheelset, the lateral force was high 
whether the wheelset was leading or trailing. Therefore, the natural 
wear process on the leading axle of a truck basically improves curving 
performance. The order of magnitude of high rail lateral force reduction 
due to wheel wear can be estimated by comparing the total lateral forces 
generated in both directions between the relatively new wheels of Car 
351530 and service worn wheels of Car 351580. The reduction is approxi- 
mately 60 percent. 

These results indicate that service worn wheels with higher effective 
conicity and larger lateral flange free play, generate much less lateral 
flange forces than new wheels. Correlations between lateral forces and 
wheel profiles illustrate the importance of designing "proper" matching 
profiles for both wheel and rail under heavy axle loads and high curvature 
conditions. 



Paper by W. Pak and R. Gon.salves 177 



CONCLUSIONS 

Heavy grinding of the high rail gauge corner to alleviate shelling 
adversely affected lateral curving forces and angles-of -attack on curves 
of 4 degree and above and induced rapid plastic flow which restored the 
gauge corner profile to its original worn contour in less than 2 months 
(9 million gross tons of traffic). On the 2 degree curve a reduction of 
lateral forces and angles-of -attack was observed as a result of profile 
grinding. 

The grinding pattern on the field side of the low rail designed to 
alleviate corrugation was well retained on the three test curves after 
2 months (9 million gross tons of traffic). 

Lubricating the gauge face of the high rail resulted in a general 
increase of lateral force and angle-of-attack. This was in agreement 
with the flange lubrication computer simulation studies carried out by 
the Research Department. The significance of increased lateral forces 
and creepage with lubrication on shelling, gauge widening, low rail 
corrugation and head flow warrant further investigation. 

Service worn wheels, with higher effective conicity and flange 
clearance developed from wear in the flange throat and tread area, 
generate significantly less flange force than new wheels on high 
curvature track. These results were predicted in simulation studies 
conducted previously (Ref. 4). 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

The authors would like to acknowledge the invaluable assistance 
provided by personnel from the following organizations which participated 
in the test program: Research activities were jointly carried out by 
CP Rail, CP Research, Railway Laboratory of the National Research Council 
of Canada, Canadian Institute of Guided Ground Transport and the Speno 
Rail Services Company. The Transportation Development Centre (Transport 
Canada) and the Railway Association of Canada provided financial support 
for the project. 



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Paper h\ W. Pak and R. Gonsalves 179 



REFERENCES 



W. Pak, and R. Gonsalves, "Effect of Experimental Rail Profile Grinding, 
Flange Lubrication and Wheel Profile on the Steering Behaviour of 100-To 
Freight Car Trucks". Canadian Pacific Ltd., Research Department Report 
No. S742-82, November, 1982. 

R. Gonsalves, W. Pak and G. Izbinsky, "Railroad Dynamics Incorporated 
(RDI) Truck Evaluation Test". Canadian Pacific Limited, Research 
Department Report No. S670-81, (TP 2970), March, 1981. 

G. Izbinsky and G. Warshaw, "Concept of a Profilometer for Rail Wear 
Determination". Canadian Pacific Limited, Report No. S655-81, 
(TP 3503), December, 1981. 

W. Pak and G. Rosval , "Theoretical Curving Performance of Four Freight 
Car Trucks". Canadian Pacific Report No. S712-82, (TP 3449), 
December, 1981. 



180 Bulletin 692 — American Railway Engineering Association 



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a- ANGLE -OF-ATTACK 

ALIGNMENT OF LASERS AND DETECTORS USED IN ANQLE-OF-ATTACK MEASUREMENTS 

FIG,1 



Paper by W. Pak and R. Gonsalves 



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maintenance free Foolprool .operate 
only in snow, treezmg ram, hati or ice 
not during normal rainfall Complete 
with sensing head, control box, 
mount, temperature control 



RAILS 

COMPANY 



Maplewood, N.J 07040 

Chicago, III, 60604 . Oakland, Calif, 94607 

In Canada: lEC-Holden, Ltd, 



Paper by W . Pak and R. Gonsalvcs 



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Bulletin 692 — American Railway Engineering Association 





LOW RAIL 

ALBOMA m lb. CMMME MIL (Augnt 1974) 



8« CURVE 



HIGH RAIL 

AUOMA 132 lb. CHROME RAIL (ANgiut 1974) 




RELO 
SIDE 



LOW RAIL 

ALBOMA 130 ». CHROME RAIL ( 




4« CURVE 



IMO) 



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AiaOMA 131 M. CHROME RAN. (M«cb 1974) 



nELO 
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C 




LOW RAIL 

ALBOMA 132 lb. CARBON RAIL (Marab 1974) 



2« CURVE 




RELO 
SIDE 



HIGH RAIL 

ALBOMA 132 lb. CARBON RAIL (Mnb 1974) 



RAIL PR0ni£8 BEFORE RAIL BRINOINa RAIL WEAR 

RAIL PROFILES IMMEDUTaV AFTBI RAIL QRINOINB • Imt grOMd In tbm iOcadOM 

"" "" Iw nwumnt lioiHoHMMr 

COMPARISON OF RAIL PRORLES BEFORE AND IMMEDIATELY AFTER RAIL QRINDINQ 

FIQ.4 



Paper by W. Pak and R. Gonsalves 



1X5 



TEST # 1 



LOW RAIL 




HIGH RAIL 



LOW RAIL 





4« CURVE 



HIGH RAIL 




LOW RAIL 



2« CURVE 



HIGH RAIL 



WORN WHEEL CONTACT CONFIGURATION OVER 
UNGROUNO RAIL 
FIG. 5 




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•w **. . 







Greater Return 
On Tie Investment 

with the Improved Gang-NairPortec-tion Plall 




The design is new, but the 
performance is not. Portec's 
Gang-Nail Portec-tion Plate is a 
proven product. It's been pro- 
longing the life of wooden ties in 
mainline track for more than 18 
years. Literally thousands of dol- 
lars have been saved by U. S. 
railroads using the Gang-Nail 
Portec-tion Plate. 

New Design Provides 
IMore Strength For 
Extended Tie Life 

The Gang-Nail Portec-tion 
Plate features a new twist-lock 
tooth. Each tooth is twisted to 
provide positive locking power 
when applied to the end of the 
tie. This gives you maximum 
holding power. 



The Gang-Nail Portec-tion 
Plate is easier to install. Be- 
cause of the superior strength 
and sharpness of the tooth, 
penetration into the wood is 
much easier. Portec's Gang-Nail 
Portec-tion Plate is made from 
heavy-gage galvanized 'W 

steel to prevent 
corrosion. 

Contact us 
today and find . 
out how you 
can benefit 
from Portec's 
new Gang-Nail 
Portec-tion Plate. 



The Gang-Nail Machine provides 
fast, easy application of the 
Gang-Nail Portection Plate on split 
or checked green ties or treated ties. 

In 1 Y: years, over one million 
plates have been applied 
using the automatic 
Gang-Nail application 
machine. 




-'^H, 



Portec, Inc. ff 

Railway Products Division ^ 

300 Windsor Drive 

Oak Brook, IL 60521 Jfjf 

312/920-4600 =;■ 



PORTEC 

Railway Products Divisio 



Paper by W, Pak and R. Gonsalvcs 



1X7 



TEST # 2 



LOW RAIL 




HIGH RAIL 



LOW RAIL 




4« CURVE 




HIGH RAIL 




LOW RAIL 



HIGH RAIL 



WORN WHEEL CONTACT CONFIGURATION OVER GROUND RAIL 

FIG. 6 



188 



Bulletin 692 — American Railway Engineering Association 



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' One complete service. ^ 
Lowest cost per mile. 



* A complete, objective test 
of each rail from end to end. 

^Simultaneous ultrasonic and 
induction detection methods. 

*Sperry far surpasses every other 
rail testing service in efficiency, 
thoroughness and research. 

^One mileage charge pays 
for everything. 

i^The lowest real cost per mile 
and per defect found. 

Details and technical assistance on request. 



Jk 



AUTOMATION INDUSTRIES, INC. 
SPERRY RAIL SERVICE DIVISION 

SHELTER ROCK ROAD 
DANBURY, CONNECTICUT 06810 
(203)748-3581 



Paper by W Pak and R. Gonsalves 



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Bulletin 692 — American Railway Engineering Association 









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Du Pont Safety Management & 
Safety On The Railroad 

E. Clark Jones* 

I would like to thank you for inviting me to meet with you to discuss Du Font's Safety 
Management and Safety On The Railroad. The Chemical Industry is safer than most other 
industries because it has long recognized the inherent hazards associated with the business and 
Du Pont has been a leader in the field. We have won the National Safety Council's Award of 
Honor 34 times out of 39 years offered. This experience and a general need in industry resulted in 
the formation of the Applied Technology Division in 1971 as a consulting and speciality product 
profit center in the Finishes and Fabricated Products Department. 

After consulting with over 450 companies in safety since 1971, the same basic concepts 
exist. It does not matter whether we are talking about a chemical plant, a railroad, heavy 
manufacturing, food operations, or saw mills. If there is a genuine top management commitment 
and the line organization is responsible and accountable for accidents, great progress can be made 
in reducing injuries. 

My comments today will be directed at a review of our Safety Programs' History, an 
analysis of our injury performance and a summary of a safety concept that has proven effective 
for Du Pont and many others, regardless of the industry. Please don't hesitate to ask any 
questions after my talk. 

In order for me to clearly explain why Du Font's Safety Management approach is so 
successful today, it's necessary for you to understand the history and business climate that led to 
our intense Corporate interest in safety. 

It all started with the immigration to America of a Frenchman named E.I .Du Pont. He was 
fleeing tyrannical control of industry in his native France and decided in 1802 to form a 
partnership to produce quality grade explosives for America's growing need to build roads, clear 
fields, increase mining output and protect its recently won independence. In choosing such a 
hazardous industry to make his fortune, Mr. Du Pont recognized and accepted the need for 
safety . 

The building walls of the first powder mill near Wilmington, Delaware were built three 
stones thick. The back remained opened to a river to direct any explosive forces away from other 
buildings and employees. 

Mr. Du Pont also built his home and those of his managers, adjacent to the powder yard. An 
effective safety program was a necessity. Actually, it represented the first defense against instant 
Corporate liquidation. 

Safety needs more than a well designed plant however. In 1811, work rules were posted in 
the mill to guide employee work habits in the proper direction. Not as sophisticated as the safety 
standards of today but they did introduce the concepts of line management control and the 
responsibility for safety. 

In March of 1 8 1 8, despite all precautions an explosion destroyed much of the mill and killed 
40 workers. Although no laws or customers of those days required the Company to do so, Du 
Pont pensioned the widows and provided medical care and education for the children. After 1 13 
years, the Company had incorporated and diversified into the coated fabrics, paint, plastic, and 
chemical industries. This required a more responsive management organization and further 
improvements in safety procedures and auditing techniques. The keeping of safety statistics was 
started in 1912 when the workmen's compensation laws gained momentum in the United States. 
We had a very visible measurement of our safety performance and determined that corrective 
measures were needed fast. 



*Managenienl Consullinj! Services, t I Du Pnnt De Nemours & Company, Inc. 

197 



198 Bulletin 692 — American Railway Engineering Association 



In 1915, an expanded version of the employee safety rules helped to better communicate 
safety to the worker. It was one of several measures taken by a concerned management. When the 
Nation entered World War 1 , Du Pont became the source of over 40% of the explosives used by 
the allied forces (more than 1 .5 billion pounds). To accomplish this task, 30.000 new employees 
were hired and trained to build and operate many plants. Among them, the largest, smokeless 
powder plant the world had ever seen. The new plant. Old Hickory was reducing granulated 
powder in a record of 116 days after ground breaking. 

The Safety Performance Chart reflects the problems that a large, new work force can cause 
if new employees don't fully and rapidly accept a company's safety philosophy. Further 
expansion during the mid-20's reinforced Du Pont's commitment to reduce the unsafe acts that 
were causing 96% of our injuries. 

World War 1 1 brought on a familiar set of demands. A calm West Virginia hillside in 1941 
was converted into the sprawling Morgantown Ordnance Plant by 1942. 

The story was similar to World War I but numbers were even more astonishing. 

1. One billion dollars in capital expenditure 

2. 54 new plants 

3. 75,000 new people 

4. 4.5 billion pounds of explosives produced 

5. 20% of volume used by the allied forces 

Yet the performance during the war years showed no significant deviation from pre-war 
years. In 1941 , Du Pont was 10 times safer than all industry and 9 times safer than the Chemical 
Industry. The line organization was finally working as it should in controlling the real causes of 
injuries. For the last 30 years, improvement has been consistently made. 

By comparison, the Bureau of Labor statistics data show that the all industry average lost 
workday incidence rate at work has actually increased from 1972 to 1981, the period in which 
OSHA has challenged industry to improve a deteriorating safety performance. 

Progress on the job has continued while the off-the-job performance also has become of 
interest. Whether injured at work or at home, the injury is just as real, just as painful, and very 
costly. Since the mid-50's, off-the-job safety has been emphasized throughout the Company and 
the results show a 31% improvement over the last 25 years. 

Our 180 years of experience in safety management taught us that four primary steps are 
essential to any program regardless of industry or company history. 

First, safety must become a management objective. Just as we set goals and objectives for 
other important aspects of our business, we must give safety its fair share of management 
attention. 

Secondly, the goals need to be communicated throughout the company from top to bottom. 

Along with the communication of safety goals comes a commitment from the president to 
the vice presidents of each department, to the division heads of each division, to the super- 
intendents of each area, and finally, to the employee working the night shift in the most remote 
location in the company. 

Creation of a safety organization operating throughout the line organization is imperative. 
Accountability demands that the line organization be used if effective results are desired. Safety 
is no different than any other management objective in this sense. 

The Central Safety Committee composed chiefly of line organization personnel orginates, 
guides, and coordinates the safety program. 



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200 Bulletin 692 — American Railway Engineering Association 



Finally, one must establish the safety program that fits the concerns and needs of the 
organization. Safety needs a strategy and plan even more than other business functions because it 
is not a discipline that is widely taught to future managers. 

The cornerstone of any successful safety effort lies in the establishment of a written 
company safety policy. One that has been time tested as the Du Pont safety philosophy which has 
guided us for the last 50 years. It has five points: 

1. All injuries can be prevented. 

The key word is "all" and it reinforces the belief that people cause accidents and, 
therefore, people can prevent them. 

2. Management is responsible for the safety of all employees. E.I. Du Pont held this view 
when he provided for dependents of explosion victims in 1818. And it remains a key 
precept today. 

3. It is reasonably possible to safeguard all equipment and operating exposures which 
could result in injuries. 

4. Acceptance of the fact that prevention of injuries is good business from the standpoint 
of efficiency and earnings. 

5 . A recognition that is necessary to train all employees to work safely and that they have a 
responsibility to do so. In fact, at Du Pont it is a condition of employment. 

Regardless of what your safety philosophy is, the employees knowledge and understanding 
of it is as important as any other part of the program. 

Why is good safety, good business? Our safest plants are usually our most productive 
plants. Greater productivity results from the employees improved organization on the job from a 
procedural point of view . A safer procedure allows the employee to work at a faster rate without a 
constant threat to his well-being. His attention to the job improves. 

A good safety program also strengthens labor relations. In today's climate of big business 
and big labor, it is refreshing to see the cooperation and mutual respect that can result from a 
shared concern for worker's safety. 

It is hard to measure the results quantitatively. However, it should be easy to understand 
how communications up and down the organization will improve when safety is successfully 
managed. The mere existence of this common ground opens yet another channel for constructive 
management-labor dialogue. 

An important benefit is the effect that a good safety program has on the bottom line - 
company profits. The true cost of poor safety performance is usually misunderstood because all 
of the indirect costs are not known. 

For example, Alcoa did some lengthy research to uncover its true cost of a lost workday 
injury. They found that all related costs averaged $14,000 per lost workday injury. To our 
knowledge, it is one of the few companies that have gone through the trouble of identifying all the 
hidden costs associated with a work injury. 

Perhaps, this figure is not typical of industry - it's safe to say, that true injury costs vary just 
as any other cost component from industry to industry. That's why we like to use the National 
Work Accident Cost compiled by the National Safety Council. The Council notes that there were 
2.1 million disabling injuries in 1981. Insurance premiums, administative cost, medical pay- 
ments, and lost wages totaled over 15 billion dollars. The other costs associated with accident 
investigation reduced productivity of replacement labor, report filing have been valued at 15 
billion dollars as well. Many safety and insurance people regard this as conservative, indicating 
that the indirect costs could be three times the visible cost. 

It is safe to say that the resultant $ 1 5,480 cost of a disabling injury is a conservative estimate 
that applies to a large number of firms. 



Address bv E.C. Jones 201 



Now let's go through a "what if analysis to see what kind of profit motivation we have for 
our safety program. Du Font's actual incidence rate for the lost workday cases with days away 
from work for 1982 was .02 with approx. 140.000 employees worldwide. This means we had 26 
injuries requiring time away from work. At a $15,480 injury cost, we lost $402,000 in 1982. 

If Du Pont decided that its goal was just to meet the Chemical Industry average incidence 
rate, we would e.xpect to have 1716 lost workday injuries each year. By setting and achieving a 
goal that is better than the Chemical average. Du Pont has a little over $26. 1 million more dollars 
to plow back into its business for future capital needs. Make no mistake, the cost of work related 
injuries are budgeted, just like other business expenses. 

The same kind of comparison can be made to the all industry incidence rate because Du Pont 
is diversified into electronics and construction, as well as chemicals. By having a better than all 
industry incident rate, Du Pont is saving 61.5 million dollars a year. 

With the cost of injuries rising faster than the general inflation rate, it definitely pays the 
Company to strive for excellence in safety management. 

Another way of looking at the profit potential of good safety is to determine the sales needed 
to offset the $12,700 cost of a disabling injury. Using the average profit margins of each industry 
as published in 1978 by Citibank. N.Y.. you can see that sales required to make up for the cost of 
one injury can be somewhat staggering. For instance, at the meat packing average profitability, it 
would take $846,000 in sales to make enough profit to pay the cost of one injury. 

Making sure that the company meets the intent of the OSHA regulations rounds out the 
major benefits of building a strong safety program. You may not agree with each and every 
standard that has been promulgated but OSHA carries the weight of the law and can cause serious 
disruptions to your business if requested to investigate any safety problems at your facilities. 

Whatever your motive is for improving safety, Du Font's Safety Management Services are 
structured to help you achieve your most ambitious safety goals. 

We begin the process by completing two separate pre-consultation evaluation profiles. Part 
I -information is gathered during a brief interview with a ranking management person of the unit 
under consideration. The unit may be a plant, a division ,a railroad or the complete company and 
the interviewee may be a plant manager, a division vice president or the president of the 
company. 

Fart II - provides us with the information describing your operation, organization, and 
current safety program at each location of interest. Usually we obtain this from your safety 
personnel or insurance department. In completing Part II. we will have the necessary details to 
develop a consultation proposal which responds to the individual needs of your organization. 

The written proposal is presented to the prospective client at the earliest mutually agreeable 
date. During this meeting, the proposed consultation program is described in detail and the Sales 
Agreement is presented for approval. Our Sales Agreements are a fixed fee so that you know how 
much the step by step payments are and when they will be invoiced over the course of the 
consultation period. The consultant's traveling and living expenses while at the client's site are 
additional and are billed as they are incurred. 

The Safety Management Program is a multi-step consulting activity that may last from 
anywhere from 12 to 24 months. The duration depends on the size of the job, the complexity of 
the organization, the anticipated progress that will be made, etc. All activities are spelled out in 
the Sales Agreement to allow our client time to prepare his organization for maximizing the 
benefits of our service. 

A detailed description of our work can only be provided after the profile questionnaires have 
been completed. However, we use several techniques that can be briefly discussed in advance. 



202 Bulletin 692 — American Railway Engineering Association 



Our trained safety consultants who have functioned effectively ii> this capacity within Du 
Pont use inspections, interviews, and workshops to develop the information we need to guide the 
client in establishing an effective safety program. During the consultation, we evaluate the 
company's safety program. The basic safety policy, rules, and regulations are important 
functions that are evaluated. After digesting all this input, the consultant works with the client to 
develop a plan of attack by recommending techniques, training programs, and implementation 
sequence. In so doing, he also supplies resource materials that have been developed and tested 
within Du Pont. 

Each step of the program provides management with feedback on its progress in the form of 
a written report. Plans are not good plans unless they can adapt to change. This is one of the key 
facets of our consulting effort. The stated goal of our safety management program is to assist the 
client in developing a strong self sustaining program that meets his safety goal. Does it work? 

The answer is "yes" if the management commitment is there. For most clients who used our 
services since 197 1 , the median improvement was 33% after one year and 48% after two years. 
The data includes many jobs we were involved and only the initial evaluation and recommend- 
ation stages without the important follow-up surveys. 

We found that the follow-up audits are necessary and effective in building a more self 
sustaining program. The increased improvement is significant and also tells us that we should 
probably have an annual audit after the initial consultation to help insure that the program is 
completely internalized. It is not easy to squeeze 1 80 years of experience and progress into one or 
two years but that is what we are striving to accomplish. 

The level of commitment has a very direct bearing on the success of our client's safety 
efforts. The commitment has to come from the top management people like yourself. The line 
organization must be held accountable for the safety of this group. 

As managers, let us ask ourselves the following questions: Does your location or company 
have- 

A. Management determination 

B. Effective safety organization 

C. Safety know how and experience 

D. A well defined plan or program 

E. Audit of results 

If the answer is yes to all five of these questions, then you probably have very few injuries 
and are approaching a goal of fewer no injuries. If you can not answer yes to all these questions, 
then you are more than likely to experience a greater number of injuries. 

Thank you for your attention and interest. At this time, I will be happy to entertain any 
questions you may have. 



Summary 

Of 

2nd International Heavy Haul Conference Papers 

Sergei G. Guins* 

In planning the 2nd Heavy Haul Conference the organization committee set out to acheive 
two objectives: 

1. Demonstrate the need tor Systems Approach to railroad problems, and 

2. Present tools that would enable railroads to plan the improvements needed to handle 
future traffic. 

All papers selections were made with the above objectives in view. 

Mr. Stanley Crane, in his keynote address, has shown that systems approach applies to all 
situations, those present now. when we experience reduction of traffic, or to the future, when we 
can expect continuous growth. These problems are not academic. Several railroads found that 
portions of their properties are at the critical point of reaching saturation. The experience of 
several bulk carrying railroads show that growth was much faster than originally estimated. 

Experience of several railroads was used to form an introduction to the more technical 
sessions of the conference. 

Discussion of various options to increa.se railroad capacity and methods to evaluate these 
options followed. In the case of one railroad, this had to be done without disrupting existing 
traffic. Two other papers described the means and costs of increasing capacity of their lines as the 
traffic continued to grow beyond original predictions. 

Regardless of the method used for increasing capacity; by use of higher capacity freight 
cars, introduction of more sophisticated signaling, or change in operation practices, the same 
problems surfaced as far as the track is concerned: 

1 . Accelerated track deterioration 

2. Increased need for maintenance 

3. Less time available for maintenance 

4. More investment in track structure. 

In order to cope with these problems, efforts must be made to learn how the different 
components of the track structure contribute to the overall structure and how to efficiently 
combine them to obtain the most efficient structure for a given set of operating conditions. 

One way to increase through-put capacity is to increase the carrying capacity of individual 
cars. We have witnessed in this country the evolution from 50T to 70T to 90T and now 10()T cars 
all operating on 2 2-axIe trucks, which has resulted in a contiuous increase of axle loads. A 
session was devoted to the analysis of the impact of axle weight on roadway maintenance 
expense. 

A computer model developed by CN shows that roadway costs do go up with axle load, but 
that traffic density must also be considered becau.se cost/ton vs. traffic density is a concave curve 
with an optimum density at which the cost/ton is at a minimum. There was data presented that 
indicated that by improving wheel-rail interaction, the effect of axle load can be reduced. Rail 
fatigue must also be considered, particularly on tangent track where flange wear is minimal. 

Following the discussion of general considerations, the program concentrated on track and 
rolling stock to evaluate their contribution to strength of the track structure and its ability to 
withstand the ravages of increasing traffic. 

Roger Steele covered the material related to the rail metalurgy and wear problems. The only 
papers that need to be mentioned now are those related to maintenance of rail profile. There has 



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Address bv S. G. Guins 205 



been considerable theoretical and experimental work done in Australia that indicates that wheel 
flange and rail gauge wear can be controlled by maintaining rail protile by grinding. It is also very 
important to establish economic timing tor grinding and renewal ol rail. An English experience 
with rail planning for maintenance of profile was presented. 

Track Structure 

Kwincma to Koolyanobbins Rwy: When original lirie was opened in 1967, it was built with 
47Kg/m (95 lb) rail on untreated wood ties. Train speeds of 66-78 mph were used and axle 
loading of 26 ton. As traffic increased, to preserve the track, speed was reduced to 50 mph and 
axle load reduced to 24 ton, but track deterioration continued. Track is now being rebuilt using 
132 lb. rail on concrete ties with Pandrol and Fist fasteners. 

Effect of Traffic on Track Vertical Roughness 

Theoretical study has shown that any initial irregularity such as vertical or horizontal 
misalignment of rail weld would grow depending on train speed and equipment dynamics. 

Another paper described considerations and track design for a railroad moving lignite and 
overburden in 100 ton 4 axle cars and 200 ton 8 axle cars. 

Chinese railroads are experiencing excessive wear and tear due to continuously expanding 
traffic. They are working on redesign of rolling stock and wheel to rail contact modifications to 
improve track life. 

Track Components 

This session, to a great extent, was based on data collected on FAST but also utilized data 
collected on'service railroads and analyzed performance of concrete ties, fasteners and pads. 
Some of the conclusions and recommendations are as follows: 

Major factor for cracks in concrete ties on service railroads are wheel defects, flats and out 
of round conditions. These do not exist on FAST thus no cracks developed there. 

Softer pads tend to reduce tie cracking and reduce deflection of resilient fasteners. 

Resilient fasteners in reducing rail deflection take considerable stress that leads to fatigue 
and failure. 

Effect of Axle Loading on Track Structure 

Subgrade is one of structural limitations of track structure. Its characteristics cannot be 
changed when axle loadings are changed. An analysis has shown that tie spacing or heavier rail 
do not effectively reduce subgrade pressures when heavier axle loads are used. It seems that the 
most effective solution is increased ballast depth. A method for analysis was presented ba.sed on 
non-linearity of ballast modules. 

Ballast settlement due to repeated wheel loadings was studied by computer modeling. The 
results have close correlation to experimental measuiements on FAST. This study gives us better 
understanding on ballast behavior in service. 

One way to improve performance of subgrade is by use of Geotextiles. A study of the 
experience on one railroad indicates that properly engineered Geotextile will reduce maintenance 
cost of the track by extending maintenance cycles while maintaining acceptable track surface 
conditions. 

Another paper offered a method to determine the length of transition curves required for 
Heavy Haul operations. 



206 Bulletin 692 — American Railway Engineering Association 



European Track Maintenance Practices 

Although European railroads do not use heavy axle loading, they still experience problems 
regarding track maintenance due to the high density of traffic. Heavy passenger traffic controls 
the level to which track must be maintained, but there still is the requirement to move a 
considerable amount of freight traffic. To resolve their problems they pay special attention to the 
dynamic characteristics of rolling stock, both cars and motive power. Dynamic forces are 
controlled by design, and when necessary by speed reductions. Axle loads are kept down to 20 
ton. Maintenance equipment and methods are developed to minimize track occupancy by 
maintenance operations. 

Track Quality Measurements 

To rationalize maintenance practices, better measurements must be made to correlate track 
irregularities and safety of operation. In China a new measurement technique was developed. 
Bessemer & Lake Erie RR described their technique of correlating track irregularities and forces 
exerted on wheel and axle. They use an instrumented axle set for locating track areas that need 
maintenance. 

Systems Approach to Track Maintenance 

Two railroads described their approach to maintenance planning. Mt. Newman in Australia 
bases their plans on maintenance of track and rolling stock, and pay particular attention to the 
wheel-rail contact by maintaining specific contours of both. 

Richards Bay Line in South Africa takes into consideration predictions of traffic volume 
changes and requirements of all other groups such as signaling, stores, operations, etc., as they 
formulate their maintenance strategy. 

Rolling Stone 

The papers demonstrated recognition of the fact that there is a relationship between car and 
locomotive dynamic behavior and track deterioration. This is evident in AAR-TTD program for 
covered hopper car design competition, and in the development of new self-steering trucks. 

Wheels 

Effect of wheel-rail interaction was mentioned several times so it is not surprising that a 
special session was devoted to this and to wheel wear, which is one of the main items in the 
budgets related to rolling stock maintenance. 

Locomotives 

As in the case of cars, work is being done here and abroad toward reduction of dynamic 
forces exerted on the track and reduction of wheel wear with hopefully corresponding reduction 
of wear of rail. 

Operation 

Last, but not least, operation strategies can affect efficient utilization of the track. Yard 
design, unloading terminals, signaling, and brake operation all contribute to the railroad 
efficiency. 

Summation 

Two objectives were stated as goals of this conference. We believe that the first goal 
stressing importance of systems approach was adequately illustrated by the papers presented. 
The second goal was to give the tools to answer the following type of problem: "How does one 
design and obtain the proper type of track if it has been established that the traffic on the railroad 
will double in the next 10 years?" I don't believe this was fully achieved, but if the content of 
papers is carefully studied, one finds a good start was made, and hopefully work will continue to 
give us better answers by the next Heavy Haul Conference. 



Ballast Performance Evaluation With Box Tests 

Gillian M. Norman* and Ernest T. Seiig** 

INTRODUCTION 

Many studies have been made of the magnitude and distribution of the vertical stresses and 
elastic deformations developed in the ballast beneath railroad track due to train loading. 
However, horizontal stresses and vertical permanent (plastic) deformation in ballast are more 
difficult to study and little work has been done on these topics. Because a complete knowledge of 
the state of stress in the ballast is necessary for predicting the contribution of ballast to track 
settlement, it is important that the horizontal stresses be further studied. An examination by the 
writers of the horizontal stresses predicted from elastic layer theory led to the hypothesis that 
residual horizontal stresses are being induced in the ballast by the repeated wheel loads. The 
nature and extent of these residual stresses especially need to be understood. Therefore, a 
laboratory study was undertaken to examine the performance of ballast under simulated field 
conditions and gain information on the permanent deformations and horizontal stresses de- 
veloped with repeated loading. 

A special test facility was constructed for this study. It incorporated a wooden box with 
instrumented side panels that were used to measure horizontal stress. A system for modeling the 
subgrade was devised. The ballast was repeat-loaded vertically through a simulated section of 
crosstie. 

In this investigation, the subgrade conditions and the initial density state of the ballast were 
varied. Settlements of the ballast and subgrade were measured and compared to those observed in 
the field. 

Staged loading tests were also performed in which the load on the tie was varied to evaluate 
the effect of a mix of wheel loads on the tie settlement and horizontal ballast stresses. Physical 
state tests were performed to ascertain whether the effect of train loading was being modeled in 
terms of density and bearing strength changes. Finally, some tests were performed to study the 
extent of ballast breakdown under repeated loading. 

The results of the study are summarized in this paper. Complete details are given in Ref. 1 . 
This research was performed as part of a larger project dealing with correlation of concrete tie 
track field site performance (Ref. 2). 



APPARATUS 

The section of the track structure simulated by the labortory box is shown in Fig. 1 . Figure I 
also shows the positions where the horizontal stresses were to be investigated. Assuming a 
center-to-center tie spacing of 24 in . . the section spans one tie plus half the crib on both sides of it. 
A ballast depth of 12 in. was selected and the unit length along the tie was 12 in. The resulting 
ballast box had interior dimensions of 24 in. long, 19 in. deep and 12 in. wide (Fig. 2 and 3). 

The subgrade was modeled by using a flat sheet of l/4-in. -thick hardboard resting on a bed 
of 3/8-in.-high rubber supports (Fig. 4). The type of rubber pads was varied from very .spongey 
rubber to hard rubber rings. Strain coils were used to measure the vertical base deflection. The 
principal of coil operation is described in Ref. 3. 

A simulated wooden tie was constructed from plywood (Figs. 2 and 5). Its cross-section 
dimensions corresponded to those of a typical wood tie. The segment was 11-1/2 in. long. 



•Rcicarch Assistant. Department of Civil Engineering. Univei^ily of Ma.ssachuselts 
** Professor of Civil Engineering. University of Massachusetts 

207 



208 Bulletin 692 — American Railway Engineering Association 



The horizontal stress sensor bars were located in the crib area at one end of the ballast box 
and under the tie at the side of the box ( Figs . 2 and 3 ). Only the lower three bars were used i n the 
side of the box because the tie was adjacent to the top bar. The configuration of an individual 
stress sensor is shown in Fig. 6. Each bar is instrumented with 4 bonded foil strain gages to form 
an electrical circuit which was calibrated in terms of average ballast pressure on the 4-in.-wide 
pressure plate. 

The repeated vertical load was applied by means of a servo-controlled hydraulic actuator 
with an attached load cell and displacement transducer. The load was cycled between the 
designated maximum value (usually 4000 lb) and a minimum seating value of 50 lb. The 
displacement under the 30-lb load was used as a measure of cumulative permanent settlement. 
The elastic deflection is the difference between displacements at the maximum load and the 
minimum load. The number of cycles was recorded by a counter. 



CONSTANT LOAD CYCLIC TESTS 

Test Conditions 

Tests were carried out with the amplitude of the cyclic load kept constant. The minimum 
load was 50 lb. The maximum load applied each cycle was 4000 lb, which produced a pressure on 
the ballast from the tie segment equivalent to that from a 32-kip wheel load from a train. This 
determination was based on calculations using the GEOTRACK model {Ref.4). 

The ballast used in these tests was an angular traprock from a quarry near Amherst, Mass. 
Particle sizes ranged from 1/2 in. to 2 in. and the ballast fit the AREA No. 4 classification. 

Two initial ballast density states were used. A loose state was achieved by carefully 
depositing the ballast from small scoops. This method gave a density of 106 lb/ft ' as measured by 
a ballast density test (Ref. 5). A compacted density state was achieved by tamping the ballast with 
a steel rod. The ballast was placed in four 3-in. layers with 100 blows applied to each. The cribs 
received 50 blows each. The average initial density with this method was I 12 lb/ft '. This was 
equivalent to the density state under the rail seat produced after a maintenance tamping operation. 

The simulated 'subgrade' compressibility was varied by changing the type and con- 
figuration of the rubber pads under the hardboard. Various combinations of very spongey rubber, 
hard rubber washers, and hard rubber strips were used. 

To perform a test, the ballast was first prepared to the desired initial density state. When the 
ballast depth was 12 in., the ballast surface at the tie location was leveled by rearranging the 
particles by hand. A transparent plastic plate, the same size as the base of the tie, was used to 
assist in this process and ensure that there was a good distribution of contact points. The purpose 
was to provide a uniform distribution of pressure between the tie and the ballast, and uniform tie 
settlement. After the tie was seated, the remainder of the ballast was placed in the cribs next to the 
tie and tamped. 

Initial readings were taken for the stress sensor bars and the base coils to determine the 
effects of filling the box. An initial settlement reference reading was also taken by applying a 
seating load of 50 lb and reading the piston displacement. Subsequent readings of all 
instruments were made with the tie both loaded and unloaded. All unloaded settlement readings 
were taken with a 50-lb nominal load applied to the tie. The first 10 cycles were applied 
manually. The remaining cycles were applied at a frequency of 3 Hz. Readings were taken at 
100, 1000, 5000. and 10,000 cycles in both the loaded and the unloaded states. Ten thousand 
cycles is equivalent to about 0.7 million gross ton (MGT) of traffic. 



Paper by G. M. Norman & E. T. Selig 



2(W 





































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HORIZONTAL STRESS 
MEASUREMENT LOCATIONS 

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FIG. 1. TRACK LAYOUT SHOWING BALLAST BOX LOCATION 




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Paper hy G. M. Norman & H. T. Scliv 



211 



CRIB 

RETAINER 



STRESS 
SENSOR 
BAR 

[SEE FIG. 6] 



TIE 

LOAD /SEGMENT 




y / / / / / 



SEE FIG.4 



a] SIDE VIEW WITH CUTAWAY SECTION 



END 
PANEL 




t- 8"^^^\ 



^SIOE PANEL 



b]TOP VIEW WITH CRIB RETAINER REMOVED 



FIG. 2. BOX TEST APPARATUS 



212 



Bulletin 692 — American Railway Engineering Association 




FIG. 3. BALLAST BOX 



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3770 



214 



Bulletin 692 — American Railway Engineering Association 



2U" 



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CO'.'.'?' '^^ 

^\r^ ^'■^' ''•I'' 

^ J vWJr- -i.' vv -V I'. ;/ \t . ) ' V.J/ 



STIFF RUBBER 
RINGS 



STRAIN 
COILS 



FLEXIBLE 
BOARD 



12' 



Q] PLAN VIEW OF BOX BASE 



STIFF RUBBER 
RINGS 



FOAM RUBBER 



STRAIN 
COILS 



BOX BASE 



FLEXIBLE 
/BOARD 




I///////////// 



5 



b] DETAIL OF BASE 



FIG. 4. SUBGRADE SIMULATION IN BOX 



Paper by G. M. Norman & E. T. Seliji 



215 




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216 



Bulletin 692 — American Railway Engineering Association 



STRESS 
SENSOR BAR 



HORIZONTAL PRESSURE 
FROM BALLAST 



SIDE OF BOX 



^ 



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t 



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FOIL STRAIN GAGE 



a] PLAN VIEW 



8" OR 12" - 
b] SIDE VIEW 






KNIFE-EDGE BOLT 



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1 1 
1 1 

f" 2" I 1 

1 


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FIG. 6. CONFIGURATION OF STRESS SENSOR BARS 



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218 Bulletin 692 — American Railway Engineering Association 



Tie Settlement 

The tie settlement was observed to increase linearly with the log of the number of cycles 
accordinj; to test 14 (Fig.7). This is similar to the permanent strain trend that has been observed in 
repeated-load triaxial tests on ballast (Ref. 6). Test 14 was regarded as a typical test. The results 
of most of the tests were similar to those of this test. Test 14 had a ballast density of 1 12 Ib/cu ft 
and a stiff rubber 'subgrade." 

Tie settlement was affected by the maximum base deflection, which varied from 0.35 in. for 
spongy rubber to 0.04 in. for stiff rubber, at the center of the box. 

There was a clear distinction between the rate of settlement development in the uncom- 
pacted and the compacted ballast tests (Fig. 8). Both could be expressed by the relationship 
dN = d,(l + alogN) 

where df^ and d i are the tie settlements at the N'*' and 1 " cycles, respectively, and a is the settlement 
coefficient. For the compacted tests, the average a was 0.35 (range; 0.30-0.41), and for the 
uncompacted tests, the average a was 0.63 (range: 0.53-0.74). There was no observed correlation 
between the base conditions and the value of a. 

The ballast was three times as compressible in the uncompacted state as in the compacted 
state. However, the base compressibility did not affect the mechanics of ballast compaction 
because the same ballast permanent compression was noted for a particular density state, 
regardless of the base conditions. However, for a given base compressibility, the base settlement 
under the tie segment was less for compacted ballast than for loose ballast. This may be because 
the stresses are distributed more widely throughout the ballast in the dense state, and hence the 
settlement basin is shallower than in the loose state. 

Stress States 

The typical variation of horizontal residual stress with number of cycles is shown in Figs. 9 
and 10 for test 14. In this, as in all cases, the residual horizontal stresses in the unloaded state 
increased during a test until they reached values close to those of the total horizontal stresses in 
the loaded state. In some cases, the horizontal stresses in the loaded state decreased over the first 
100 cycles. After 100 cycles, the horizontal stress generally remained approximately constant 
during each load cycle. For both the side panels and the end panels, the maximum horizontal 
stress occured about 6 in. above the base of the box (Fig. II). 

The residual horizontal stresses tended to be higher for tests with compacted ballast. The 
residual and total stresses were closer in value at the end of a test for increasing ballast density and 
base stiffness. However, there appeared to be no clear trend between residual horizontal stresses 
and base conditions. 

The ratio of residual horizontal stress measured by the instrumented side and end panels to 
the vertical geostatic stress (based on the unit weight of ballast and the static surcharge due to the 
tie segment weight) was used as an estimate of the coefficient of lateral stress, K„. Some K^ 
values were found to be as high as 15, such as for the bar in the side panel directly under the tie. 
Values that high exceed the passive failure ratios from triaxial test, and require a ballast angle of 
internal friction, (t>,of56.5°. However, assuming a curved failure envelope, the very low vertical 
stresses and the high angularity of ballast particles, a value of <t> this high may not be unreasonable. 

The buildup of residual stress is believed to be due to particle interlocking caused by the 
compaction of the ballast during loading, which prevents the horizontal stress from diminishing 
on unloading. It is uncertain how much of the residual stress buildup occurs because of the 
boundary conditons in the box, but evidence exists that high horizontal stresses do occur in the 
field. Gages which had been embedded in the ballast for several months at the Facility for 



Paper by G. M. Norman & E. T. Selig 




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Paper by G. M. Norman & E. T. Selig 



221 



AVERAGE 




LOGN 



FIG. 8. SETTLEMENT PREDICTION CURVES FOR ALL TESTS 



Bulletin 692 — American Railway Engineering Association 



Accelerated Service Testing (FAST) track in Pueblo, Colorado to measure horizontal stresses in 
ballast were found to be tightly wedged in by horizontal pressure in the ballast so that they were 
difficult to remove. 

Figure 1 2 illustrates the stress changes that occur for an element of ballast beneath the tie. 
Initially (Fig. 12a), with the tie unloaded, the stresses are geostatic, although the vertical stress 
includes the weight of the tie. The horizontal stress is less than the vertical stress and both stresses 
are very small. When the tie is first loaded (Fig. 12b), the vertical stress increases to up to 38 psi, 
depending on the depth of the element in the ballast. The horizontal stress also increases to a value 
which is 10 to 30% of the vertical stress. After 10,000 cycles, the residual horizontal stress on the 
element with the tie unloaded (Fig. 12c) is considerably larger than the vertical stress. With the 
tie loaded ( Fig . 1 2d ), the horizontal stress is less than its value at the first cycle . but about equal to 
the unloaded horizontal stress. 

The direction of maximum shear stress is shown on the diagonal line in each element. One of 
the significant effects of the residual stress state in Fig. 12c is that shear stress reversal occurs 
during each load cycle. This reversal increases the tendency for volume reduction (compaction) 
of the ballast under repeated loading. 

The stress changes shown in Fig. 12 can be represented as stress paths representing the peak 
points p and q on the Mohr stress circles, where p = (cti + o-2)/2 and q = (d, - d3)/2. Figure 
13 shows typical stress paths together with the Mohr's circles from which they are derived. 
Initially, both the vertical and horizontal stresses are very small and the vertical stress is the major 
principal stress. This gives circle I . When the tie is loaded, both stresses increase, but the vertical 
stress remains the major principal stress. This gives circle 2. As early as the second cycle the 
horizontal stress on unloading exceeds the unloaded vertical stress, and thus the horizontal stress 
becomes the major principal stress. This gives circle 3. However, when the tie is loaded, the 
vertical stress becomes the major principal stress giving circle 4. Joining points I and 2, and 3 and 
4, gives the stress paths for the element under the tie for cycle 1 and cycle 10,000, respectively. 
The stress path for the final cycle is a line inclined at almost 45 deg, which is equivalent to the 
stress path for a triaxial test with constant confining pressure. 



STAGED LOAD TRIAXIAL TESTS 



Test Conditions 



Three staged-load cyclic tests were performed to investigate the effect of a mix of three 
wheel loads experienced in the field. The three loads chosen were 2000, 4000 and 6000 lb, 
corresponding to wheel loads of 16, 32 and 48 kips, respectively. These values bracket the wheel 
loads experienced from freight traffic (Ref. 2). Nearly 100% of wheel loads would be greater 
than 16 kips, but only about 0. 1 % exceed 48 kips. For each load level, 1 000 cycles of load were 
applied. Staged test 1 (STI ) consisted of 2000 lb followed by 4000 lb, and then 6000 lb. Staged 
test 2 (ST2) consisted of 4000 lb, then 6000 lb, and finally 2000 lb. The third staged test (ST3) 
consisted of 6000 lb, 2000 lb, and then 4000 lb. 

Samples were prepared to an initial density of 1 12 Ib/cu ft as previously described. The base 
support was stiff rubber. The procedures for the constant load tests were followed for loading the 
tie and taking readings, except that only the tie settlement and the horizontal stresses in the sensor 
bars were monitored. The first 10 cycles of each new load level were individually recorded. 

Stresses and Deformations 

The horizontal stresses showed the same trends as in the constant load tests, i.e.. residual 



Paper by G. M. Norman & E. T. Selig 223 



horizontal stresses increased to values close to the total horizontal stresses (see. tor example, bar 
6 in Fig. 14). The total stresses tended to decrease between 1 and 100 cycles of any new load 
level. It can be seen that the final residual stress is about the same regardless of the order in which 
the loads were applied. However, when the highest load was applied first, the final stress was 
higher than if the highest load was applied last. Also, when KXX) cycles of a lower load level 
followed 1000 cycles of a high load level, there was no increase in residual stress and the total 
stress even tended to decrease. As with the constant load tests, the highest stresses were in bars 3 
and 6. 

The trends for permanent deformation were also similar to those for the constant load tests 
(Fig. 15). For the first load level of each test, the settlement was proportional to the log of the 
number of cycles. For some reason, tests ST2 and ST3 are very close together. This was probably 
due to variability in preparing the test sample. Had the permanent settlement for ST3 been higher 
(as expected), it would be seen that the test where the highest load was applied first would give 
the greatest settlement throughout a test. Nevertheless, at the end of the tests, the settlements are 
very close, regardless of the order in which the loads were applied. This trend has also been 
observed in staged load cyclic triaxial tests (Ref. 7). 

The staged tests show that applying lower loads following a higher load produced no 
additional settlement. This implies that a great many cycles of one load may be required to cause 
as much deformation as one cycle of a higher load. This can be seen in Fig. 15, where one cycle of 
loading at 4000 lb (ST2) produced as much settlement as 1000 cycles of loading at 2000 lb (STl ). 
This trend is discussed in more detail in Ref. 7. The implication is that a few heavy wheel loads, 
such as from the impact of wheel flats, can cause as much track deformation as many trains with 
smaller loads. 



CHANGES IN BALLAST PHYSICAL STATE 

Physical state tests were performed before any loading and after IOO.(K)0 cycles of loading 
in order to determine if the ballast box could model the effects of train loading in the field. 
Specifically, ballast density tests were perfc^med to see if comparable densification of 
ballast under the tie was taking place. The technique used for the ballast density tests is described 
in Ref. 5. Plate load tests were also performed to see if a comparable increase in strength took 
place during loading. The technique used for the plate load tests is described in Refs.X and 9. 
Finally, tests were performed to see if the ballast box could evaluate degradation characteristics 
of the ballast under cyclic load. 

Density and Bearing Resistance 

The ballast used for the physical state tests was the local traprock prepared to an initial 
density of 1 12 Ib/cu ft. 

The ballast densities increased by about 8% during 100,000 cycles of loading. Changes 
between pre- and post-maintenance ballast densities under the tie at field sites have been 
observed to be 9 to 12'7f (Ref. 7). 

Increases in plate load resistance at 0.05-in. deformation were on the order of SOO'Jf , over 
100,000 cycles of load. Comparable field measurements show increases of 400 to 12007^ 
between pre- and post-maintenance plate load resistances (Ref.7). 

These results seem to indicate that field conditions were being approximately simulated by 
the cyclic loading in the ballast box. 



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Paper by G. M. Norman & E. T. Selig 



225 



-TIE LOADED 

TIE UNLOADED 




10,000 



10,000 



10,000 



1000 10.000 

NO. OF CYCLES, N 



FK; . 9. HORIZONTAL STRESSES ON END PANELS FOR TYPICAL TF:ST (TEST 14) 



226 



Bulletin 692 — American Railway Engineering Association 



LOAD 



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on 
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6 
7 


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10,000 




10.000 



1000 10,000 

NO. OF CYCLES,N 



FIG . 10. HORIZONTAL STRESSES ON SIDE PANELS FOR TYPICAL TEST (TEST 14) 



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228 



Bulletin 692 — American Railway Engineering Association 




I 2 3 

HORIZONTAL STRESS (PSl) 

CYCLE I 




I 2 3 

HORIZONTAL STRESS (PSD 

CYCLE 10,000 



16- 
12- 
8- 
4- 



TIE 
UNLOADED 



\ 



TIE 
LOADED 



\ 




1 — I — I — I — r 



2 4 6 8 

HORIZONTAL STRESS (PSl) 

CYCLE I 



12- 
8- 
4- 




2 4 6 

HORIZONTAL STRESS 
(PSl) 

CYCLE 10,000 



al END 



bl SIDE 



FIG. 11. TYPICAL MEASURED HORIZONTAL STRESS DISTRIBUTION FROM 
BALLAST BOX EXPERIMENTS (TEST 14) 



Paper by G. M. Norman & E. T. Selig 



229 



a.) 




UNLOADED 



c.) 




b.) 




LOADED 



d.) 




CYCLE 1 



CYCLE 10,000 



FIG. 12. STRESS CHANGE FOR AN ELEMENT OF BALLAST BENEATH TIE 



230 



Bulletin 692 — American Railway Engineering Association 




'D^ 



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232 



Bulletin 692 — American Railway Engineering Association 




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Paper by G. M. Norman & E. T. Selig 



233 



Particle Degradation 

During cyclic tests with the ballast box, breakdown ot the ballast particles was observed, 
especially directly below the tie. Similar results have occurred in the field. However, the same 
extent of breakage was not usually observed during the cyclic triaxial tests. Thus it was felt that 
the box tests might be useful for studying the potential breakdown of ballast under field loading 
conditions. Four tests were pertbrmed to investigate this possibility. 

The four ballast degradation tests each involved a different ballast. These were: 1 ) the 
traprock used in the cyclic tests, 2) Wyoming granite from FAST, 3) limestone from FAST, and 
4) traprock from the Held site at Aberdeen, Maryland. Available index property data are given in 
Table I and gradation information is given in Table 2. Fresh ballast was used in each case, except 
the Wyoming granite. The granite had already been used in triaxial tests. 

In orderto provide a contrast between the surface of the ballast particles and the fresh broken 
surfaces, the decision was made to dye the particles before testing. The ballast was then placed in 
the box and compacted in four layers, as previously described for the constant load cyclic tests. 
The previously described procedures for placing the tie were also followed. 

The loading machine was programmed to cycle between 50 lb and 4000 lb for l(X),()00 
cycles. For the first test, the loading frequency was 3 Hz. After the first test, the frequency was 
increased to 5 Hz to speed up the tests. No significant vibration effects were introduced by using 5 
Hz. 

After 100,000 cycles of loading, the ballast was removed by hand and separated into 
sections. Crib material above the bottom of the tie was discarded. The rest of the sections were 
retained and any broken pieces were saved separately. The ballast in each section was weighed, 
including the broken pieces. 

All the breakage was found to occur in the zone directly beneath the tie, the extent 
decreasing with depth. Most of the breakage tended to be small corners removed from larger 
particles. However, a few large particles were broken into two similar size pieces. There was no 
breakage below the crib area. 

Considerable dust was found in the bottom of the box from the abrasion at particle contacts, 
much of which could have come from higher up under the tie. This abrasion could 
clearly be seen because the particles had a 'spotty' appearance where the dye had been worn away at 
the contacts. 



TABLE 1. INDEX PROPERTIES FOR THE BALLASTS USED IN 
THE DEGRADATION TESTS 



Property 

Flakiness Index 

Magnesium Sulphate Soi/ndness 
Los Angeles Abrasion (CI3I) 
Bulk Specific Gravity 
Crushing Value 





Balla.st Type 


Aberdeen 


Granite 


Limestone 


Traprock 


20.80 


9.40 


17.00 


0.77 


1 1 .90 


O.OO 


18.80 


25.70 


17.80 


2.67 


2.65 


2.87 


18.40 


19.30 


... 



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Paper by (i M. Norman & E. T. Selig 



235 






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236 



Bulletin 692— American Railway Engineering Association 



TABLE 2. PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS FOR THE BALLASTS USED IN 

THE de(;radation tests 

Ballast Type 













Aberdeen 


Local 


Sieve Size 
(in.) 


Granite 


Limestone 

% Passing 


Traprock 


Traprock 


3 






— 




100 


... 


2'/2 

2 




— 


— 




98 

74 


100 


l'/2 

1 




100 
60 


100 
90 




43 
10 


97 
34 






25 



62 

22 
2 




2 



5 


No. 4 




— 


— 




— 





Classification 


AREA No. 


4 or 5 


AREA No. 5 


AREA No. 24 


AREA No. 4 




(Probably degraded 
from 4) 











The kxal traprock used in the cyclic tests showed little breakage. This ballast is known to have 
performed well in the field. 

The Wyoming granite did not show much breakage either, but it is interesting to note that this 
ballast had already broken down considerably from its original gradation because it had been 
extensively used in previous laboratory tests. It is likely that more breakage would have occurred had 
these ballast particles been fresh and of a coarser gradation. 

The limestone ballast showed more breakage than the traprock. The limestone also produced 
considerable dust from abrasion at the contacts, the most of any of the four ballasts tested. 

The Aberdeen traprock showed the most breakage, but not the most dust. Although the 
Aberdeen traprock had the lowest Los Angeles abrasion value, this ballast was much coarser than the 
other ballasts tested. Thus the contact stresses were higher, because there were fewer contact points. 

The results of this short series of tests indicate that the box technique is promising for ballast 
evaluation. A more quantitative measure of the breakdown in this test could be found by performing 
a sieve analysis before and after testing. It would also be better to run more cycles of load. At the 
4000-lb load level used, 100,000 cycles represents about 7 MGT or about 2 months of mainline 
traffic. Not much dust accumulation would be expected after 2 months, although breakage might 
develop in this time if new ballast had just been in a track. A more realistic figure would be one 
to two million cycles, which would be equivalent to 2 to 4 years of traffic. 

These preliminary tests showed that the amount of dust and small particles generated was very 
small compared to the weight of the total sample. Thus a change in total sample gradation was not a 
precise enough measure of degradation. The weight of the dust and the small particles, directly, is a 
more sensitive measure of the degradation. Further consideration of this problem is needed in 
conjunction with tests on a range of poor to good ballast materials to determine the required test 
precision. 

Other conditions which would be desirable to study in future tests include increased load level, 
increased frequency of loading to produce vibration, and a harder bearing surface to represent a 
concrete tie instead of a wood tie. The latter is important because some ballasts have been known to 
break down more quickly if used with concrete ties. 



Paper by G. M. Norman & E. T. Selig 237 



SUMMARY 

This study was conducted to obtain a better understanding ot ballast Held pertoriiiance and. 
in particular, to investigate the development ofhori/ontal stresses in ballast undercyciic loading. 
The study involved the use ol a special ballast box to simulate ticid performance t)t ballast under 
track. Ballast density tests showed that increases in density could be achieved with cyclic loading 
in the box that are comparable to those observed in the field under a tie caused by train traffic. 
Plate load tests also showed increases in plate bearing index in the box comparable to those 
measured in the field. 

A series of constant amplitude cyclic load tests were performed during which the initial 
density state and base compressibility were varied. The tie settlement, base compression and 
horizontal stresses were measured. The principal results were as follows; 

1 . The tie settlement was observed to increase with the log of the number of cycles, similar 
to the permanent strain accumulation trend that had been observed in the repeated-load triaxial 
tests. 

2. The permanent settlement of the ballast was three times greater in the uncompacted 
state than in the compacted state. However, the base compressibility did not affect the mechanics 
of ballast compaction because the same ballast permanent compression was noted for a particular 
density state, regardless of the base conditions. 

3. In all cases, the residual horizontal stresses in the unloaded state increased during a test 
until they reached values close to those of the total horizontal stresses in the loaded state, i.e. , the 
ratio of residual to total horizontal stresses increased with each cycle until it reached a value close 
to 1 .0. Most of the change occurred within the first 100 cycles. The ratio tended to be higher for 
increased base stiffness and/or increased ballast density. 

4. The residual horizontal stresses tended to be higher for tests with compacted ballast. 
However, there appeared to be no clear trend between residual horizontal stresses and base 
conditions. 

5. In all tests, the maximum residual stress occured 6 in. from the bottom of the box. 

6. The ratio of residual horizontal stress from the instrumented side and end panels to the 
vertical geostatic stress was used as an estimate of coefficient of lateral stress, K,,. Some K,, 
values were found to be as high as 15. 

Staged load cyclic tests were performed to investigate the effect of a mix of wheel loads. The 
horizontal stresses showed the same trends as in the constant load tests, i.e., residual stresses 
increased to values close to the total stresses. The final residual horizontal stresses were governed 
by the value of the highest load applied, regardless of the sequence of loading. This was also true 
for the tie settlement. This trend is consistent with that observed in staged-load cyclic triaxial 
tests. These tests suggested that many cycles of low load level are required to produce as much 
deformation as a single cycle of a higher load level. 

Tests were performed on four ballasts to see if the ballast box could be used to evaluate the 
degradation characterisitics of the ballast under cyclic load. Significant degradation has not 
generally been observed in triaxial tests, but is known to occur in the field. The box tests showed 
both breakage of large particles, which is assumed to happen in the first few cycles of loading, 
and generation of dust, which is caused by abrasion of particle contacts throughout the test. 
Similar tests should be conducted to investigate the effects on degradation of higher wheel loads, 
higher frequencies, and a harder bearing surface such as is provided by a concrete tie. 

In conclusion, it is felt that use of the ballast box generated some very interesting and useful 
data. There is considerable potential for using the box to investigate factors which affect ballast 
performance in the field. 




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Paper by G. M, Norman & E. T. Selig 239 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

Harry E. Stewart, Joan E. Thomas and Donna M. Feng of the Geotechnical Group at the 
University of Massachusetts assisted in conducting this study. Kristin J. Stewart prepared the 
manuscript. The research was sponsored by the Federal Railroad Administration, under sub- 
contract from Battelle-Columbus Laboratories. 

REFERENCES 

1. Norman, G.M.. 'Ballast Box Tests for Evaluating Ballast Field Performance," M.S. Project 

Report. University of Massachusetts at Amherst, Department of Civil Engineering, 
Report No. FRA82-29IP. March. 1982. 

2. Harrison. H.D.. Dean. F.E.. Selig. E.T. and Stewart. H.E.. "Correlation of Concrete Tie 

Track Performance in Revenue Service and at the Facility for Accelerated Service 
Testing." Final Report. Vol. I , for Federal Railroad Administration. Office of Research 
and Development, Contract No. DOT-FR-8164, July, 1982. 

3. Selig. E.T., "Soil Strain Measurement Using Inductance Coil Method," Performance 

Monitoring for Geotechnical Construction. STP5S4, American Society for Testing and 
Materials. Philadelphia. Penna.. 1975. pp. 141-158. 

4. Chang. C.S.. Adegoke. C.W. and Selig, E.T., "The GEOTRACK Model for Railroad 

Track Performance." Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division. American 
Society of Civil Engineers. Vol. 106. No. GT II. November, 1980, pp. 1201-1218. 

5. Yoo. T.S., Chen, H.M. and Selig. E.T.. "Railroad Ballast Density Measurement," 

Geotechnical Testing Journal. ASTM, Vol. 1, No. I. March, 1978, pp. 41-54. 

6. Alva-Hurtado. J.E.. "A Methodology to Predict the Elastic and Inelastic Behavior of 

Railroad Ballast." Ph.D. Dissertation, UMass at Amherst, Dept. of Civil Engrg., Report 
No. OUR80-245D. May. 1980. 

7. Stewart. HE., "The Prediction of Track Performance Under Dynamic Traffic Loading." 

Ph.D. Dissertation. UMass at Amherst. Dept. of Civil Engrg.. Report No. FRA82-292D. 
May. 1982. 

8. Panuccio. CM.. Wayne. R.C. and Selig. E.T.. "Investigation of a Plate Index Test for 

Railroad Ballast." Geotechnical Testing Journal. ASTM. Vol.1. No. 4. December. 
1978. pp. 213-222. 

9. Panuccio. CM.. Dorwart. B. and Selig. E.T.. "Apparatus and Procedures for a Railroad 

Ballast Plate Index Test." Geotechnical Testing Journal. ASTM. Vol. 1. No. 4, De- 
cember. 1978. pp. 223-227. 



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Distribution of Temperature Stresses Along 
The Continously Welded Rails (CWR) 

T.H.Tung * 

FOREWORD 

This paper is the presentation given by Prof. T.H.Tung of the Shanghai Institute of Railway 
Technology P. R.C. before the AREA Regional Meeting held at New Orleans in October 1982. In 
this presentation, the formation of temperature stress peaks along the breathing zone of the CWR 
was discussed. Such a phenomena was first discovered by the maintenance gangs of the Beijing 
Railway Administration in 1972. Later, in 1976, a research group was formed under the 
leadership of the Academy of Railway Sciences to investigate into this phenomena. Extensive 
investigations were made by this group on the existing track near Baoding on the Beijing 
Guangzhou Railway, and it was found that the temperature stress peaks do exist near the junction 
of the breathing zone and the deformation-free zone of the CWR, which verifies the theoretical 
analysis we have already made. This presentation is a summary of the long term observations 
and experiments they have ever made. Most of the dates used in this paper are quoted from their 
experimental reports. 

INTRODUCTION 

Since 1957, more than 6,000 kilometers of continously welded rails (CWR) have been laid 
on main railway tracks in People's Republic of China (P. R.C). Short stretches of CWR were 
also laid as an experiment on tracks passing through long bridges, steep grades, sharp curves, etc. 
Thus we have gained some ripe experiences in the field of design, welding, transportation, 
installation and maintenance of such CWR tracks. 

CWR tracks may be divided into two different categories; tracks in which temperature 
stresses are accumulated in the rails and tracks in which temperature stresses in the rails are 
periodically liberated (or de-stressed). In China, the former is generally used except in the case of 
extraordinary long bridges. As a rule, the difference between the maximum and minimum rail 
temperature for this type of track should not exceed 90°C. 

The CWR used in our country is usually 1 ,000—2,000 meters long, with 2—4 standard rails 
known as "transition rails" laid between them to serve as a "transition zone" for the adjustment of 
rail gaps and for the ease of repairing in case it is necessary. 

Ordinary fish-plate joints are used on CWR tracks. The resistance offered by the rail joint 
against the expansion or contraction of the rail due to temperature changes is called the "joint 
resistance" (or "fish-plate resistance"), designated by R^. The joint resistance is provided by the 
combined effect of the frictional resistance between the rail and fish-plate and the bending or 
shearing resistance of the bolts. The latter is usually small as compared with the former, and for 
the sake of safety, only the former is generally considered. 

Theoretical analysis shows that, for standard rails used in China, the frictional resistance 
between the rail and fish-plate under the action of one bolt is approximately equal to the tensile 
force induced in the bolt. This statement is also verified by experiments made in the laboratory. It 
follows, evidently, in order to raise the resistance of the joint, one must first raise the tensile force 
induced in the bolt. 



♦Professor of Civil Engineering. Shanghai Inslitule of Railway Technology. P R.C 

243 



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Paper by T. H. Tung 



245 



The empirical relations between the torsionaJ moment M exerted by the wrench on the bolt 
nut and the tensile force induced in the bolt T are as follows: 

M = KDT (1) 

where, K — coeffficient, taken as 0.2; 

D — Diameter of the bolt, mm; 
M — Torsional moment exerted by the wrench, kg-m; 
T — Tensile force induced in the bolt, t. 

The values of M as specified on P. R.C. railroads are 90 kg-m for 1st, class bolts, 70 and 40 
kg-m for 2nd. and 3rd. class bolts respectively. 

Thus, for 24 mm 2nd. class bolts, 



70 



= 14.6t, 



43. 8t. 



0.2 X 24 
the joint resistance R^ of a 6-hole fish-plate joint will be 14.6 x 3 

The joint resistance R^ for different types of fish-plate joint as specified by P. R.C. railroads 
are shown in the Table 1 . 

Joint resistance Ry,t. Table 1 



class of bolts 


Joint Resistance 


4-hole fish-plate 


6-hole fish-plate 


D = 22mm 


D = 24mm 


D = 22mm 


ist. 
2nd. 

3rd. 


16 


60 
40 

27 


24 



Ordinary ballast are also used in CWR tracks. The resistance offered by the rail fastenings or 
ballast against the longitudial movement of the rail due to temperature changes is called the 
"creep resistance" of the rail fastenings or ballast (usually the latter dominates). This may be 
expressed as the resistance per sleeper R, or per unit length of track (or rail) p. Evidently , 

p = — ^— (per unit-length of track) 



P = 



2a 



(per unit length of rail) 



(2) 



The latter expression is generally used, where a — center to center of sleepers. 

In fact, this resistance is not a constant value, but varies with the displacement of the 

ballast, and for the sake of safety resistance correspond to a displacement of 2mm is generally 

adapted as a basis for the analysis of CWR tracks. They are specified in our country as shown in 

Table 2. 

Creep resistance of ballast Table 2 



Type of 
sleepers 


Resistance 
per sleeper 


Resistance per unit 
length of rail p 


1840 sleepers/km. 


1760 sleepers/km. 


wooden 
R.C. 


700kg. 
1000kg, 


6.4 kg/cm. 
9.1 kg/cm. 


6. i kg/cm. 
8.7 kg/cm. 



246 



Bulletin 692 — American Railway Engineering Association 



A freely supported rail otlength /. , when subjected to a temperature change of A/, will expand 
or contract 



where, 



M =a/Af 

a-linear coefficient of expansion of steel, taken as 0.00001 18; 
A/-changes of rail temperature, °C. 



(3) 



If the rail is perfectly restrained against expansion or contraction, temperature stresses will 
be set up within the rail. According to Hooke's Law, this stress will be 

CT, =Ee = E -^ =Ea^r (4) 

where, E- Young's modulus of steel, taken as 2.1 x 10^ kg/cm", or 

a, =2.1 X 10^ X 11.8 X lO'^A/ = 24.78Ar (5) 

For rails with cross-sectional area of Fcm- , the temperature force set up within one rail will be 

P, =aF = 24.78FA/ (6) 

For standard 50 kg/m. rails, F= 65.80 cm-, we have P, = 1.63Af tons, and for standard 60 
kg/m. rails, F = 77.08 cm', P, = 1.9lAr tons. 

Designate, 

T,„ax — Maximum rail temperature, °C; 

Tmin — Minimum rail temperature; 

Ta>, — Average rail temperature; 

T,/ — Track laying temperature, a temperature range within which the CWR tracks may be laid; 

T^f — Stress free temperature, a definite temperature within the track laying temperature range, 

at which the fish plates and rail fastenings are perfectly locked in place. 
T — Any specified rail temperature. 
A/ — Changes in rail temperature. A/ = T^y — T. 

These are graphically represented as in Fig. 1. 



>0 

k1 



Atxi'ZO'C) 


^t 


; (20'C) 






.^ 




^ 


•^ 






,^ 


«s- 


<o 




5 


o. 


^f^ 




X 






e 


v^ 


K 


k. 


Ci 



Tt 



to 



FIG. 1 Rail Temperatures 



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248 Bulletin 692 — American Railway Engineering Association 



Once the "stress-free temperature" Tj,/is fixed, the temperature change at any specified rail 
temperature T will be 

A / =T,^ - T, 

positive value signifies a temperature drop, resulting in a tensile temperature stress, while 
negative value signifies a temperature rise, resulting in a compressive temperature stress. 

Although the CWR track has decided advantages in the smooth riding of rolling stocks, 
lower maintenance cost and longer service life of tracks, yet the high temperature stresses existed 
within the rail will inevitably increase the chance of rail fracture in cold winter and track 
buckling in hot summer. In this respect, the temperature change At plays a very important 
role on the one hand, while the joint resistance Rj and creep resistance of ballastp also play a very 
important role on the other. 

Of course, under normal conditions in our country, where the difference between maximum 
and minimum rail temperature of the CWR track does not exceed 90°C,Ar seldom exceeds 
45°C in the case of temperature rise or 55°C in the case of temperature drop, so that track buckling 
or rail fracture is unlikely to be occured during summer or winter unless the joint resistance and 
the creep resistance of the ballast are very much destroyed due to the incorrect methods of 
maintenance used. But there remains the possibility of laying CWR tracks in severe winter out of 
absolute necessity and no complete liberation of temperature stresses was made afterward, or due 
to various reasons, the actual stress-free temperature is very much lower than which is originally 
recorded, and Ar for the temperature rise will be then too high to safeguard the buckling of the 
tracks even when the rail temperature has not yet reached its maximum value. There are also 
instances where track buckling occurs in the "breathing zone" instead of in the "deformation free 
zone" of the CWR track even when the rail temperature is very much lower than its maximum 
value. This involves the question of distribution of the temperature stresses along the CWR, and 
further investigations should be made in order to clarify this situation. 



Temperature stress distributions along the CWR for uni-directi onal temperature changes 

By "uni-directional temperature change" we meant the temperature change either from the 
"stress-free temperature" up to the "maximum rail temperature" or down to the "minimum rail 
temperature". The joint resistance Rj and creep resistance of the ballast p are assumed to be the 
same for both cases. 

As the rail temperature T drops from the stress free temperature T,/, the contraction of the 
rail is restrained by the joint resistance R^, and before the temperature change A? reaches a value, 

AO =~^ , 

' 24.78F 

no movement of the rail will be effected at either end of the rail. The temperature stress 
distribution along the rail will be represented by lines parallel to the zero stress line AA' , and when 
Ar reaches Ar^, this is represented by the line ABB 'A', as shown in Fig. 2 a. 

As the rail temperature drops still further, the creep resistance of ballast p will come into 
play. At any point distant x from the joint, the creep resistance offered by the ballast will hep-x, 
this together with the joint resistance Rj gives a total resistance of R^ + p-x against the contraction 
of the rail. According to the conditions of equilibrium, this should equal to the temperature force 
P, (+ signifies tension) correspond to temperature change At, (+ signifies temperature drop). 



Paper by T. H. Tung 



249 



P, =24.78F A/, = R, + px 
from which, we have 

_ P, -R; 

X = ■ ^ — 



(7) 



At Pt 



a tmin 




a) Temperature drop Tg, - Tmm 



A' 



"J 



■Pt 



B, 






i;^ 



tkf_ 



b) Temperature rise Tjf - Tn 



y 



'/^_ 



FIG. 2 Distribution of temperature stresses along CWR 



The temperature stress distribution is graphically represented by the line ABCC ' B ' A '. The obHque 
line EC with an inclination of angle (p to the horizontal is a measure of the effect of the creep 
resistance of ballast. Evidently, 



P, -R, 



(8) 



As the rail temperature drops down to its minimum value T„„„ the corresponding tempera- 
ture change will be A /„„„ = T^ /^ - T„„„ and the temperature force in the rail will be „„„P, = 
24. 78FA/„,„ . Since the CWR is usually very long and the ,„,„P, to be expected is rather limited, it is 



2?() Bulletin 692 — American Railway Engineering Association 



natural that only a part of the creep resistance of ballast along the rail is necessary to balance the 
temperature force thus occurred, whence 

nun P, =R, +P-h, 

• P — R 

/, = """ ' ^ (9) 

P 

The temperature stress distribution along the rail is then represented by the line ABDD'B'A'. 

We call the region between A and D where contraction of the rail can be effected as the 
■'breathing zone" and the corresponding length //, as the "breathing length" of the CWR. 
Similarly, we call the region DD' where no contraction whatsoever can be effected as the 
■'deformation free zone" and corresponding length Ijf as the "deformation free length". 

In the case of rail temperature T rises from the stress free temperature T,^ up to its maximum 
value T„„„, the same thing will be happened and the diagrams of temperature stress distribution 
along the CWR are of the same shape as in the previous case, but reverse in direction (see 
Fig. 2b). When T„ = T„,., A/„„„ = A/,„^„„„„P, = ,„,,,?',, l/, = //,. Usually, T„ >T„, in order 
to cut down the chance oftrack buckling during summer, it follows Ar„„„ >A/,„,„, ,„<i,"P,>,„av ?!■ Ih 
> l'i„ and this should be taken into consideration while investigating the stress distributions along 
the CWR tracks. 

In fact, the actual rail temperature changes occurred in practice is not uni-directional, but in 
cycles from Tv/^to T„„„ (or T„,„,) and thence back and forth between T,„,„ (or T,„<„ ) and T„„^, (or 
T„„„). Owing to the fact that the contraction or expansion of the rail "lags behind" the changes in 
rail temperature, the above-mentioned process is irreversible. The graphical representation of the 
temperature stress distributions along the rail is only valid for the deformation free zone, but is far 
from the truth for the breathing zone. This will be discussed fully in the next section. 

The formation of "temperature stress peaks" in the breathing zone 

The fact that the contraction or expansion of the rail "lags behind" the changes in rail 
temperature is the phenomena actually existed in practice, yet usually neglected by railway 
engineers. The actual situation is, when the rail tends to change from the state of contraction to 
expansion, or vice versa, this can not be effected unless the joint resistance in the original 
direction is first neutralized and the joint resistance in the other direction is then used up. That is 
to say, during the process of converting contraction into expansion, or vice versa, a resistance 
twice as much as the joint resistance have to be overcome. The same thing happens for the creep 
resistance of ballast. After overcoming the doubled joint resistance, a resistance twice as much as 
the creep resistance of ballast have to be overcome before further contraction or expansion of the 
track can be realized. 

The actual status of temperature stress distribution along the rail are as follows. The 
case where T.^^ > T„,. will be considered first. 

As the rail temperature T drops from the stress free temperature T,y towards the minimum 
rail temperature to be expected T,„„„ the entire process is shown in Fig. 2a and reproduced as in 
Fig.3. 

When the rail temperature rises from T„„„ upwards, according to the above statement, no 
expansion of the rail can be effected as long as the temperature rise is less than 2 Ar^ (equivalent to a 
temperature force of 2R, ), and the temperature force will be decreased uniformly throughout the 
entire rail. The temperature stress distribution diagram shifts parallel to the line BDD'B'. When 



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h A 








25: 



Bulletin 692 — American Railway Engineering Association 



Ar, = Ar,„,„ - Ar,, this is represented by the line AEE'A', and when Ar, = Ar„,„ - lAtj, 
by the line B|FF'B|' as shown in Fig. 3. In the letter case, the state of stress near the end of the rail 
turns from tension to compression. 

As the rail temperature rises still further, the creep resistance of ballast comes into play. 
There is a point distant /' , from the end of rail where the creep resistance of ballast changes its 
direction. To the left of this point, doubled creep resistance of ballast have been already 
overcome, and the resistance offered is -p instead of +p, while to the right it still remains as +p. 
The temperature stress distribution diagram is represented by the line B iGqGG'Go'B , ' . Evidently, 
a temperature stress peak is formed at Go distant l\ from the end of rail. The temperature force 
accumulated in the deformation free zone is P', = 24.78FArt, and according to the conditions of 
equilibrium, 

R, + p-r, = p', + Pill, - /',) 




Fig. 3 Distribution of temperature stresses along C WR. Temperature drop from T^f to T„ 
and then back to T„„„, 



from which 



/' - P', + p- Ih- R/ 
2p 



(10) 



Paper by T. H. Tung 253 



and the peak temjjerature force P'„ will be 

P'„ ^ R, + p ■ /', (ID 

the peak excess P'^ will be 

P', = P'.-P', (12) 

Substituting eq (9) into eqs (10). (11). (12), these can be simplified into 

/', = ^[(maxP, - 2R,; + P',] (10') 

P'„ = 1/2 {ma.x P, + P',) (IT) 

P'.. = 1/2 (mcLx P, - P',; (12') 

When A f, = A t„a^f K = wa.v P',. we have 

mcLX l\ = — [l/2(mavP, + wavP',) - R^) (13) 

P 

max ?',, = 1/2 (max P, + max P', ) (14) 

min P\ = 1/2 (max P,- max P',) (15) 

The temperature stress distribution diagram is represented by the line B, H,, HH' H'„ B'j 
with temperature stress peak Ho distant max l\ from the end of rail. 

It can be clearly shown that temperature stress peaks are formed within the breathing zone 
during the entire process of temperature rise from T„„„ toT,,,,,,. and that the peak excess P',, above 
the temperature force accumulated in the deformation free zone decreases with the distance away 
from the end of rail. Even at T,,,^, , a peak excess of m/n P',, still remains, which may cause serious 
effects to the buckling of CWR tracks. 

When 1,, ^ Ty, .max • P, .^ maxP' , ,minP',, ^ 0. there will be no temperature stress peaks 
formed when the rail temperature rises to its maximum value T„,„,. yet they still exist for rail 
temperatures lower than T„^,. 

As the rail temperature drops from T,„^, back to T„„„. the temperature stress distribution 
diagram will be presented in an entirely different way. as shown in Fig. 4. No contraction of the 
rail can be effected before the temperature drop reaches a value equal to 2A/,. as a result the 
temperature stress distribution diagram will shift parallel to the line B, H,, HH' H,,' B', with its 
shape unchanged. When A/, = A/„„„ -A/^, this is represented by the line AG,, GG' G',, A'.and 
when A/, = A/^^, - 2Ar^, by the line BF,, FF' F',, B'. 

As the rail temperature drops still further, the creep resistance of ballast comes into play. 
There is a point distant /, from the end of rail where the creep resistance changes its direction. The 
temperature stress distnbution diagram is represented by the line BE I E„ EE' E'„E'| B'.witha 
peak formed at E| distant /, from the end of rail. The temperature force accumulated in the 
deformation free zone is P, = 24.78FA/,, and according to the conditions of equilibrium, 

Rj + p ■ I, ^ P, - min P'^ + p (max ■ l\ - /,) 

from which 

I _ P, - min P',. + p min /', - R, ,. 

'" 2p 



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Paper by T. H. Tung 



2*i5 



,tm.r 





A, 



I tnu 






Ho' 



B, 



FIG. 4 Distribution of temperature stresses along CWR. Temperature drop from 

' max '^ ' min 



and the peak temperature force P„ will be 
P„ =R, + /J • /, 

the peak excess 

P, =P,. - P, 

Substituting cq( 13) ( 15) into (16) -- (18), these can be siniplilicd into 

/, = — [(mux ?', - 2R,) + P, ] 

P„ = 1/2 [max P', + P,j 
P,, = 1/2 [max P', - P,J 



(17) 

(16') 

(IV) 
(IX') 



When A/, = A/„„„ , P, = max P, > max P',. the peak vanishes, and the temperature stress 
distribution diagram is represented by the line BDD' B'. Unless the CWR tracks arc once more 
de-stressed, the entire process will be repeated cyclically. 

The effect of the temperature stress peak formed within the breathing /one should not be 
under-estimated. It can be very much higher than the temperature stress accumulated in the 
deformation free zone, and under most unfavorable conditions where stress free temperature is 
non-uniform or inaccurate, this may amount to a very high temperature force causing buckling of 



256 



Bulletin 692 — American Railway Engineering Association 



the CWR tracks within the breathing zone. This will be illustrated more clearly by the following 
example. 

50 kg/m. rails, F = 65.80cm% 24.78F - 1.63 t. 

R. C. sleepers, 1760 pcs/km., p = 8.7 kg/cm 

6-hole fishplate, 2nd class bolts, D = 24m m, R^ ^ 40 /. 

Beijing area, T,„a.v = 62.6°C, T„,„ = - 22.8°C, Tj^/ 25°C 



A r„,„ = 25 - (- 22.8) = 47.8°, A w = 25 - 62.6 
= - 37.6° 

A/, =-^= 24.5° 
' 1.63 

max?, = 1. 63 X 47.8 = 11 .9t 

max?', = 1. 63 X (- 37.6) = - 61.3/ 

77.9 - 40 ^, 1000 



L =■ 



X 1:1:1:1= 43.6" 
100 



Ih 



8.7 

= 61-3-40 ^ 1000^ 24.5-. 
8.7 100 



Using eqs .( 1 ') ~ ( 1 2 '), values of P' „' o P ' o . P ' f are calculated for temperature rise from T„,„ 
to Imax as shown in Table 3a. Using eqs.(16')~(18'), values of P„ l,t,?o> P? are calculated 
for temperature drop from T^^x to T„,„ as shown in Table 3b. 



(a) Temperature rise T„ 



Table 3 



T, 


A<, 


max-P, 


P, 


/', 


Po 


Pe 


-22.8° 


47.8° 


11. 9 t 





— 


— 





26.2° 


-1.2° 


77.9 


2.0 r 


0.0 


40.0/ 


38.0/ 


30.0° 


-5.0° 


77.9 


8.1 


3.5'" 


43.6 


34.9 


35.0° 


-10.0° 


77.9 


16.3 


8.2 


47.1 


30.8 


40.0° 


-15.0° 


77.9 


24.4 


12.8 


51.2 


26.8 


45.0° 


-20.0° 


77.9 


32.6 


17.5 


55.3 


22.7 


50.0° 


-25.0° 


77.9 


40.7 


22.2 


59.3 


18.6 


55.0° 


-30.0° 


77.9 


48.9 


26.9 


63.4 


14.5 


60.0° 


-35.0° 


77.9 


57.0 


31.6 


67.5 


10.5 


62.6° 


-37.6° 


77.9 


61.3 


34.0 


69.6 


8.3 



Paper by T. H. Tung 



257 



(b) Temperature drop T„ 



^x 


A^ 


maxP'i 


P, 


A 


Po 


Pe 


62.6° 


-37.6° 


61.3/ 











_ 


13.6° 


11.4° 


61.3 


18.5 


0.0 


40.0 


21.5/ 


10.0° 


15.0° 


61.3 


24.5 


3.3 '" 


42.9 


18.4 


5.0° 


20.0° 


61.3 


32.6 


8.0 


47.0 


14.4 


0.0° 


25.0° 


61.3 


40.8 


12.7 


51.1 


10.3 


-5.0° 


30.0° 


61.3 


48.9 


17.4 


55.1 


6.2 


-10.0° 


35.0° 


61.3 


57.1 


22.1 


59.2 


2.1 


-12.6° 


37.6° 


61.3 


61.3 


24.5 


61.3 


0.0 


-15.0° 


40.0° 


61.3 


65.2 


— 


— 





-20.0° 


45.0° 


61.3 


73.4 


— 


— 





-22.8° 


47.8° 


61.3 


77.9 


— 


— 


— 



From which we can see: 

1. There is a temperature stress peak within the breathing zone both when the rail 
temperature rises from T„,„ to T„„i, or drops from T;„„, to T,„,„. 

2. With the increase of temperature change A/, the temperature stress peak P„ (or P'„) shifts 
along the breathing zone from the end towards the center of the rail, or in other words, /, (or /'J 
increases with the increase of A/. 

3 . The peak stress P„ (or P'„) increases with the increase of A/, while the peak excess P^ (or P',,) 
decreases with the increase of A/. 

4. As the rail temperature rises from T^,„ to T„u,, temperature stress peaks exist throughout 
the entire process, while as the rail temperature drops from T„„^, to T„i„, they vanished when 
P, > max ■ P',. 

5. When A/ exceeds -25° or so, the peak stress P„ will be greater than the maximum 
temperature stress attainable {max P', - 61.3/), and when A/> = -37.6°, the peak excess 
will be 8.3/. 

6. Regulations for track maintenance specify that the allowable rail temperature for track 
work on CWR tracks should not exceed J,j ± 15° ~ 20°. The temperature stress peak will be 
5 1 .2/or55.3/, which is 26.8/ or 22.7/ higher than the temperature stress accumulated in the defor- 
mation free zone. 

7. Under most unfavorable conditions, where joint resistance and creep resistance of ballast 
in winter is very much lower than that in summer, and the actual stress free temperature is very 
much lower than what is recorded, the situation will be far worse as shown in the next section. 

Influence of the joint resistance and creep resistance of ballast — differences 
between summer and winter seasons 

The above analysis presumes that the joint resistance and creep resistance of ballast are the 
same both in winter and summer seasons. Actually, this isn't the case. During the winter sea.sons, 
just after the track work is done, there is a big decrease in the creep resistance of ballast, 
sometimes as much as 50% of its original value. There is also a certain decrease in the joint 
resistance. They are comparatively difficult to recover. As a result, the breathing length is very 
much elongated. During summer seasons, the creep resistance is completely recovered due to the 
compacting effect of the passing trains and the joint resistance also recovered by repeated 
tightening of the loosening bolts, a higher peak stress will occur along the breathing zone with the 
increase of rail temperatures, as will be seen from the following deductions (see Fig. 5). 



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Paper by T. H. Tung 



259 




Fig. 5. Stress peaks along CWR tracks 

R', > R,. // > p. 



Denote. 

R^, R'^ — Joint resistance during winter and summer seasons respectively; 
p. p' Creepresistanceofballastduringwinterandsummerseasons 

respectively; 
a — Coefficient, equal to R^ / R', ; 
P — Coefficient, equal to pip' . 

When the rail temperature rises from T„„„ to T„,,„ and joint resistances R, 
and R'^ are fully used up, we have, 

R'^ + p'l\ = P', + p (I,, - /'.) 



from which. 



^. _ p', + ph - R', 



, _ mux P, - R, 

'/> 

P 



260 



Bulletin 692 — American Railway Engineering Association 



Substituting into the above equation, we have, 



/'v - 



?', + wavP, - (1 + a)R'^ ^ P', + A 



(1 + P)p' 



(1 + P)P' 



(19) 



also. 



P'„ = R'^ + p'l', 

?\ = P'„ - P', 

when P', = max P'„ /', = max /',. P'^ = max ?' „, P'^ = min P'^. 

As the rail temperature drops from T„,„, to T„„„. and joint resistance R'^ and 
Kj are fully used up, then we have, 

R^ + pi, = P, - min ?' ^ + p' {max /', - /,) 

from which. 



/,= 



P, + p' max /', -minV\-Rj _ P, + B 



(1 + W 



(1 + W 



(20) 



Also 



Po=Rj + pi. 



For example, with data same as above, but 

R^=40/, Rj = 34t, a = 0.85 

p' = S.lkg/cm, p = 6.5kg/cm, p = 0.75 

(1 + a) R7 =1.85 X 40 = 76? 

(1 + P)p' = 1.75 X 8.7 = 15.2 kg/cm. 

The values of /'^.P'o, P'e for temperature rise are calculated as shown in 
Table 4a, and I,, Po, P^ for temperature drop are calulated as shown 



in Table 4b. 



(a) Temperture rise, Tgf — 25° 



Table 4 



T, 


At, 


P, 


P', + A 


I'x 


Po 


Pe 


-22.8° 


47.8° 


— 














22.6° 


2.4° 


— 


— 


— 


— 





25.0° 


0.0° 


0.0 r 


1.9 r 


1.2 '" 


41.0/ 


41.0/ 


30.0° 


-5.0° 


8.1 


10.0 


6.6 


45.7 


37.6 


35.0° 


-10.0° 


16.3 


18.2 


12.0 


50.4 


34.1 


40.0° 


-15.0° 


24.4 


26.3 


17.3 


55.1 


30.7 


45.0° 


-20.0° 


32.6 


34.5 


22.7 


59.7 


27.1 


50.0° 


-25.0° 


40.7 


42.6 


28.0 


64.4 


23.7 


55.0° 


-30.0° 


48.9 


50.8 


33.4 


69.1 


20.2 


60.0° 


-35.0° 


57.0 


58.9 


38.8 


73.8 


16.8 


62.6° 


-37.6° 


61.3 


63.2 


41.6 


76.2 


14.9 




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262 



Bulletin 692 — American Railway Engineering Association 



Note: 



^t', + A/, = 24.5 + 20.9 =45.4° 
max?, =47.8 X 1.63 = 77.9r 
max?', =37.6 x 1.63 = 61.3/ 



=20.9° 



/.= '"'>-'' X 



1000 



= 67.5" 



6.5 100 

A = 77.9 - 1.85 X 40 = 1.9r 

(b)Temperature drop, T,f =25° 



Tv 


-i^ 


P, 


P, + B 


A 


Po 


Pe 


62.6° 


-37.6° 


— 


— 


— 


— 





17.2° 


7.8° 


12.7/ 


0.0/ 


0.0"' 


34.0/ 


21.3/ 


15.0° 


10.0° 


16.3 


3.6 


2.4 


35.6 


19.3 


10.0° 


15.0° 


24.5 


11.8 


7.8 


39.1 


14.6 


5.0° 


20.0° 


32.6 


19.9 


13.1 


42.5 


9.9 


0.0° 


25.0° 


40.8 


28.1 


18.5 


46.0 


5.2 


-5.0° 


30.0° 


48.9 


36.2 


23.8 


49.5 


0.6 


-10.0° 


35.0° 


57.1 


44.4 


29.2 


53.0 


— 


-15.0° 


40.0° 


65.2 


52.5 


34.5 


56.4 


— 


-20.0° 


45.0° 


73.4 


60.7 


39.9 


59.9 


— 


-22.8° 


47.8° 


77.9 


65.2 


42.9 


61.9 


— 



Note: max /', =41.6'", max P'„ = 76.2/. 

min P'p =14.9/., 

p'max 1', =8.7 x 41.6 x '^^ 



36.2/ 



1000 
B =36.2 -14.9 -34 = -12.7/ 



It is clear that, when R^ < R'^andp < p' , the breathing length is much longer as compared 
with when R^ = R',andp = p' . Also, as the temperature rises, a higher temperature stress peak 
is formed and the position of the peak is much further away from the rail end. The smaller the 
coefficient a and p, i.e., the greater the differences between the winter and summer resistances, 
the more will be the influence effected on the values of/',, ?' „ and P',,. As the temperature drops, 
the effect of the differences between summer and winter resistances is not pronounced. 

Influence of the stress free temperature — inaccuracy, indeflniteness, or non-uniformity 

The stress free temperature is the most important data which must be correctly recorded and 
carefully preserved during the installation of CWR tracks. It should be as accurate, definite and 
uniform as possible. Maintenance of way regulations specify that the allowable rail temperature 
range at which track work can be done should not exceed 20° above or below this stress free 



Paper by T. H. Tung 263 



temperature. If the T,, is inaccurate, indefinite or non-uniform, especially when the T.^ is much 
lower than what is recorded, there will be the risk of track buckling even when this regulation is 
strictly observed. 

Investigations on the actual stress free temperature of CWR tracks reveal that, inaccuracy, 
indefmiteness and non-uniformity are actually existed in practice. Instances have shown that the 
actual Tj, is 5° ~ 10° or even more lower than the recorded T,f. 

The reasons for the difference between actual and recorded stress free temperatures are: 

1 . While the CWR tracks are laid in winter, T,f is very low, later they are de-stressed to a 
higher T^y under the action of passing traffic, but not completely de-stressed. 

2. Owing to the loosening of tlsh-plate bolts, the rail contracts under the action of traffic and 
execution of track works in winter. These will not recover in summer entirely, resulting in a fall 
of the T,f. 

3. The non-uniformity of de-stressing of CWR tracks under the action of passing traffic. 

4. While track works are carried out during severe winter, excessive contraction of the rail 
are effected, resulting in a big fall of the T.j. 

5. Even in the deformation free zone, there are some difference of the T,, along the track. 
This may be due to the creep rails, inadequate track work, non-uniform sunshine or some other 
reasons. 

6. Miss recorded due to carelessness or negligence. 

The influence of stress free temperature should not be under-estimated. With actual T,/ 10° 
lower than recorded T,/ implies an additional increase of 16.3/ of compressive temperature stress 
accumlated in the rail. As illustrated above, when R'^ = R^, p' - p, the peak stress will be 
55.3 + 16.3 — 71.6ratT, = Ts/'^ 20°(45°C,atwhichtrack worksareallowedtobeexecuted), 
and under unfavorable conditions, when R^ = O.S5R'j,p = 0.75p', this willbe59.7 -I- 16.3 = 
76.0 /, much higher than the maxP, = 61 .3 / as usually expected in the deformation free zone. 

Experimental verifications 

In order to verify the theoretical analysis as stated above, experiments were made on various 
sections of CWR tracks to determine the status of distribution of temperature stress along the rail 
and the actual stress free temperature existed in the rail. Observation posts were .set every 50m. 
along the track to record the relative deformations between them (i.e., the temperature stress 
within this 50m. stretch) before and after the track is destressed. De-stressing of the CWR tracks 
is effected by means of rollers placed directly underneath the rails. 

InMay llth 1978. de-stressing of the left rail of a stretch of CWR track at K 250 + 973. 5~K 
251 + 826.5 on the Beijing ~ Guangzhou line was made to reveal the actual status of temperature 
stress distribution along the rail. The stress free temperature originally recorded is 23°C. The rail 
temperature at which the track is de-stressed is 37°C. The actual temperature stress distribution 
along the rail is shown in Fig. 6. 

From which stress peaks nearly I5r higher than the stress accumulated in the deformation 
free zone can be clearly .seen both between observation post 2 ~ 3andl4 ~ 15ateitherendofthe 
rail. 

The track is then locked again at the new stress free temperature T,/ = 37°C. and observations 
are made during midnight of May 13th. morning of May 14th and noon of the same day. 
De-stressing by means of rollers are also used, and results are shown as in Fig. 7. From which we 
can see: 

1. Before the joint resistance is completely used up, the temperature stress distribution line 
(breathing zone as well as deformation free zone) shifts parallelly from one instance to another. 

2. There is the possibility of tensile and compressive stresses existed simultaneously along 
therail. For instance, during the ob.servations made when T, = 27°C, the deformation free zone is 
in tension, while a part of the breathing zone is already in compression, with a maximum 



264 



Bulletin 692 — American Railway Engineering Association 



ft(U it 



JZ.6 



103 




C I T 3 4 9 6 Id 9 IC II U If H If 16 It P^^^ f^" 

FIG. 6. Stress distribution along CWR tracks T^ = 37°C, Jgf (as recorded) = 23°C. 



Pllt> At 



16 5 



16 3 




Po^t Mo 
^orth Old 



FIG. 7. Stress distribution along CWR tracks l^t = 37°C 

T;, = 12°C, May 13th midnight 

T, = 27°C, May 14th morning 

T, = 37°C, May 14th noon 




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266 



Bulletin 692 — American Railway Engineering Association 



compressive stress of approximately llr. WhenT, == 37°C, the temperature stress in the deforma- 
tion free zone approaches zero, while the entire breathing zone is in compression, with a 
maximum compressive stress of about 16r. 

3. A stress peak is formed at the south end of the track when T, = 37°C. 

4. The length of breathing zone is intentionally lengthened by decreasing the tensional 
moment applied to the bolt. Thus we observe a breathing length approximately 150-200m. 
Observations also reveal that, the breathing length already formed remains constant from one 
instance to another. 

Experiments were also made to determine the actual stress free temperature as compared 
with what is originally recorded. Results of 17 instances are shown in Table 5. From which we 
can see that, for most instances, the actual T^/is much lower than what is originally recorded. 



Actual stress free temperature as 
compared with originally recorded 



Table 5 



No. 


Actual Tgf 


Recorded 


Difference 


max 


average 


min 


max 


average 


min 


1 


21.4° 


19.0° 


14.5° 


25.2° 


-10.7° 


-6.2° 


-3.8° 


2 


27.1 


22.6 


18.5 


25.3 


-6.8 


-2.7 


1.8 


3 


35.4 


24.9 


15.6 


33.1 


-17.5 


-8.2 


2.3 


4 


26.3 


23.0 


17.4 


32.0 


-14.6 


-9.0 


-5.7 


5 


21.1 


16.7 


12.3 


25.5 


-13.2 


-8.8 


-4.4 


6 


25.0 


20.0 


16.0 


18.0 


-2.0 


2.0 


7.0 


7 


31.5 


27.0 


22.1 


26.0 


-3.9 


1.0 


5.5 


8 


25.5 


21.8 


17.3 


22.0 


-4.7 


-0.2 


3.5 


9 


22.3 


18.7 


15.6 


22.4 


-6.8 


-3.7 


-0.1 


10 


27.1 


24.0 


21.9 


25.0 


-3.1 


-1.0 


2.1 


11 


15.8 


14.0 


10.3 


23.0 


-12.7 


-9.0 


-7.2 


12 


20.8 


16.9 


13.3 


24.0 


-10.7 


-7.9 


-3.2 


13 


26.1 


22.1 


16.8 


23.0 


-6.2 


-0.9 


3.1 


14 


26.0 


22.9 


20.0 


29.0 


-9.0 


-6.1 


-3.0 


15 


26.0 


17.9 


11.0 


26.0 


-15.0 


-8.1 





16 


24.4 


17.2 


11.0 


20.0 


-9.0 


-2.8 


4.4 


17 


29.5 


21.1 


15.5 


25.0 


-9.5 


-3.9 


4.5 



with maximum difference as much as 17.5°. Moreover, the actual T^f along the rail is not uniform 
at all , with a maximum of 35 .4° and a minimum of 1 5 . 6° observed , a non-uniformity of 1 9 . 8° along 
the rail. It should be noted that a 10° difference in the actual and recorded T^f will by cause an 
additional compressive stress of 16.3 tons, and this potential danger of track buckling should not 
in any case be neglected. 

Conclusions 



From the theoretical analysis and experimental verifications as described in the foregoing 
sections, it is clear that, 

1 . Owing to the fact that the contraction or expansion of the rail "lags behind" the 
changes in rail temperature, the formation of temperature stress peaks along the breathing 
zone of the CWR tracks is a normal phenomena actually existed in practice. 

2. When track works are done during severe winters, it is common that the rail 



Paper by T. H. Tung 267 



contracts excessively, resulting in a great fall ol the actual stress free temperature as 
compared with originally recorded. 

3. According to the analysis of experimental data of the 1 7 stretches of CWR tracks, 
the actual stress free temperature is much lower than w hat is originally recorded, at the same 
time they are very much non-uniform all along the track. 

All these will create what we called "additional temperature stress", resulting in a 
temperature stress far greater than what is calculated by the method currently in use. This 
additional temperature stress may be 10 ~ 20 tons or even more, and therefore its conse- 
quence should not in any case be under-estimated. 

However, if suitable measures are to be taken while maintaining CWR tracks, such as 

1 . The temperature range within which track works may be executed for the 
breathing zone and the deformation free /one are fixed separately. 

2. Special precautions are to be taken while track works are executed during severe 
winters to minimize the serious consequence which might have been aroused. 

3. The joint resistance and creep resistance of ballast should not be lower than what 
is specified by the maintenance-of-way regulations to prevent the rails from excessive 
contraction or expansion. 

4. Deformation observations should be carried out systematically by means of 
observation posts fixed at every 50m. intervals and results duly analyzed. Whenever the 
additional temperature stress exceeds certain specified limit, de-stressing of the CWR tracks 
should be carried out immediately. 

The risk of track buckling during hot summer can thus be avoided. 
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 

Thanks to the Scientific Research Institute of Railways, and especially to Mr. Ze-Gui 
Zhang, Senior Engineer of the Institute, for their valuable informations and experimental data on 
this subject carried out during recent years. 

REFERENCES 

1 . Chang Ze-Gui, Li Zhong-Cai, Gao Hui-An: Studies on the causes of CWR buckling 
accidents — Distribution of temperature stres.ses along the rail. Journal of the China 
Railway Society, Vol. 1, No. 3, 1979. 

2. Railway tracks and roadbed. Edited by Prof. T.H. Tung, Shanghai Institute of Railway 
Technology. China Railway Press, 1979. 



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A Method for Determining The Track Modulus 
Using A Locomotive Or Car On Multi-Axle Trucks 

Arnold D. Kerr* 

SUMMARY 

The track modulus, which enters the analyses of railroad tracks, is also used by the railroads 
as a measure of track quality. It is therefore essential to establish an approach for its simple 
determination in the field, without recourse to special loading devices, that usually are not 
available to railroad engineers, or extensive deflection measurements and involved calculations. 
The purpose of the present paper is to introduce such a method, which may utilize an available car 
or locomotive as a test vehicle. It is shown using a freight car on two-axle trucks, as example, 
how the corresponding track modulus may be obtained from one rail deflection (or strain) 
measurement without involved calculations. The mobility of the chosen car or locomotive and 
the simplicity of determining the track modulus from the measured deflection (or strain), allows 
for a rapid and economical determination of the track modulus at various track locations. 



INTRODUCTION AND STATEMENT OF PROBLEM 

The analyses for calculating bending stresses in the rails, and the rail-tie contact forces of a 
cross-tie track, caused by vertical wheel loads, evolved in several stages. At first the rail was 
considered as a beam resting on discrete rigid supports, then as a beam on discrete elastic 
supports, and finally as a continously supported beam. A survey of these developments was 
presented by A.D. Kerr |1] in 1976. 

The method that finally prevailed for cross-tie tracks, and is included in the AREA Manual 
[2] Chapter 22 , Part 3 . is based on the assumption that the rail responds like an elastic beam that is 
attached to a continuous base of closely spaced elastic springs. Early investigators who adopted 
this approach are A. Flamache [3] in 1904, S. Timoshenko [4] in 1915, and the ASCE-AREA 
Special Committee on Stresses in the Railroad Track chaired by A.N. Talbot [5] in 1918. 

This analysis is based on the differential equation 

EI -^^ + p(x) = q(x) (1) 

dx 

in which w(x) is the vertical deflection of point x of the rail axis, EI is the flexural stiffness of the 
rail with respect to the horizontal centroidal axis, q(x) is the distributed vertical load caused by 
the wheels, and p(x) is the "continuous" contact pressure between the rail and the base, as shown 
in Fig. 1. For the pressure p(x) it was assumed that 

p(x) = k w(x) (2) 

where k, the proportionality factor, is denoted as the "track modulus".' 

Substituting above expression into eq.(l) we obtain the differential equation for the rail, 

EI -^^ -^ kw = q(x) (3) 



'Professor. Dcpanmeni of Civil hnginecnng. Univfrsilv ol IX'liiwarc (Research supported hy Ihe Nalional Science Foundalion Grant 

CME S(X)1928) 
'In Ihe Talbot reports |.S| this coefficient is denoted by u In Ihe present paper we use Ihe current mechanics notation, where u Is the axial 

displacement of the beam (rail) and k is the base (track) modulus. 



269 



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Paper by A. D. Kerr 271 



For one wheel load of magnitude P. as shown in Fig. 2, the deflection curve is obtained as 
(Ref. [2], Section 22, Part 3) 

w(x) = ^P e P" (cos px + sin px) (4) 



2k 



where 



P = V/ — - — (5) 

^ * ' 4EI 

The corresponding expression for the bending moment is 

M(x) = ^ e"**" (cos px - sin px) (6) 

Forananalysisof the track structure, the parameters that entereq.(4) and eq. (6) are needed. 
E is Young's modulus of rail steel and is known, I is the moment of inertia of the rail under 
consideration and is listed for new rails in the AREA Manual |2| Chapter 4. and P is a known 
wheel load. The only unknown is the track modulus k. 

A discussion of methods for determining k, from tests, is given in Ref. 1 1]. There it was 
shown that tests for obtaining k in which only one tie was loaded are conceptually incorrect, since 
k depends on the loading area. Thus, the test should involve a long section of track. 

Inatest for determining the track modulus k, the rails of a long track section are subjected to 
vertical loads. In the past, several methods were used to calculate k from the obtained test data. 

One method for calculating k from the recorded test data assumes that k is obtained by 
dividing the loads by the area the rail covers while deflecting. This relation may be derived by 
taking the vertical equilibrium of a long track, as shown in Fig. 2. The resulting equation is 

S P - / p(x)dx = o (7) 

— X 

where 2P is the sum of the vertical wheel loads and p(x) is the corresponding vertical pressure on 
the rails. Noting that according to eq.(2) p(x) = kw(x), above equations becomes 

00 

2 p = k / w(x)dx 

— oc 

rewritten 

k = -^^ (8) 

/ w(x)dx 

— oc 

The integral in the denominator is the area A formed by the undeformed and the deflected rail axis 
due to IP. 

This method for calculating k was used by a number of researchers, which includes the 
ASCE-AREA Committee [5]. The major shortcoming of this method is that it requires many rail 
deflection measurements in order to determine the area A with a reasonable degree of accuracy. 

Two other methods for calculating the track modulus k, from recorded test data, are based 
on the condition that the analytical results (like deflections or the bending moments) based on 
eq.(3) should agree as closely as possible with the corresponding test data in the rail region of 
interest. In this approach k may be determined by collocating the rail deflections (or the rail 
stresses), especially in the region around the wheel loads. This may be achieved, for example, by 
using the methodof least squares. Because of the close similarity of the recorded test results with 
the corresponding analytical results based on eq.(3), as shown by the Talbot Committee in Ref. 
[5], it is often sufficient to collocate at one point only. This simplifies the method, since then only 
one deflection (or strain) measurement is needed. 



272 Bulletin 692 — American Railway Engineering Association 



Using one wheel load, this approach was utilized by S. Timoshenko and B. F. Langer [6] in 
1932. They measured the rail deflection at the wheel, w^, and collocated (i.e. equated) it with the 
corresponding analytical expression, by setting x = o in eq.(4). The result is 



4EI 

PB " 

-2k = 2k (9) 



Solution of above equation for k, the only unknown, yields 



4 \/ EIw„ 



(9') 



an explicit expression for the track modulus. 

The above method is very simple, since it requires only one deflection measurement and a 
simple calculation. Because of its simplicity, eq.(9') is recommended for the calculation of the 
track modulus k in the recently published texts on railroad engineering (W. W. Hay [7] p. 262, 
eq. 15.27 and F. Fastenrath [8] p. 36). 

The major shortcoming in using eq . (9 ' ) for calculating the track modulus k is that it requires a 
special test set-up with wheel loads that correspond to one axle. 

One such set-up was used several decades ago by the Talbot Committee [5]. It consisted of a 
flat car loaded with 25 to 50 tons of rails, with load indicating screw jacks, as shown in Fig. 3. 
The outer jacks were used to simulate a two-axle loading, whereas the middle one simulated a 
one-axle loading. Cars of the same type are being used in western Europe [9, 10] and the USSR 
[1 1] to simulate a one-axle load. A different set-up was used recently by A. M. Zarembski and J. 
Choros [12] at the AAR. In their laboratory tests, the vertical wheel loads were applied to the 
track structure through a specially designed loading bolster, using a number of hydraulic jacks of 
50 kips capacity. 

The track modulus k is not only needed for track analyses but is also used by railroads as a 
measure of track quality [7], [10]. It is therefore essential to establish an approach for its simple 
determination in the field, without recourse to special loading devices, that usually are not 
available to railroad engineers, or extensive deflection measurements and involved calculations. 

The simplest approach is to determine the track modulus k from the deflection measure- 
ments of a car or a locomotive. However, to date, the calculation of the k value from the 
corresponding test data is cumbersome [12]. 

The purpose of the present paper is to devise a simple procedure by which the track modulus 
k may be obtained from one measured deflection w^, caused by a car or a locomotive, without the 
solution of involved transcendental equations, just by using a easily obtainable chart, as those 
given in this paper. The method and its utilization are described in the following sections. 

In conclusion it is shown how the proposed method may be used also for the determination 
of the track modulus from a recorded rail strain, caused by the wheels of a car or locomotive. 

THE METHOD FOR DETERMINING THE TRACK 
MODULUS FROM A RECORDED RAIL DEFLECTION 

In the proposed method the track is loaded by the wheels of a passenger car, a freight car, or 
a locomotive. To demonstrate the method, we consider a car on two-axle trucks, as shown in Fig. 



Paper by AD. Kerr 273 



4. The analytical expression for the rail deflection at the left wheel of truck I is obtained by 
superposition, using eq.(4). When both wheel loads of each truck are equal but the load exerted 
by each truck is different, then we may set 

P„ = P, = P and P, = P, = nP (10) 

where n is known. The number n is obtained by weighing, placing first truck I and then truck II 
on a track scale. 

The analytical expression for the vertical rail deflection at the left wheel of truck I, caused 
bv all four wheels of the two trucks, is 



AQ) = ^+^^ e ^'' (cos p/, + sin p/,) 



H-*^ e-P'- (cos pA + sin pA) 



+ •^6 '^"(cosp/, + sinp/,) 
2k (in 



where 



4EI (-^) 

The track modulus k is obtained by collocating (equating) this deflection with the measured 
deflection at the left wheel. w,„. This yields 



J^ [ 1 + e ^'' (cos p/| + sin p/, 



+ ne ^'' (cos p/. + sin p/.) 
+ ne ^'' (cos p/, + sin p/,) 



(12) 



In above equation all quantities, except k, are known for a given test. This equation is 
equivalent to eq. (9) for one wheel load. Whereas eq. (9) was solved explicitly for k. this is not 
possible for eq. (12). 

To avoid involved solutions of above transcendental equation fork, for different sets of (E, 
I. Wn,. P)-values, the right hand side of eq. ( 12) was evaluated by substituting different values of 
k. For the known parameters it was assumed that E = 30 X 10'' lb/in', that the rails are 100 RE 
(I = 49.0in')or I I9RE(I = 71 .4in')or I40RE(I = 96.8 in'), and that the wheel distances are 
those of a freight car with /, = 5'-10", ^ = 46'-3", and /, = 51 '-I". The numerical results 
of this evaluation are shown in Table 1 . These results are presented graphically in Fig. 5 
and Fig. 6. 

To check the effect of truck II (Fig. 4) on the results, the evaluations were conducted for 
n = 1 .0. 0.5. and 0. It was found that for the used wheel set distances /. and /,, truck II had no 
noticeable effect on the w„/P values, even for k as low as 1 ,500 Ib/inv Thus, whether the wheel 



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loads of truck II are equal to those of the truck I ( i.e. n = 1 ) or they are only about one half as those 
of truck I (i.e. n =0.5). the graphs presented in Fig. 5 and Fig. 6 are still valid. This is a useful 
finding, since the vertical truck forces of a loaded car, or of a locomotive, generally differ. 

The graphs presented in Fig. 5 and Fig. 6 are for rails 100 RE. 119 RE. and 140 RE. Those 
for other rail sizes were not included due to space limitation between the shown curves. 
However, because of the pro.ximity of the presented curves, values for the missing rail sizes may 
be easily obtained by interpolation. The same argument applies to worn rails. 

It is proposed to use the graphs shown in Fig. 5 and Fig. 6 for determining the track modulus k. 
as follows: First measure the deflection w,„ caused by a car on two-axle trucks, with wheel loads 
P exerted by truck I . Then form w,„/P. The graph for the corresponding rail yields directly the 
track modulus k. Thus, no calculations are needed once the graph for a given car and rail size is 
available. 



EXAMPLE 

A loaded freight car on two-axle trucks was chosen as the loading device for the tests, 
needed for determining the track modulus k at various locations of a track territory. 

As a first step, the wheel loads of one of the trucks (say truck I ) were determined by placing the 
truck on a track scale. Assuming that each of the four wheels carry approximately the same load, 
the wheel load P was determined to be 

P - 118,4(X)/4 = 29,600 lb = 14.8 tons (13) 

Next, the car was moved to the track location of interest. The vertical dellcclion at the front 
wheel of truck I was then measured to be w,„ = 0.15 inches. Thus 

^^ ^'^ =0.0101 in/ton (14) 



P 14.8 

The test was conducted on a track with 1 19 RE rails that showed very minor wear. With 
wJP = 0.0101 inyton. the graph for I 19 RE in Fig. 5 yields 

k = 2.750 lb/in- (15) 

This completes the determination of k at this location 

If the track modulus for another track location is needed, move test car to this location, 
measure w,„. calculate w,„/P, and get the corresponding k value from Fig. 5 or Fig 6. 

Note that by using the graphs in Fig. 5. the track modulus k was obtained directly for the 
above Wn,/P value, without any additional calculations. 

The procedure for determining the track modulus using a locomotive on two-axle trucks is 
the same as the one discussed above, except that eq. (12) has to be evaluated for different values 
of the axle spaces/,, /t. /? and the rail size of interest, if the two wheel loads of truck I . as shown 
in Fig. 4. are the same. Ifthe two wheel loads in truck I differ, then the term in eq. (1 2) containing 
/i has to be multiplied by a coefficient n which reflects this difference, as done for truck II . 

DETERMINATION OF THE TRACK MODULUS 

USING A LOCOMOTIVE OR CAR ON 

THREE-AXLE TRUCKS 

In situations when a locomotive or car on three-axle trucks is to be used as a test vehicle. 



276 Bulletin 692— American Railway Engineering Association 



eq.( 12) has to be expanded, in order to take into consideration the effect of the additional axles. 
Setting the wheel loads, shown in Fig. 7, as 

P,, = P ; P, = n,P ; P. = nzP 

P, = n,P ; P4 = n4P ; P5 = nsP , ^^^) 

where the n, n-, values are obtained by determining the loads the wheels will exert on the 

rail during the test, the equation that corresponds to eq. (12) becomes 

-^^ = -2_[ 1 + n,e-P'' (cos p/, + sin p/,) 

+ nje"*^'- (cos pA + sin (3/3) 

+ n,e^P'' (cos p/3 + sin p/j) 

+ n4e^P''' (cos p/4 + sin ^U) 

+ n^e-P" (cos 3/5 + sin 3/5) ] (17) 

When a locomotive or car on three-axle trucks is to be used as test vehicle for the 
determination of the track modulii for a given territory, the right hand side of the above equation 
is evaluated for the corresponding axle spaces /, ,/? and the rail used, taking into con- 
sideration the anticipated reduction of the rail moment of inertia I due to wear, if it is excessive. 
The results of this evaluation, which may be performed easily on a programmable pocket 
calculator, are plotted in a similar manner as done in. Fig. 5 or 6. The procedure for determining 
the track modulus is as before: First measure the vertical deflection Wn, at the wheel with load 
Po =P, shown in Fig. 7, then form wJP and get the corresponding k-value from the graph. 

Note that eq. ( 17) was derived for the case when the wheel deflection is measured at the first 
or the last wheel of the locomotive or car. Should it be planned to make instead deflection 
measurements at any of the other wheels, then eq. (17) has to be modified accordingly. 

DETERMINATION OF THE TRACK MODULUS 
FROM A RECORDED AXIAL STRAIN IN THE RAIL 

The vertical track modulus k may also be determined by measuring the strain at the bottom 
of the rail base , caused by one wheel load P, as shown in Fig . 8 . In Ref . [ 1 ] it was shown that if e^ is 
the recorded strain caused by one wheel load P then the corresponding k value, obtained by 
colocating the analytical and the test strain, is given explicitely by the expression 

^ ~ 64(EI)° E^^ ^^^^ 

This approach for calculating the track modulus is simple, but it requires a one- axle loading 
device. 

To facilitate the use of test cars with multi-axle trucks such as a locomotive or a freight car, it 
is proposed to use the method presented in the previous sections also for this case. The method is 
demonstrated for a test car on two-axle trucks, as shown in Fig. 4. 

The procedure is as follows: First a strain gauge is attached axially at the bottom of the rail 
(Fig. 8), at the track location of interest. Then the test car, with known wheel loads, is moved over 
this region, at slow speed. When the first wheel of truck I is above the location of the strain gauge 
(Fig. 4) the axial strain, £„,, is recorded. The next step is the determination of k from this recorded 
strain. 



Paper by A. D. Kerr 277 



Proceeding as before, by equating the measured strain t,„ with the corresponding strain 
obtained analytically, using eq. (6) and noting that 

T,,,I t„,EI 



Mh(0) = ^ 
we obtain, noting eq. ( 10), 

Em 1 



(19) 



+ n e l^'- (cos p/, - sm (i/.) 

+ n e ^" (cos (i/, - sin p/,) ] (20) 

where Zj, = I/Zj, is the section modulus of the rail base. The Zh values for standard rails are 
listed in Ref. [2]. Section 4. 

In above equation, for a given test all quantities, except k. are known. To avoid involved 
solutions of above equation for k, it is proposed to evaluate the right hand side of eq. (20) for a 
range of anticipated k values and plot these results in a graph (tjP versus k), as done in Fig. 5 or 6. 

Thus, once the rail strain £„, is recorded, form £„,/?, and get the corresponding k-value from 
the prepared graph. 

CONCLUSIONS 

A simple method was presented for the determination of the track modulus k, using a car or 
locomotive with any axle configuration as loading device, based on one measurement of a rail 
deflection or a rail strain. The proposed method for determining the track modulus from a 
measurement avoids the solution of an involved equation. It requires only the evaluation of the 
right hand side of this equation for various k values, which may be easily performed on a 
programmable pocket calculator. The mobility of the chosen car or locomotive and the simplicity 
of determining the track modulus from a measured deflection, or strain, allows for a rapid and 
economical determination of the track modulus at various track locations. 

REFERENCES 

1 1 ] Kerr, A. D."On the Stress Analysis of Rails and Ties", Proceedings AREA, Vol.78, 1976. 

12] "Manual for Railway Engineering" published by the American Railway Engineering 
Association, Washington, DC. 

[3] Flamache, A. "Researches on the Bending of Rails" Bulletin, Internalinal Railway Con- 
gress, English edition. Vol. 18,1904. 

[4] Timoshenko, S. "K Voprosu o Prochnosti Rel's" (To the question of rail strength. In 
Russian), Transactions, Institute of Ways of Communication St. Petersburg, Russia, 
1915. 

|5] "First Progress Report of the ASCE-AREA Special Committee on Stresses in Track," A. 
N. Talbot, Chairman. Tran.sactions ASCE, Vol. 82, Paper No. 1420, 1918 and Pro- 
ceedings AREA, Vol. 19, 1918. Reproduced in "Stresses in Railroad Track-The Talbot 
Reports" published by the American Railway Engineering Association in 1980. 

|6] Timoshenko, S. and Langer. B. F. "Stresses in Railroad Track", Journal of Applied 
Mechanics, Vol. 54, 1932. 




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Paper by A. D. Kerr 279 



[7] Hay, WW. "Railroad Engineering", Second Edition, John Wiley & Sons, New Yori<, 
1982. 

[8] Fastenrath, F. Editor "Railroad Track; Theory and Practice", Part 2 "The Rail as Support 
and Roadway, Theoretical Principles and Practical Examples" by J. Eisenmann, Frederic 
Ungar Publ. New York, 1981. 

[9] Birmann, F. "Neuere Messungen an Gleisen mit verschiedenen Unterschwellungen" 
(New measurements on tracks with various tie systems. In German), Eisenbahntechnische 
Rundschau, Vol. 6, Nr. 7, 1957. Section II. 3. 

[10] Nagel, H. "Messverfahren zur Priifung derGleisbettung" (Measuring methods for testing 
tracks. In German) , Eisenbahntechnische Rundschau, Nr. 7, 1961. 

[11] Kuptsov, V. V. "Uprugostrelsovykhnitiei vzavisimostiotparametrovpromezhutochnykh 
skreplenii (The elasticity of rail strings and their dependence on the fastener parameters. In 
Russian), Vestnik Tsentralnii Nauchno-Issledovatelski Institui Zhelezodorozhnogo 
Tran.sporta (TsNIl MPS), Nr. 3, 1975. Fig 4a. 

[12] Zarembski, A.M. andChoros, J. "On the Measurement and Calculation of Vertical Track 
Modulus", Proceedings AREA, Vol. 81, 1980. 



280 



Bulletin 692 — American Railway Engineering Association 



TABLE 1 



k 

[Ib/in^] 


w 


/P [in/ton] 
m 




100 RE 


119 RE 


140 RE 


500 


♦047553 


♦045220 


.043311 


750 


.03335JO 


.031821 


.030567 


1000 


.025883 


♦024743 


.023814 


1250 


♦021249 


.020335 


.019597 


1500 


-.018082 


.017314 


.016700 


1750 


.015777 


♦015108 


.014581 


2000 


.014020 


.013424 


.012960 


2250 


♦012636 


.012095 


.011679 


2500 


.011516 


.011018 


♦010640 


2750 


.010591 


.010128 


♦009779 


3000 


.009814 


.009378 


♦009054 


3250 


.009151 


.008739 


♦008435 


3500 


.008579 


.008187 


.007900 


3750 


.008080 


.007704 


.007432 


4000 


.007641 


.007280 


.007020 


5000 


.006308 


.005990 


.005767 


6000 


♦005403 


.005114 


.004915 


7000 


.004748 


♦004479 


.004296 


8000 


.004250 


♦003997 


.003827 


9000 


.003858 


♦003619 


.003458 


10000 


.003542 


♦003313 


.003159 


12000 


.003059 


.002848 


.002707 


14000 


.002709 


.002511 


.002379 


16000 


.002441 


i 002254 


.002130 


18000 


.002229 


.002052 


♦001934 


20000 


.002056 


.001888 


♦001775 


22000 


.001913 


♦001752 


.001644 


24000 


.001792 


♦001638 


♦001534 


26000 


♦001688 


♦001540 


♦001439 


28000 


♦001597 


♦001455 


♦001358 


30000 


.001518 


♦001380 


♦001287 



Paper by AD. Kerr 



undefor med 
rail axis 




\r^deformed 
rai I 



FIG. 1 



rail 




FIG. 2 




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Paper h\ A. D. Kerr 



:s3 



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-f:V>» »••.;,•*•• ;. .' - .v ■•■....-■.-.•'■•'- ■ 

LOADING APPARATUS FOR ONE-AXLE AND TWO-AXLE LOADS 



FIG. 3 



TruckQ) 



P P 
O I 



Truck(n) 



P P 

2 3 



jzai 



ar-g^ 



I 



I, 

m m 

to 



I. 



/ //// 



-rr 



FIG. 4 



284 



Bulletin 692 — American Railway Engineering Association 



\ 



\ 



0.050 



0.045 



0.040 



0.035 



0.030 



0.025 



^ 0.020 



0.015 



0.0/0 



0.005 




/poo 2000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 

k (/b/in^) 



FIG. 5 



Paper by A. D. Kerr 



2S5 



0.00 7 



0.006 



0.005 





0.004 


\ 


0.003 



0.002 



0.001 



-iJiLUiiiiii.jiJii; 




SpOO lOpOO ISpOO 20p00 25p00 JOpOO 

k (Ib/in^) 



FIG. 6 



286 



Bulletin 692 — American Railway Engineering Association 



TruckQ) 



P P P 
W ^ 



g) (!) (1) 



Truck ® 

P P P 
3 4 '5 



nrmrrr 



/ / / / r ^ 



r f r r r r 



// >/> itf>fiif>rt>>>r>tttt 



FIG. 7 




/ strain \ 



FIG. 8 



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Track Design To Prevent Long 
Pitch Rail Corrugation 

R.I. Mair* 

INTRODUCTION 

Long pitch rail corrugations with pitches in the range of 2(X)-3(X) mm are a common 
occurrence at axle loads above 25 tonne (Refs. 1 and 2). Necessary conditions for the develop- 
ment of long pitch corrugations involve both gross plastic deformation of the rail head and the 
excitation of resonance involving the vehicle unsprung mass and the track (Refs. 3 and 4). 
However, control of the corrugation formation may be achieved by avoidance of either 
condition, although the adoption of high strength rails to limit plastic deformation is the favored 
approach . 

The procedures to calculate the required rail strength to avoid rail corrugation have been 
outlined by Mair and Groenhout (Ref. 5). The calculation procedure adopts a reliability 
approach which takes into account statistical variations in axle load and rail material properties to 
provide an assessment of the minimum rail strength which is not overconservative and unecon- 
omical. Successful application of the method has been made to the operations of the Mt. Newman 
Mining Co. in Australia which hauls in excess of 35 Mt of ore annually at 30 tonne axle loads 
(Ref. 6). Rails of the required strength level have carried over 150 MGT without the need for 
costly rail grinding to control rail corrugation. 

Utilizing the analytical procedure of Ref. 5, and combining it with the experience of the Mt. 
Newman Mining Co. , track design charts have been prepared (Ref. 7) to enable other operators to 
select the appropriate rail strength for their systems as a function of nominal axle load and wheel 
diameter. However, the application of the design charts is limited to operating systems having 
similar characteristics of track construction, maintenance and train speed to those of the Mt. 
Newman Mining Co. since the design charts have an implicit impact factor adjustment to the 
nominal axle load. This paper utilizes recent research on impact factors and track analysis to 
extend the generality of the design charts to systems having different standards of construction 
and maintenance as well as operating speeds. 

WHEEL/RAIL IMPACT FACTORS 

Experience demonstrates (Refs. 2 and 7) that the majority of long pitch rail corrugations 
initiate from rail joints. It may be presumed, therefore, that the joints represent the points of 
maximum repeated wheel/rail impact and rail stressing. A detailed analysis of this situation has 
been undertaken by British Rail (Refs. X and 9) for both welded and bolted track. Since the 
majority of heavy axle load tracks now adopt continuous welded rail, only the impact factor for 
this case will be treated here, however, the design charts to be presented below can be used for 
bolted track with the appropriate impact factor from Ref. 8. 

With continuous welded rail the irregularities occurring at the joints are less severe than for 
bolted track. For good welding practice where the rail surface is aligned to avoid a sharp cusp in 
the rail after welding and post weld head grinding is applied, the dip at the rail joint can be treated 
as smooth with a wavelength greater than one metre. Accordingly, therefore, the maximum 
wheel load at the rail joint is given by (Ref. 9); 



♦Engineering Research Manager. BHP Meltxiume Research Laboratories 

289 



290 Bulletin 692 — American Railway Engineering Association 



60 5M V V 1 _ 37T^m,v^ \ 

where M = unsprung mass of wheelset/wheel (kg), 

V = vehicle speed (m/s), 

k = distributed track stiffness (MN/m/m), 

mj = distributed track mass (kg/m) per rail, 

= m, + --— 

2s 

m,. = rail mass/unit length (kg/m), 
m, = sleeper mass (kg), 

s = sleeper spacing (m), 

8 - depth of rail joint dip (m), 

L = wavelength of joint dip (m), and 

Po = mean static wheel load (kN). 

Examination of equation ( 1 ) reveals that it takes into account differences in operating 
systems due to vehicle type and speed (M and V), sleeper dimensions and spacing (m^ and k), 
sleeper type (mj), ballast depth (k), rail size (m^) and construction standards (8). (Other factors 
such as ballast type are also implicitly taken into account but these have a negligible effect on 

Pmax). 

The value of track modulus (k) to be used in equation (1) can be estimated from an 
adjustment to the value from the Mt. Newman Mining Co. (Appendix 1) used in setting up the 
design curves, thus; 

k = M^[ 30 + 0.02 (d - 0.30) ] (2) 

s 

where s = sleeper spacing (m), and 

d = ballast depth (m). 

The values to be assigned to the depth (8) and wavelength (L) of the rail joint dip should be 
determined from field measurements on a number of joints. The procedure may be simplified by 
conducting the dip measurements over a length of 1 metre to give a distribution of dip values and 
then selecting a representative value for use in equation (1). For design purposes the maximum 
dip over 1 metre can be based on the track construction standards for weld straightness. The 
AREA standards (Ref. 10) permit a maximum dip (Fig. 1) of 0.4 x 10 ''metre. This value may be 
increased in service due to local plastic deformation and a conservative estimate of maximum dip 
is 1.5 X 10 "* metre over 1 metre. 

Theoretical analysis (Ref. 1 1 ) concludes that proud or humped welds generate wheel impact 
loads of similar magnitude to dipped welds of the same size. The AREA standards (Ref. 10) 
permit a maximum elevation (Fig. l)of 1.7 X lO""* metre. This value will decrease inservicedueto 
local plastic deformation and a reasonable estimate of maximum hump is 1 .5 x 10 "^ metre over 1 
metre. 



Paper by R. I. Mair 291 



For the range of track designs normally encountered with heavy axle load operations {Ret. 
12) the factor 3tt m,, V- /k L" in equation ( I ) is less than 0.02 and the expression for P,„^, can be 
simplified to; 

Pmax = Po + 60 5,MV- (la) 

where 5, = the maximum dip over I metre. 

The vehicle parameters of unsprung mass and speed in conjunction with the rail joint 
straightness are seen to be the most important factors controlling the maximum impact load. 

DESIGN CHARTS FOR RAIL SPECIFICATION 

To convert the design charts given in Ref. 7 to a form for general use. the scale for wheel 
load has been adjusted using equation ( 1 ) with data from the Mt. Newman Mining Co. operations 
(Appendix 1 ). The revised charts are given here as Fig. 2 and may be used to specify eithcrthe rail 
steel ultimate tensile strength or mean yield strength depending upon the supply standards 
adopted. 

To use the charts, the dynamic wheel load is calculated from equation ( I ) or ( la) and the 
required rail strength level read off from the appropriate design curve for wheel radius (R) and 
coefficient of wheel load variation (Sp/P„). The latter parameter can be calculated from field 
measurements of mean wheel load (P„) and wheel load standard deviation (Sp). however, for unit 
train operations a value of 0. lOcan be used. The wheel radius to be used is that of the new wheel. 

The design charts can also be used in conjunction with standard carbon rail to set the 
maximum allow able dynamic wheel load at rail joints. Equation ( 1 ) or ( 1 a) may then be used to 
set limits on track construction standard or vehicle operations to avoid corrugation development. 

COMPARISON OF SERVICE PERFORMANCE WITH DESIGN 
RECOMMENDATIONS 

A comparison of predicted rail performance with the design recommendations (Fig. 3) for a 
range of rail types and operating conditions confirms the adequacy of the procedure. Design 
0.2% proof stress levels of the rail steel exceed the level at which corrugations have been 
observed in service by around 40 MPa. providing an acceptable margin of strength for future 
changes in operating practice. 

Isolated instances of corrugation formation in high strength rails of strengths exceeding the 
predicted requirements are generally noted to have occurred at very low tonnages and not to cause 
concern after early rail grinding. However, it must be concluded that the complex process of 
corrugation formation may lead to rail damage within the above recommendations, although this 
will be exceptional rather than general. 

CONCLUSIONS 

A set of design charts has been given to enable operators to select vehicle and track standards 
to avoid corrugation development at heavy axle loads. The procedures have been successfully 
applied by the Mt. Newman Mining Company and Hamersley Iron Pty. Ltd. 

Rail joint dip or hump, vehicle unsprung mass and vehicle speed have the dominant effect 
on joint impact loads. Wheel radius and wheel load distribution influence subsequent stress 
levels. Each of these can be varied to match available or propo.sed rail types for service use. 



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Paper by R. I. Mair 293 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

The results reported above were generated trom studies initiated by the Mt. Newman 
Mining Company and subsequently supported by the Mt. Newman Mining Company and 
Hamersiey Iron Pty. Ltd. on a joint basis. 

REFERENCES 

1. Mair. R.I. and Jupp. R.A. ( 1976): "Rail Track for Heavy Unit Train Operations". I.E. 
Aust.. Annual Eng. Conf. . Townsvilie. Australia. May. 

2. Kalousek. J. ( 1975); "'Rail Corrugation", Dept. ot Research. Canadian Pacific Ltd.. Report 
No. 5488-75. February. 

3. Mair. R.I. (1977); "Natural Frequency of Rail Track and its Relationship to Rail Cor- 
rugation". I.E. Aust. .Civil Eng. Transactions, CEI9 (1). pp. 6-11. 

4. Meacham. H.C. and Ahlbeck. D.R. ( 1969); "A Computer Study of Dynamic Loads Caused 
by Vehicle-Track Interaction". ASME Paper No. 69-RR-l. 

5. Mair. R.I. and Groenhout. R.. ( 1978); "Prediction of Rail Steel Strength Requirements - A 
Reliability Approach", Rail Steels - Developments. Processing, and Use. ASTM Special 
Tech. Publ. No. 644, pp. 342-360. 

6. Mair. R.I. and Murphy, R. (1976); " Rail Wear and Corrugation Studies (Discussion)", 
AREA. Bulletin 660. Proc. 6H. pp. 265-272. 

7. Mair, R. I.. Groenhout. R. and Jupp. R.A. ( 1978); "The Characteristics and Control of Long 
Pitch Rail Corrugation at Heavy Axle Loads". I.E. Aust.. Proc. Heavy Haul Railways 
Conference. Perth. Australia. Paper 18. 

8. Jenkins. H.H., Stephenson. J.E.. Clayton. G.A.. Moreland. G.W. and Lyon, D. (1974); 
"The Effect of Track and Vehicle Parameters on Wheel/Rail Vertical Dynamic Forces", 
Railway Engineering Journal. 3(\). pp. 2-16. 

9. Frederick. CO. (1978); "The Effect of Wheel and Rail Irregularities on the Track", I.E. 
Aust.. Proc. Heavy Haul Railways Conference. Perth. Australia. Paper G2. 

10. A.R.E.A. (\9()9): Manual of Recommended Practice 

1 1. Lowndes. V.P. and Harvey. R.F. ( 1977); "Approximate Formulae for Calculating Wheel/ 
Rail Forces and Rail Displacements at Rail Welds and For Wheel Flats". British Railways 
Board. Research and Development Division, Technical Memorandum TMTS 80. 

12. 0"Rourke. M.D.. Mair. R.I. and Doyle. N.F. (1978); "Towards the Design of Rail Track 
for Heavy Axle Loads". I.E. Aust.. Proc. Heavy Haul Railways Conference, Perth, 
Australia. Paper J3. 



294 



Bulletin 692 — American Railway Engineering Association 



APPENDIX 1 

Mt. Newman Mining Co. Operating Data 
and Joint Impact Level 



Vehicle: 



Mean static wheel load, P^ 
Standard deviation of wheel load, Sp 
Unsprung mass/wheel, M 
Wheel radius, R 

Maximum loaded operating speed 
in curves, V (Trial rail areas only) 



150 kN 
11% 
1240 kg 
0.48 m 

12.5 m/s 



Track: 



Timber sleepers mass, m^ 
Rail size (AREA), mr/rail 
Sleeper spacing, s 
Track modulus, k 
Distributed track mass, m^/rail 
Rail dip, 5 



110kg 
66 kg/m 
0.533 m 
30 MN/in/m 
169 kg/m 
1.5 X 10 ''m 



P = P + 



6 8 MV - 
L- 



3Tr'm,jV' 
kL' 



^ J3Q ^ 60-1.5 X 10'^ •1240- 12.5- .j 



1- X 10' 



= 150 + 17.0 
= 167.0 kN 



3-77-- 169- 12.5- 
(30 X 10^)- 1' 



Adjustment factor for load scale of Fig. 12, Ref. 7 is 1.11. This has been applied to 
give the revised charts. Figs. 2(a) and 2(b). 



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L.B.FOSTER 
COMPANY 



296 



Bulletin 692 — American Railway Engineering Association 



17max. 




(a)ELEVATION OF RAIL SHOWING WELD MISALIGNMENT 
TOLERANCE IN VERTICAL ALIGNMENT 




b) ELEVATION OF RAIL SHOWING WELD MISALIGNMENT 
TOLERANCE IN VERTICAL ALIGNMENT 



RGl AREA MAXIMUM RAIL WELD VERTICAL 
MISALIGNMENT (Ref.10 ) 



Paper by R. 1. Mair 



297 



1200 



X 

^1000 
o 

s 

Q: 



Uj 



8 

O 

s 

ct 

Uj 



800 



600 



100 



CURVED 
TRACK 



>R=0 38m 



>R = 043m 



• R=0d8m 




150 170 190 

DYNAMIC WHEEL LOAD (kN) 



FIG. 2(a) RAIL MEAN 02% PROOF (YIELD) STRENGTH TO AVOID CORRUGATION 



298 



Bulletin 692 — American Railway Engineering Association 



R=0-38m 




150 170 190 

DYNAMIC WHEEL LOAD (kN) 



210 



FIG. 2(b): RAIL ULTIMATE TENSILE STRENGTH TO AVOID CORRUGATION 



)MORAIL® 

} answer 
lieavler 
eel loads 
I Increased 
ff Ic on 
ves. 



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A chromium and molytxtenum alloy. 
CROMORAIL is ideal for severe service 
application. Its high strength and hardness 
provide wear and corrugation resistance 
for a curve life nearly twice a standard 
cartwn rail. 

CROMORAIL. in contrast to other types 
of alloy rails, welds using conventional 
techniques for cartx)n rail. 

CROf^ORAIL. HiSi' Intermediate 
Strength, and standard cartwn rail are rolled 
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Quality Steel Making People 



300 



Bulletin 692 — American Railway Engineering Association 



NOTATION 



RAIL TYPE 


CORRUGATION 


No 


PREMATURE 


YES 


CARBON 

ALLOY 

HEAT TREATED 


a 
o 


• 


X 



o 

I 

CO 

</) 

ll 
o 
o 

2 

5: 

Q 
Uj 
CC 

:::) 

CO 



1000 



900 



800 



700 



600 



500 



1*00 



300 




'300 WO 500 600 700 800 900 WOO 
PREDICTED MEAN 02% PROOF STRESS ( MPa) 



FIG. 3. COMPARISON OF RAIL PERFORMANCE AGAINST PREDICTED 

PERFORMANCE. 



PUBLISHED AS INFORMATION 
COMMITTEE 7-TIMBER STRUCTURES 

Report of Subcommittee No.7 (1977-1978) 

"Repeated Loading of Timber Structures" 

W.S. Stokely (Sub-Committee Chairman). D. I. Kjellman. H. G. Kriegel, C. V. Lund, 
R. Moody, W. A. Oliver, D. V. Sartore, R. W. Thompson 

Throughout the decade of the 1960's, the Association of American Railroads Research 
Center (AARRC), in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture Forest 
Service, Forest Products Laboratory (FPL), the American Institute of Timber Construction 
(AITC), the National Forest Product Association (NFPA), formerly the National Lumber 
Manufacturers Association, and the American Wood Preservers Institute (AWPI) conducted a 
series of laboratory tests with bridge timbers. The work dealt with the strength of full size timber 
trestle stringer under repeated and static loads. The stringers were of Douglas Fir and Southern 
Pine materials and of solid sawn and glued laminated construction. AARRC Reports Numbered 
ER-26, ER-52, ER-70, ER-72, ER-76 and LT-342 reported on the work. 

The last report, LT-342, dated December 1972, has been the subject of a protracted review 
by this sub-committee. The record of this review is clear in only one respect; the results noted in 
LT-342 are subject to question. TTie primary question concerns testing equipment malfunction 
and thus the validity of data recorded for a number of the test specimens. The second question 
concerns the presence of a decay in a number of the untreated test specimens. In response to the 
primary question, AARRC conducted a series of tests and concluded that the malfunction did not 
influence the data base of the report. The Sub-Committee does not dispute this conclusion. The 
presence of incipient decay in some of the untreated test specimens is, in the opinion of the 
Sub-Committee, undeniable. 

The conclusions stated in the report are general in nature and are, in the opinion of the 
sub-committee, suspect because they are based on less than whole test sjjecimens. The values 
contained in Tables 1 through 3 are thus also not wholly reliable. 

The Sub-Committee makes the following recommendations: 

1 . An addendum, as shown here below, be submitted to AARRC with a request that it be 
made a part of Report LT-342. 

2. An Ad Hoc Committee be assembled under Assignment A for the purpose of reviewing 
necessity, desirability and /or practicability of designing a continuing program for 
study of timber flexure members subject to railroad loading. The Ad Hoc group is to 
avail itself of expert advice from the railroad industry and from governmental and 
timber industry sources. 

3. The above being accomplished, the current Assignment 7 be closed. 

ADDENDUM TO LT-342 

1 . This Addendum is issued at the request of Sub-committee 7 of Committee 7 of the 
American Railway Engineering Association. The issue date is November 1, 1982. 

2. The reader of this report is requested to read the report of the above-mentioned 
sub-committee contained in Bulletin 692 of the American Railway Engineering 
Association dated May 1983. 



301 



Engineering and Experience 
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F'ublishcd As Inlormation 303 



COMMITTEE 22— ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY 
CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE 

Report of Subcommittee No. 6 

"Material Distribution and Pickup for Mechanized Gangs" 

J. C. Hunsberger (Chairman - Subcommittee No. 6), G. S. Pearson (Vice Chairman - 
Subcommittee No. 6). Members: G. M. Christy, W. H. Clark. P. A. Cosgrove, W. J. English, 
H. C. Minteer, G. A. Nelson, R. W. Pember, E. J. Rewucki, J. E. Sunderland, D. E. Tumey, B. 

J. Worley 

Economics of handling the distribution and pickup of materials for mechanized gangs. 

The purpose of this sub-committee's activities was to canvas and assess the railroads and 
find out how the various roads were handling the distribution and pickup of the various materials 
for rail laying and tie renewals. A questionaire was sent to 31 class one roads, with 24 replies 
being received. 

This report deals with maintenance of way man hours expended on the actual operation and 
does not include travel time, any delays, nor does it include any work train crew hours. A 
summary of these figures for the various operations is included at the end of this report. It will be 
noticeable that there is a large variance between the high and low man hour figures. A reasonable 
average was taken so as not to influence the figures unduly. If the majority of the roads reporting 
were close together, these figures were used, ignoring those figures that seemed unreasonable. 

Rail Unloading 

All rail unloading figures are for welded rail. Some roads unload a train of welded rail with 
40 strings 1440 feet long in two hours. In these cases there isquiteabit of preparation done ahead 
of time with road crossings being dug out, and the rail laid over turnouts and cut by the crews 
behind the train. The average time to unload a 40 string train is 7.5 hours using 9 men. This is an 
average of 6.2 man hours per mile of rail unloaded. Some of the roads have more sophisticated 
welded rail trains than others and this also reflects man hours required to unload. The rail 
unloaded in open country also requires less site preparation than that unloaded in metropolitan 
areas. 

Tie Plate Distribution 

The distribution of the tie plates is quite varied among the reporting roads. Most roads 
reported unloading loose plates from a gondola with a work train. 

Using a work train and unloading the tie plates by hand averaged 5.35 man hours per 
thousand plates. This is one of the most accurate methods of unloading and requires the least 
additional man hours over the 5 . 35 per thousand to move the plates closer to the final installation 
spot. A work train that uses a crane with a magnet is the most economical for getting tie plates 
from the gondola onto the ground. The average man hours per lOCX) plates was 0.86. The 
unloading personnel used were: 1 forman, 1 operator, and 1 or 2 laborers. Using this method the 
tie plate count varies per given distance and the plates are in different shaped and untidy piles. A 
crew of laborers usually follows this type of operation and distributes the plates by hand close to 
the renewal point. They usually have a push truck or other means of moving extra plates ahead. If 
this is not done, the rail laying operation will be slowed down. Using a self propelled crane and 
push trucks showed an average of 3.23 man hours per 10(X) plates. These plates are generally 



304 Bulletin 692— American Railway Engineering Association 



distributed closer to the using site and required less handling. When using a self propelled crane 
and gondolas, the results are about the same as a work train with crane. The difference being the 
cost of a work train, crew, engine, etc. There have been various methods used to get tie plates 
from a gondola in the loose condition to the tie where they will be installed. The most economical 
reported was the crane and magnet with no figures available for the man hours required for 
rehandling. Packaged tie plates were shown to average 4. 14 man hours per 1000 plates. Several 
roads reported using a car mover and gondola. These had an average of 6.5 man hours per 1000 
plates. Those using a boom hi-rail truck had an average of 7.0 man hours per 1000 plates. 

Spike Distribution 

The unloading of spikes for rail and tie renewals is being done by work trains with hand 
labor and using cranes with magnets or tongs. Some roads also used self propelled cranes and 
hi-rail boom trucks. A work train with crane and magnet shows 1 .5 man hours per 100 kegs. A 
crane using tongs and hook-up man is 3.2 man hours per 100 kegs. Those using a self propelled 
crane showed an average of 4.80 man hours per 100 kegs. The hi-rail truck with articulated boom 
and grapple had a 4.35 man hours per 100 kegs average. 

The work train with hand unloading had an 8.1 man hours per 100 kegs. It appears that 
maintenance of way man hour costs are best with a work train and crane with magnet . This is used 
primarily with the rail gang unloading and is the overall quickest method since the spikes are only 
handled once. Most all roads reporting indicated at least 3 methods for unloading spikes. For tie 
gangs, a self propelled crane and two or three men were used. In this method the spikes were 
handled twice, once from the railroad car to the push trucks and then to the ground. When the self 
propelled crane was used, coupled to the gondola, a second handling was not required. The 
reason a hi-rail truck had a lower average than the self propelled crane and push trucks is that 
hook up men were not required as an articulated boom with grapple could pick up and place the 
kegs without a ground man's assistance. 

Rail Anchor Distribution 

The rail anchor distribution for rail gangs is handled by the same means as the spike and tie 
plates. A work train with crane and magnet averaged 0.93 man hours per 1000 anchors. The self 
propelled crane 1 .72 man hours per 1000 anchors and the crane mounted on hi-rail truck 1.18 
man hours per 1000 anchors. Since the anchors are usually placed on a push truck or anchor 
applying machine, the distribution by any of the above means is usually adequate without 
rehandling. The additional anchors and replacement anchors for tie renewals are usually taken 
out to the work location daily by the crew as they move the machinery to the site. There are no 
figures available for this type of operation. 

Distribution of Joint Bar, Bolts, and Insulated Joints 

The joint bars, bolts, nut locks, and insulated joints distribution is handled either by local 
track crews with hi-rail trucks, self propelled cranes, or in some cases, carried with the 
installation crews. The average man hours as reported are as follows: 

Joint Bars 4.79 manhours/100 pair 

Bolts 1.75 manhours/ 1000 

Insulated Joint Bars 0.95 manhours/ea pair 

The use of various types of glued or cemented insulated joints that can be fabricated in the 
shop and then delivered to the field and welded into a string of rail has not been considered in any 
of the above figures. Since all roads only reported the unloading of welded rail and the joint bars 
and bolts are only used approximately every quarter of mile and then often only as a temporary 
joint until rail can be welded, the figures for handling of these vary quite a bit. The averages 
shown are as reported. The bars, bolts, and insulated joints are often in a car placed in the work 




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306 Bulletin 692 — American Railway Engineering Association 



train that is primarily unloading other material and then thrown off by hand as an extra and the 
personnel used may be performing other tasks and the time to handle these materials is not well 
known or recorded. 

Tie Unloading 

Ties are usually received in rail cars. They are loose or banded in bundles of 16 to 25 ties. 
Some roads also have special tie cars to facilitate unloading and insure a distribution that will 
place the tie close to the point of renewal. In recent years the use of a backhoe that climbs from car 
to car and a car top unloading machine have been in use for unloading the loose ties. 

The use of special cars or rack cars has an average of 0.64 man hours per 100 ties unloaded. 
This method of using a car designed for the handling of ties produced one of the best means of 
handling ties. However, the equipment is expensive and can only be used for ties. The logistics of 
using these cars can be quite a task as the tie purchase and production must be co-ordinated to 
maximize the use of the cars. When the ties are bundled, they must be unloaded by a crane from 
either flat cars or gondolas. The bundled ties show an average of 0.81 manhours per 100 ties. 
They can be distributed and placed so that tie handling machinery in the tie renewal gangs can 
place them for insertion without too much problem. The one problem created by this method is 
the banding material that is left as scrap. The oldest method and one that is still in use on all roads 
in some amount whether on a small or large scale, is the unloading of the ties from a gondola by 
hand. The average for this was 4.77 man hours per 100 ties. One of the drawbacks of this method 
is that the men unloading are susceptible to personal injuries. The unloading of ties by work train 
with a crane shows 2.7 man hours per 100 ties. This placed the ties in various sized piles along the 
right of way but fewer people are required and the proper tie count for a given area is harder to 
arrive at. The use of a specially equipped back hoe on top of cars produces a means of unloading 
ties that has become fairly popular. The average shown by the reporting roads is 1 .29 man hours 
per 100 ties. The use of car top unloading machines is also becoming popular and shows a 0.85 
average man hour per 100 ties. These last two methods use few men and can produce a fairly 
accurate positioning of the ties for renewals. 

Pickup of Material After Mechanized Gangs Renewals 

Rail that is taken from the tracks can be picked up by a work train with pusher cars to receive 
the welded rail or the jointed rail that has not been unbolted . Stick rail or rail that has the joint bars 
removed is picked up by cranes with magnets, rail tongs, or grapples. Work trains, self propelled 
cranes and boom hi-rail trucks are also used. The use of the rail train with a pusher car that was 
used to unload the welded rail is necessary for the pickup of replaced welded rail. This same train 
can be used to pick up the jointed rail if the joints have not been removed. The rail is then 
transported to the rail plant where the joints are removed by automatic wrenches or cropped from 
the rail. The average man hours per mile of rail for this method is 43.64. The stick rail is picked 
up by work trains with cranes, self propelled crane, hi-railed boom trucks, and car top loaders. 
The work train with crane using a magnet averaged 14.4 man hours per mile of rail. A work train 
with cranes and tongs averaged 24 . 6 man hours per mile of rail . The self propelled crane showed 
20.3 man hours per mile. The boom trucks were 58.75 man hours per mile, while car top loaders 
were 12.3 man hours per mile. 

Pick Up of Tie Plates 

Tie plate pick up is accomplished by using the same method and equipment as is used for 
picking up rail with the exception of the rail train and pusher. 

A work train with magnet 1.64 man hours/ 1000 

Self propelled crane magnet 2.55 man hours/ 1000 

Hi-rail truck 1.80 man hours/ 1000 

Car top unloader 0.85 man hours/ 1000 



Published As Information 



307 



The above average figures compiled from the various roads were quite varied. This is 
because some roads have the plates in large piles and it takes three or more passes with a magnet 
to pick up a pile. Some have smaller piles that are roughly one magnet load in size. Some don't 
pile the plates and sweep the area with a magnet. Some send only one operator with the work 
train, others have several ground men to pick up any pieces missed by the magnet. Whether only 
one man is used, or more, the total number of plates picked up by a work train in a given time is 
about the same. Those roads with ground men get most all of the plates while those without 
ground men miss a small percentage of the plates. 

Pick Up Anchors, Spikes, OTM 

The pickup of the rest of the OTM other than plates is accomplished in the same manner as 
the plates, using magnets. Some roads have the material sorted, while others pick it up all 
together and sort it at a central location. The figures for this OTM pick up were quite varied, and 
the average being about 3.0 man hours per ton of OTM. 

This report is trying to give an average man hours per type of operation. The results are to be 
taken as a round guideline. Many specific operations will show much greater efficiencies than 
shown while others will greatly exceed those shown. The attached table indicates the averages 
and the high and low times for each operation. 

Summary of times as indicated by reporting roads for "Distribution and Pick Up of Material 
for Mechanized Gangs". Maintenance of way manhours only. 

Rail Distribution Average Low High 

Welded Rail Train only 

Man Hours/mile of rail 6.25 2.2 16.6 



Tie Plate Distribution 










Work Train, Hand 


Manhours/ 1000 


5.35 


1.5 


16.0 


Work Train, Magnet 


Manhours/ 1000 


0.86 


0.3 


8.0 


Car Movers, Hand 


Manhours/ 1000 


6.50 


5.00 


8.0 


Self Propelled Crane 










Magnet 


Manhours/ 1000 


3.23 


0.50 


6.7 


Boom Trucks 


Manhours/ 1000 


7.00 


2.00 


12.0 


Packaged 


Manhours/ 1000 


4.14 


1.50 


5.93 


Spike Distribution 










Work Train, Crane & 










Magnet 


Manhours/ 100 Kegs 


1.50 


1.00 


24.0 


Work Train. Crane & 










Tongs 


Manhours/ 100 Kegs 


3.20 


3.20 


-— 


Self Propelled Crane 


Manhours/ 100 Kegs 


4.80 


1.00 


32.0 


Crane/Hi-rail Truck 


Manhours/ 100 Kegs 


4.35 


2.00 


6.4 


Anchor Distribution 










Work Train 


Manhours/ 1000 


0.93 


0.16 


8.0 


Self Propelled Crane 


Manhours/ 1000 


1.72 


0.24 


8.0 


Crane/Hi-rail Truck 


Manhours/ 1000 


1.18 


0.50 


9.5 


Tie Distribution 


Manhours/ 100 








Work Train, Special Cars 




0.64 


0.64 


— - 


Work Train, Flat Cars 










Bundles 




0.81 


0.81 


-— 


Work Train, By Hand 




4.77 


0.70 


lO.O 


Work Train, Backhoe 




1.29 


0.30 


3.0 



308 Bulletin 692- 


—American Railway Engineering 


Association 




Work Train, Crane 




2.70 


0.75 


6.5 


Work Train, Car Top 










Unloader 




0.85 


0.50 


1.2 


Other Material 










Joint Bars 


Manhours/100 pair 


4.79 


0.25 


16.0 


Bolts 


Manhours/1000 


1.75 


0.25 


6.0 


Insulated Joints 


Each 


0.95 


0.10 


1.0 


PICKUP USED MATERIALS 








Rail 


Manhours/mile 








Work Train, Welded 










Pusher Cars 




43.64 


21.30 


192.0 


Woric Train, Crane Magnet 




14.40 


11.00 


22.0 


Woric Train, Tongs 




24.60 


6.00 


48.0 


Self Propelled Crane 




20.30 


8.00 


37.5 


Boom Truck, Hi-rail 




58.75 


37.50 


80.0 


Car Top Loader 




12.30 


12.30 


— 


Tie Plate Pick Up 


Manhours/1000 








Work Train, Magnet 




1.64 


0.50 


4.0 


Self Propelled Crane 




2.55 


1.00 


8.0 


Boom Tmck, Hi-rail 




1.80 


1.60 


16.0 


Car Top Loader 




0.85 


0.85 


— 


Spikes and Other OTM 


Manhours/Ton 








Woric Train, Magnet 




3.05 


0.50 


16.0 


Self Propelled Crane 




3.40 


0.50 


8.0 


Motor Car & Push 










Trucks, Hand 




9.53 


2.00 


16.0 



COMMITTEE 27— MAINTENANCE OF WAY 
WORK EQUIPMENT 

Report of Subcommittee 3 — Engine Selection for Work Equipment 

Your committee presents as information, the results of a survey concerning air cooled and 
water cooled diesel engines. 

The best way to present the cross section feelings is to report on some of the manufacturer's 
replies. 

One machine manufacturer offers up to 20 different units with horsepower requirements 
ranging from 5 to 150 horsepower. The smaller machines in the 5 to 40 horsepower range are 
furnished standard with four cycle, air cooled, gas engines. At the present time they offer air 
cooled diesel options on some of these smaller units, and the intent is to make this option 
available on all of the small units. Their market research indicates a trend to air cooled diesel 
engines. 

As far as conversions from water cooled diesel to air cooled are concerned, nearly all 
modification remarks were the same; i.e. exhaust change, engine mount, provide separate 
hydraulic motor or electric motor to cool the oil, different piping, beef-up engine mounts, 
relocate fuel supply tank. 



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310 Bulletin 692 — American Railway Engineering Association 



Another equipment manufacturer reports that they offer Briggs and Stratton air cooled gas 
engines on small equipment in the 16 HP and smaller category. In the 18 HP to 37 HP category, 
they offer Wisconsin gas engines and Lister diesel engines. The current split is approximately 
I09c Lister diesel and 9Q9c Wisconsin gas. Larger engines in the 38 HP and above category are 
either Detroit Diesel water cooled or Lister Diesel air cooled. Currently 99% of these engines are 
Detroit Diesel. 

Field comments regarding engine changes have generally been favorable. However, they 
did have a situation with the Lister Diesel installations on the "CZ" Adzer where the engine was 
sucking dirty air into cooling fins. Lister supplied rotating screens to install on these engines 
which have reportedly remedied the problem. 

If enough requests are received for a particular engine, they will either offer the rotating 
screen as standard or as an available option. 

Back to modifications. We applied a Hatz Model E7I to a Fairmont Model W84 single 
hydraulic spike puller, in lieu of conventional Wisconsin one cylinder engine. We had to 
completely revamp the engine base platform. There was not much weight difference between the 
Wisconsin and the Hatz, however, the engine platform was beefed-up because of vibration and 
relocation to accomodate pump clearance. Results from the field have been good on this one unit. 
One of the ideas for conversion was to make all units on the Tie Gang diesel powered. However, 
when operators were changed the other day, the engine failed. The clearly marked diesel fuel 
tank was filled with gasoline. As you can see, all of our problems are not mechanical. Those 
using this unit for the last 6 months have had no failures — starts easily in cold and wet weather. It 
does have a vibration problem and we had to install a flex hose on the air cleaner. This vibration 
problem is the main objection in using the 1 and 2 cylinder air cooled diesel with most of the 
manufacturers. 

One of the replies from another equipment manufacturer indicates that with the majority of 
the small and medium sized machines in their M/W product line, it is standard practice for them 
to quote several alternative engines. Generally, the customers will select the engine option for 
their machine purchase which best coincides with the rest of their equipment fleet. Over the 
years, the vast majority of their customers have specified Detroit Diesel Engines on their 
equipment. On their small and medium sized machines the General Motors 3-53 Engine has been 
by far the most popular — this is due to several factors. Although this year, as in the past, the 
G.M. engine is by far the most popular, they also find that many railroads are beginning to 
consider alternative engines. Primarily, railroads are interested in: 

1. Finding engines which operate with considerably lower noise level. 

2. Reducing their fuel costs through more efficient fuel consumption. 

3. Saving money on the cost of the engine and its service parts. 

Within the last few years this company has supplied equipment with the following alternative 
engines: 

1. The White D2300, which is capable of producing 50 HP at 2000 RPM. 

2. The Deutz F4L-912, which is capable of producing 53 HP at 2000 RPM. 

3. The John Deere 4276-D, which is capable of producing 58 HP at 1800 RPM. 
Over the last 3 or 4 years customers have specified one of these alternative engines over 

General Motors approximately 24% of the time. They report that this is due primarily to the 
obvious reduced noise levels and apparent fuel efficiencies. 

Other engine options used by yet another equipment manufacturer the past 5 years indicate 
85% to 90% water cooled diesel, 5% air cooled diesel and 5% air cooled gasoline. They have 
used the John Deere engine for their 40 HP to 50 HP requirements. This engine is favored 
because of fuel economy , low noise level , reliability , reasonably low price and good service parts 
availability. Success to date with John Deere would suggest increased use in the future. 



Published As Information 311 



We reported earlier on modifications regarding oil coolers. Machines where the oil cooler is 
cooled by the engine fan, it would be necessary to remount the oil cooler with a separate hydraulic 
motor or electric motor to cool the oil. If the engine is to be fully enclosed, it would be necessary 
to install duct work so that the fan of the engine could receive ample cool air for cooling the 
engine. If the engine is not fully enclosed, then this would not create a problem. 

One report indicates that the larger air cooled engines are foreign made. Experience has 
been less than satisfactory with respect to factory trained service. Also, metric fasteners and parts 
have presented a problem. 

Another equipment manufacturer reported feed back from the field as to preference has not 
been sufficient to draw any firm conclusions. 

It appears that from reports, if there is any conversion trend detected, it may be in the 30 to 
37 HP range. It also appears that percentage-wise very few conversions (water cooled diesel or 
air cooled gas to air cooled diesel) are being made by the users. 

One company presently using water cooled diesels 100% report that air cooled diesels have 
significant features that make them preferable to the water cooled diesel: ease of maintenance, 
cost of operation, noise level and power to weight ratio. And it is felt that as industry acceptance 
gains momentum they plan to convert their smaller machines. 

There was a small percentage of reports concerning turbocharging, not much use because of 
increased noise level. 

Report of Subcommittee 8 — Study Types of Future Work Equipment 

Your committee presents as information, the results of a study looking at new equipment 
requirements and design. 

Machinery requirements for M & W gangs have changed in the last few years to the point of 
railroads having to take a serious look at which direction they are going when planning program or 
daily maintenance. 

The Production or Planning Manager, who is responsible for gang concept, is now faced 
with the problem of presenting to top management not only the conventional methods of tie, 
surfacing and rail renewal-type gangs, but the more sophisticated machinery concept that is now 
being developed by railway suppliers. 

Tie renewal gangs in the past have incorporated such machines as: 

1. Spike pullers. 

2. Tie saws and tie shears. 

3. Rotary and pusher-type scarifiers. 

4. Cable, semi-automatic and automatic tie inserters. 

5. Pneumatic and hydraulic spikers. 

However, due to new and stricter standards adopted by the E.P.A., machinery manu- 
facturers have been forced to develop machinery that will remove ties in one piece at a high rate of 
speed and with littleornodisturbance to the track bed or surroundiing areas. Also, new standards 
were adopted by many railways and states on right-of-way clean-up, weed and brush control and 
drainage .sections that have almost necessitated the immediate pick-up of ties whether they are 
taken out in sections or one piece. Railroads that have changed over to the whole tie removal 
method on main lines have also increased their reusable tie inventory for yard and branch line 
tracks and in most ca.ses are able to sell the remaining ties to outside contractors. 

The Supervisor who is responsible for daily track maintenace is now also faced with the 
problem of what type of machinery is needed for every day tie renewal work. 



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Consideration now has to be given to: 

1. The number of men that will be available for the type of work. 

2. How long track can be taken out of service. 

3. Would it be advantageous to have a small machine that was capable of pertbrming more 
than one function. 

4. Request machinery that could be removed easily to keep train delays at a minimum. 

The task of selecting what type of machinery to be used for the renewal projects is going to 
depend on all of the above factors, plus the economic structure of individual railroads. 

Machinery for surfacing gangs has also undergone some drastic changes in the last few 
years. Manufacturers have changed from shoulder-type jacking systems to the truss-type 
machine for raising track. Electrical, electronic and hydraulic systems have also undergone 
changes to increase surfacing production and machine reliability. 

Manufacturers are also developing smaller tampers for use as back-up machines in large 
production gangs and as spot tampers for branch line and yard use. These machines are available 
with or without shoulder jacks, and in some cases hydraulic vibratory motors and tangent track 
liners. Most of these small tampers are also designed so they can be hauled by low-boy truck from 
one job to another as a legal load. 

Track lining systems have also been improved with the adoption of the laser beam system 
now being offered instead of the photo-electric or wire lining methods that have been used over 
the years. Laser lining has increased the accuracy of tangent track lining to 1/4" in a 2,000' stretch. 
This type of system will allow a machine to line miles of tangent track with one pass, and will 
eliminate long line swings and other line imperfections which can increase production by 50 to 
100%. The increase in production is especially valuable when track time is limited. 

Manufacturers of ballast regulators have made some changes in machinery design in order 
to increase production and machine reliability. New machine design has enabled manufacturers 
to offer such items as: 

1. One pass hydraulic front plows 

2. Hydraulically operated ballast boxes. 

3. V-plows and wing plows for snow fighting. 

4. Air cooled engines. 

5. Larger cabs for better operator visibility. 

Another piece of equipment that is now being used in surfacing gangs is a ballast compactor. 
It compacts newly laid or resurfaced ballast sections and will also stablilize existing ballast 
sections. 

Undoubtedly, one of the areas in track maintenance machinery that has seen the most drastic 
of changes is that of rail renewal machinery that can be used for both jointed and welded rail 
strings. The most common method of rail renewal is the single rail method. This method replaces 
one side of the running rail while using the opposite side of the running rail as a guide for track 
machinery and track gauge. This method of renewal proves to be very effective when used for 
relaying rail of same size where existing tie plates are to be reused, relaying curve worn rail and in 
areas where you would have to contend with variable trackage and traffic problems. However, it 
can prove to be costly to railroads that were engaged in extensive renewal projects because of the 
time spent backtracking to do the opposite running rail. 

Many delays could be encountered because of the machinery that could not be travelled 
under its own power and had to be loaded on flat cars or trucks, and by those machines that have 
to be readjusted to correspond to the size variances of the new running rail. 



314 Bulletin 692 — American Railway Engineering Association 



Due to high cost and low production of the single rail renewal method, some railroads and 
machinery manufacturers have designed machines for dual rail laying. This method increases 
production , however, it does not necessarily decrease the number of people needed to operate the 
machinery. 

Machinery manufacturers are continually trying to improve existing machinery and design 
new machinery that will increase track maintenance production, changes can be more expensive 
than the improvement justifies. The key to acceptable improvement is communications with 
railroad personnel, particularly Committee 27 and Committee 22 members. Another must is to 
listen to the people who have to make the machine produce (Foreman, Operators), and of course 
the Equipment Supervisor and Mechanic that have to keep it operational. 

In low sales volume products such as railway maintenance equipment, there is not the 
opportunity to gather data and spread the costs over thousands of units. Underdesign is most 
frequent in new machinery, often times when a new machine is demonstrated to the industry, it 
will perform as per design; however, once we purchase it and put it out in the field with a gang, it 
starts to fall apart. All of a sudden we find that in order to keep the machine running we have to 
start modifying components and sometimes entire systems. 

This committee feels that in order to eliminate the underdesign problems in the fields of ease 
of repair (including parts), reliability and human engineering of the operator's environment, a 
formal, written engineering review of these three attributes at the time design is finalized should 
provide greater improvement at less cost than any other effort the manufacturer could make. 

Improvements that this committee feels could be made on existing machinery are as follows: 

1. Improve design on plate pluckers used in rail gangs. 

2. Improve design of scrap loaders. 

3. Improve design of automatic load systems on spikers, and also try and design a system 
that would eliminate operator from helping load spike chutes, which results in lost 
production. 

4. Improve reliability by reducing complexity of control circuitry of automatic spikers. 

5. Improve reliability of automatic tamping equipment by looking into the installation of 
microprocessors in control systems to eliminate as much maintenance as possible. 

6. Redesign car top tie unloader so it will clear existing overhead bridge structures. 
Committee recommendations for design of new machinery include: 

1 . Anchor machine that would install any style anchor without changing arms. This would 
be very helpful in tie gangs when reapplying anchors. 

2. Self-propelled pregauging machine to use in conjunction with automatic gauge-spiking 
machines. 

3. Midsized, uncomplicated, self-propelled air hammer for small projects. 

4. A machine which would duplicate the wrench or hammer action necessary to remove 
rail anchors. In high speed rail renewal, it could more than pay its way and eliminate 
nicked rail bases due to misdirected hammer blows. 

5. A machine that would magnetically pick up anchors and put them into a trailing scrap 
cart. 



6. Machinery for all types of material distribution. 

7. Machinery for better rail and curve measuring. 



Published As Information 315 



The following is a list of machines that have been designed by individual railroads: 

1. Machine loader/unloader ramp cars for moving gang machinery. 

2. Self-propelled spike pick-up cars. 

3. Self-propelled light plants for night work. 

4. Combination spiker-anchor machine for track panels. 

5. Self-propelled carbolenium applicator. 

Machinery manufacturers that design multi-function machines should do so with extreme 
care. If one function of a multi-function machine goes down, it may stop or cripple an expensive 
operation. Maintenance in a production gang would be too difficult and costly - if a multi- 
function machine fails, you're out of business. With individual function machines, you can make 
your decision to stop all functions or go ahead without whichever function failed. 

The R.C.O.is a prime example of a multi-function machine that has required the manu- 
facturer to dedicate tremendous engineering and service funding to make necessary refinements. 
And, as this type of machine may well be accepted in the future, it is struggling to make it in the 
present. 

There is some glamour and excitement to huge, complex machines and an element of pride 
to the M & W people whose railroad is able to afford the lease or purchase of them. Glamour and 
excitement don't pay stockholders or employee's salaries. A total comparison of cost to 
amortize, own, operate and maintain equipment required to achieve equal production quality and 
quantity must favor any change of machine type or the change should not be made. Before 
marketing, manufacturers must consider whether a complex machine will have adequate 
reliability, work quality and speed. 

Production and quality must not suffer at the expense of complication. 



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MEMOIRS 

Kenneth L. De Blois 
1899-1982 

Kenneth L. De Blois, retired Senior Structural Engineer, New York Central Railroad, died 
at Highland Park, Illinois, on October 27, 1982 at the age of 83. 

Mr. De Blois, the son of George and Bessie (Anslo)De Blois, was bom August 3 1 , 1899, in 
Hinsdale, Illinois. He received his B.S. in Civil Engineering from Rose Poly-technical Institute 
(Rose Hulman Institute of Technology) in 1922. in 1944, he received his M.S. from Carnegie 
Institute. 

Mr. De Blois was preceded in death by his wife, Juliet, in 1973. 

Ken started his engineenng career as a bridge designer for the Cleveland, Cincinnati, 
Chicago and St. Louis Railroad in 1922. In 1934 and 1935 Ken worked as an inspector on the 
Oakland Bay Bridge in San Francisco. From 1935 to 1939 Mr. De Blois was employed by the 
United States Bureau of Public Roads. After working in that position for four years, he went to 
work for the United States Army, Corps of Engineers. Then, in 1942 until his retirement in 1964 
Ken worked for the New York Central System. After his retirement, Mr. De Blois worked with 
Envirodyone Engineers, Inc. 

Mr. De Blois gave freely of his time to the American Society of Civil Engineers and the 
American Railway Engineering Association. He was well known and respected in the AREA, 
having served as a member of Committee 7 from 1955 to the present. Ken was made Vice- 
chairman of the Committee in 1958 through 1960 and then served as Chairman from 1961 to 
1963. Mr. De Blois was elected Member Emeritus in 1967, and Life Member of the AREA in 
1969. The other professional organizations Mr. De Blois worked with were American Railway 
Bridge and Building Association and the Maintenance of Way Club of Chicago. 

Mr. De Blois was a Mason in good standing for over 50 years and was a member of Highland 
Park Lodge No. 676. 

All those that knew him will be saddened by his passing. 

J. Budzileni 

William A. Oliver 
1899-1982 

William A. Oliver, Professor Emeritus of Civil Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana 
Campus, died in Urbana on 10 November 1982 at the age of 84. 

Professor Oliver was bom in Telford, Ontario, Canada on lOJanuary 1898. He received his 
BS in Civil Engmeering from the University of Michigan and earned his MS and CE professional 
degrees at the UIUC in 1928 and 1933 respectively. After brief periods as an instructor in 
mathematics at Beloit College and the Case School of Applied Science he joined the Civil 
Engineenng faculty at the University of Illinois in 1929 as an instmctor. He rose through the 
ranks to full professor and retired as professor emeritus in 1966. 

Professor Oliver was a registered structural and professional engineer with broad experience 
in engineering, especially as related to timber stmctures. Among his many honors was the Award 
of Merit of the American Society of Testing Materials (in which he was a Fellow and a Director 
from 1969 to 1972). He also held an Honorary Membership in the Illinois Society of Professional 
Engineers. 

317 



318 



Bulletin 692 — American Railway Engineering Association 



Professor Oliver became a member of the AREA in 1932 and a Life Member in 1968. He 
served for many years as a member of Committee 24 Engineering Education including several 
years as chairman of the subcommittee on summer employment. He was also a Member Emeritus 
following many years of service on Committee 7 Timber Structures. 

He will be remembered for his willing cooperation and effort in committee affairs, his useful 
and thoughtful contributions to committee discussions and projects, and his highly developed 
personal and professional integrity. 

Professor Oliver is survived by his wife, Mary Maude, of 101 W. 
4205, Urbana, Illinois 61801, and by his three children - Georgeann, 
Charles M. together with their families. 

His passing is a sad loss to his friends and his profession. 



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11 Robinson St, Potfstown, PA 19464 
215/326-4600 

RAILROADS • TRANSIT • DESIGN 

FIXED FACILITIES • ROLLING STOCK 

VALUATION • OPERATIONS • PLANNING 

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Member Firms 

Sanders & Thomas 

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Seelye Stevenson Value & Knecht 

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S&T Western 

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STV/Management Consultants Group 

New York, NY 212/344-3200 



STANLEY CONSULTANTS 

PROFESSIONAL SERVICES IN 
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• RAILROADS 

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Telephone 319/264-6600 
Stanley Building, Muscatine, Iowa 52761 




BERNARD JOHNSON INCORPORATED 

ENGINEERS • ARCHITECTS • PLANNERS 

Hackwork • Ifarminals • Railroad Relocation 

Maintenance Facilities • Signalization 

Bridges (Design, Rating, Rehabilitation) 

Communication Systems • Systems Evaluation 

Operations Analyses • Equipment Modernization 

5050 WESTHEIMEH • HOUSTON, TEXAS 77056 

713/622-1400 

HOUSTON • WASHINGTON. D.C. • DALLAS 



K*^ 



HARRINGTON & CORTELYOU, INC. 
Consglting Engineers 



1004 Baltimore, KanMa City, Mo. 64105 
Telaphona: 816^21-6386 

RAILWAY AND HIGHWAY 

• FIXED AND MOVABLE BRIDGES • 

• Condition Inspections 

• Investigations & Reports 
• Design. Construction Plans 

• Contract Documents 

• Construction Supervision 

• Cost Negotiations 



HARDESTY & HANOVER 

Conaulting Engineers 

BRIDGES — FIXED and MOVABLE 

HIGHWAYS and RAILWAYS 

SPECIAL STRUCTURES 

Design, Inspection, Valuation 

1501 Broadway New York, NY, 10036 

Jersey City, N.J. 



• Maintenance & Repair Shops 

• Power & Utility Systenis 

• Load/Unload Facilities 

• Environmental Studies 

• Structures • Terminals 

• Waste Treatment 

• Trackage 

• Bridges 




f ffS ratsr to%€k - Columbia, sc 29703 



• Freiffit And ^ ut 'fti rrm np ortttlo^ Pittminf 
» K»ar09d £coMom/ci • Cosf Anttyt/i • TwrmhwH 

• Strvctun • Tflpc**^ 



Orfvr Ofrtcn In USA Amd Ottn^mi 



KING & GAVAfVSC^ 

PLANNING . DESIGN 
CONSTRUCTION SUPERVISION 

Railroads . Mass Transit 
Ports . Highways 

500 Fitlh Avenue 

New York. New Yoik 10110 

Telephone (212)719-2410 Cable KINGAV Telex 177147 



^ Gannett Fleming 

i^3i FNfilNFFRS AND PLANNERS 



Railroad/Mass Transit 

Bridges • Tunnels • Inspection 

Maintenance Facilities 

Repair Shops • Equipnnent 

Trackwork • Yards 

Environmental Studies 



P.O. Box 1963 • Harrisburg, PA 17105 



Regional Offices Located in 21 Other Cities 



Railroads • Rapid Transit 

Electric Traction Power 

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Operations Analysis and Simulation 

Power Generation • Urban Planning 

(Bibbs g Hill Ina. 

ENGINEERS. DESIGNERS, CONSTRUCTORS 

393 Seyentti Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10001 

A Subsidiary of Drove Corpororion 



MODJESK1 AND MASTERS 

Centu/f/ng tnqhn—n 
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Strengthening 

Rehabilitation • Reconstruction 

P.O. BOX 2345 

HARRISBURG, PA. 17105 

New Orleans, La. Arlington, Va. 

Poughkeepsie, N.Y. Charleston, S.C. 




INTERNATIONAL 
• 1 ENGINEERING 
COMPANY 

Transit Design & Electrification 
Shop Facilities 

Studies • Design • Operations 
Construction Management 

180 Howard Street San Francisco California 94105 

Boise • Oe"ve» • Phoeni* • Housion • Danen • Anchorage 



EDWARDS AND KELCEY 

DESIGN • STUDIES • CONSTWXmON MANAGEMENT 

WAYS AND STRUCTURES • TERMINALS 
BRIDGES • STATIONS • TUNNELS • YARDS 

BOSTON 
CHICAGO 
HOUSTON 
NEW YORK 
MINNFAPOLIS 
PHILADELPHIA 
WASHINGTON, DC. 
70 SO ORANGE AVE., LIVINGSTON. N.J 07039 !201l 994-4520 




TAMS 

ENGLNEERS, ARCHITECTS AND PLA^fNERS 

• Highways - Bridges - Tunnels 
•Transportation and Traffic Studies 

• Railroads and Mass Transit 

Tippetts-Abbett-McCarthy-Stratton 
The TAMS BIdg., 655 Third Ave.. NY, NY 




truck 



INCORPORATED 

RAILROAD AND MASS TRANSIT ELECTRIFICATION 

• Feasibility and Utility Impact Studies 

• Power Control and Substation Design 

• Catenary Design and System Design 

• Project Management and Quality Assurance 

6525 Belcrest Road, Suite 209, Hyattsuille, MD 20782 
Telephone: (301) 779 6868 

Also Don Mills Onlano 
Telephone (416) 441-1 159 




Lewis E. Conner 

PRESIDFNT 



ELK GROVE (916) 685-9564 SACRAMENTO (916) 423-2088 
P.O. DRAWER BB ELK GROVE, CA 95624 




BAKKE KOPP BALLOUt McFARLIN.INC. 
CONSULTING ENGINEERS 



uridges 
Special & Heavy Structures 
Investigations & Reports 

219 North Second Street 

Minneapolis, MN. 55401 

(612) 333-7101 



l€ 



^ HAZELET + ERDAL, INC. 

Consulting Engineers 



Dtsign Invettigolions Reports 

Fixed and Movable Bridgos 

547 WEST JACKSON BOULEVARD 
CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

CINCINNATI, OH. LOUISVILLE, KY JEFFERSONVILLE, IN, 



K 



Kraulnamrr or A."JSoci«jtrs, Inc. 



P O Box 70022 
5530 Wisconsin Avenue 
Washington, D C 20088 
(202) 654-7533 



Executive recruiters to ttie 
railway and transportation industries 



Gilbert/ 
CommoniAiealth 



• Electrical Systems Studies 
and Engineering 

• Security Systems 

• Supervisory Control 

• Environmental Studies 



o 



Engineers/ Consultants 
Reading. PA 215-775-2600 



COWIN & COMPANY, INC. 
MINING ENGINEERS 
AND CONTRACTORS. 



Tunnels 

• Construction 

• Repair 

• Enlargement 

• Consulting 



301 INDUSTRIAL DR . PC BOX 19009 
BIRMINGHAM, AL 35219-9009 
PHONE (205)945-1300 



NOTES 



NOTES 



NOTES 



NOTES 



NOTES 



NOTES 



NOTES 



NOTES 



NOTES 



PROFILES IN 
RAIL LIFE: 

SPEND 




— ,-.»^.«.« < .»<#.«.* •iwr-»>M*,"".»^*'^'««"Wv«^»»'*-*~*--' " ■'■»f»"^>> 




Speno's exhaustive research into the 
science of rail grinding pays dividends 
in our ability to restore optimum rail 
profile, often virtually doubling its 
performance life. 

Best results are possible only through 
effective equipment control, and Speno's 
reprofiling techniques have it. Speno's 
Autoload'" control automatically 
maintains optimum effectiveness of all 
grinding wheels — without manual 
adjustment. 

Speno's patented Active Long Wave 
system, with positive pressure control, 



assures pinpoint action on high or low 
welds and other similar defects. The 
result: continuously varied grinding effort 
according to need. 

For the full benefit of a planned rail 
maintenance program, rely on Speno 
experience and technology. We save 
the rails. 



bpcno 

ri^ Speno Rail Services Co. 



PC Box 309 

East Syracuse, New York 13057 

(315)437-2547 




'igS<»S»w5«^s- - \ 



;eii^^^si^" 



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/'I ■ 



R.E. Bodkin, President 



The Trasco Car Retarder 

We not only stand beside 

our Trasco Car Retarder, we stand 

behind it. 

This one has been in 

track for 18 years— the retarding 

rails have been replaced once, 

but most of the parts are original equipment. 

P.O. Box 729 • 18 South Sylvan Road 

Westport, Conn. 06881 

(203) 226-3361 



W 




i 



AMERICAN RAILWAY 
ENGINEERING ASSOCIATION 



•a 



BULLETIN 693 
" VOL. 84(1983) 

RECEIVED 

OCT 191383 OCTOBER 1983 
J.E.STAiLMEY£R 



ROOM 403 

2000 L St., N.W. 

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20036 

U.S.A. 




CONTENTS (Details Inside) 

Reports From Technical Conference 323 

Special Reports 367 

Published as Information (Comm. 3, 5, 6, 14, 32) 393 

Memoir 453 

Auditors' Report 455 



HI 



3 



BOARD OF DIRECTION 
1983-1984 

President 

H. L. Rose, Assistant Vice President — Maintenance of Way & Structures, Southern Railway, 99 

Spring St.. S.W., Atlanta, GA 30303 

Vice Presidents 
V. R. Terrill. Vice President — Engineering, Boston & Maine Corporation, High Street, North 

Billerica. MA 01862 
P. R. Richards, Chief Engineer, Canadian National, Box 8100, Montreal, Que., H3C 3N4 

Past Presidents 

Mike Rougas, Chief Engineer, Bessemer & Lake Erie Railroad, P.O. Box 471, Green- 
ville, PA 16125 

R. E. H.AACKE, District Engineer, Western Districts, Union Pacific Railroad Company, 1515 
S.W. Fifth Avenue, Suite 400, Portland, OR 97201 

Directors 

W. E. Brakensiek, Assistant Chief Engineer, Missouri Pacific Railroad, 210 N. 13th St., 
Rm. 1211, St. Louis, MO 63103 

J. D. Jardine, Assistant Chief Engineer, Canadian Pacific Limited, Windsor Station, Montreal, 
Quebec H3C 3E4 

D.E. TURNEY, Jr., Assistant Chief Engineer — Maintenance, Norfolk & Western Railway, 8 N. 
Jefferson St., Roanoke, VA 24042 

H. G. Webb, Chief Engineer, Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway, 4100 S. Kedzie Ave., 
Chicago, IL 60632 

R. E. Frame, Chief Engineering Officer, Seaboard System Railroad, 500 Water St., Jack- 
sonville, FL 32202 

M.D. Kenyon, Assistant Chief Engineer, Denver & Rio Grande Western Railroad, Box 5482, 
Denver, CO 80217 

A. L. Maynard, Director — Engineering Material Control, Chessie System, Box 1800, Hunt- 
ington, WV 25718 

W. B. Peterson, Chief Engineer, Soo Line Railroad, Box 530, Minneapolis, MN 55440 

J. R. Clark, Chief Engineer Maintenance of Way, Consolidated Rail Corporation, 6 Penn 
Center Plaza, Philadelphia, PA 19104 

R. W. FONDREN, Chief Engineer, Florida East Coast Railway, 1 Malaga St., St. Augustine, FL 
32084 

G. Rodriguez, Chief Engineer, Ferrocarriles Nacionales de Mexico, Av. Central 140, 8 Piso, 
Ala "B", Mexico 3, D.F., Mexico 

T. P. Schmidt, Chief Engineer, Delaware & Hudson Railway Company, 40 Beaver St. , Albany, 
NY 12207 

L. F. WOODLOCK, Assistant Vice President — Engineering, Burlington Northern Railroad, 176 
E. 5th St., St. Paul, MN 55101 

Treasurer 

W. S. Lovelace, Asst. Vice President — Engrg. & Research, Southern Railway, P.O. Box 
1808, Washington, D.C. 20013 

HEADQUARTERS STAFF 

Executive Director 

Louis T. Cerny, 2000 L St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036 

Manager — Headquarters 

JuDi Meyerhoeffer, 2000 L St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036 

Director of Engineering 

W. Arthur Grotz, Jr., 2000 L St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036 

Published by the American Railway Engineering Association, March, May and October 

at 

2000 L St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036 

Second class postage at Washington, D.C. and at additional mailing offices 

Subscription $45 per annum 

Copyright © 1983 

AMERICAN RAILWAY ENGINEERING ASSOCIATION 

All rights reserved 

(ISSN 0003—0694) 

POSTMASTER: Send address changes to; AREA Bulletin, 2000 L Street, N.W., Washington, DC. 20036 

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in an information or data retrieval system, or transmitted, in any 

form, or by any means — electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise — without the prior written permission 

of the publisher. 



American Railway 
Engineering Association 

Bulletin 693 

OCTOBER 1983 

Proceedings Volume 84 (1983) 



CONTENTS 

New Rail Line Through the Rockies (Cover Feature) 319 

Concrete Ties on Mexican Railways 323 

The Introduction of British Rail's Stoneblowing Technique as an 

Alternative to Tamping 329 

Crosslevel Safety Performance Index 347 

Maintenance Effects on Ballast Physical State 367 

AAR Releases Report on Empirical Rail Wear Models 389 

Published as Information by Committees 

Ties and Wood Preservation (3) 393 

Track (5) 400 

Buildings (6) 403 

Yards and Terminals (14) 417 

Systems Engineering (32) 429 

Memoir 453 

Auditors' Report 455 

Index to Proceedings, Volume 84, 1983 459 



Cover Photo: New Tumbler Ridge line of British Columbia Railway under construction 
August 1983. The view shown is looking eastward as the track climbs the Wolverine 
River valley. 



Published by the 

American Railway Engineering Association 

2000 L St., N.W. 

Washington, D.C. 20036 



the LOGICAL choice 



***^-f9K ^ 



For toffsty 
life, dependability and strlA^h are tli^ 
featards that count. For these reasons, 
^^tesMies are the laical Choice. 



^:-?^^-- 



-n 



ikflive steel ties a considermile advan- 
tage over wood and concrete. The 
unbeatable quaMties of steel are here 
today! 




SiiT?Ui 


WM 




KC 




^* ^;^»M; V 



CALL (609) 424-1718 



TRAKLOK 



OMARK INDUSTRIES O 



OMARK TRAK-LOK " RAILWAY FASTENERS 
2091 Springdale Rd., Cherry Hill, N.J. 08003 



tH&J^^ ^^ 



Omark steel ties will do a better job tban ihy 

other railroad tie— and steel ties will save you 

miDney. The facts are in: 

» Steel ties maintain excellent track geometry, 

provide greater resiliency and are morje 

resistant to buckling , ^ ^ 

" No special handling or laying equi^mentis 

needed 

Less tamping and overall maintenance is 
required 

Even after 40 years of service, steel ties have 

salvage value. .<2^ 

i Omark steel ties make sense! That's why they 

e the logical choice. |- 



I would like to see samples and literature of the new 
Omark Trak-Lok" Railway Fastening System variations. 

NAME 



TITLE 



COMPANY 
ADDRESS. 



-ZIP 



TELEPHONE ( 





New Rail Line Through The Rockies 

The British Columbia Railway (BCR) is nearing completion of a new 80-mile line, called the 
Tumbler Ridge branch, to serve a new coalfield from which unit trains will operate to the existing 
BCR mainline near Anzac, then via Prince George and the Canadian National B.C. North line to 
the Pacific port of Prince Rupert. 

The new line is remarkable in two major aspects: 

First, the line is through rugged, mountainous territory and includes two major tunnels SVi and 
3-V4 miles long, making it the most dramatic North American railway civil engineering line 
construction achievement in 22 years (since the completion of the Chihuahua Pacific over the 
Sierra Madres in Mexico in 1961). It can justifiably take its place among the great railway 
mountain crossings on the continent. 

Secondly, the branch will be electrified, the first new electrification of a common-carrier 
freight operation in North America in over 4 decades. It will also be the first North American 
common-carrier use of 50,000 volt A.C. current. 

The photo above is looking westward up the grade to the S-Mi mile Wolverine Tunnel. Below 
is a sketched map of the line. It is expected that the line will open prior to the December 1 , 1983 
target date set when construction began back in August 1981. 



oe^ll 




OUINETTE 
MINE 



Sketch of British Columbia Railway Tumbler Ridge Branch (not to scale). 



319 



/ 



Looking west along grade prior to track laying just east of east portal of Table Tunnel. 





The two tunnels are the heart of the 
project, and the hole-throughs were not 
achieved without water problems, 
since this is a moist, forested area. The 
top of two photos at left shows the west 
portal of the Wolverine tunnel, with a 
large pipe carrying water from the 
pumps inside the tunnel. The bottom 
photo shows the skeleton track before 
ballasting looking towards the end of 
the line beyond the Murray River 
bridge. 



The bridge work involved no ex- 
traordinarily spectacular structures, but 
substantial bridges were required over the 
Parsnip. Table, Wolverine, and Murray 
rivers. 

Supports for the 50,000 volt A.C. elec- 
trification were erected by driving H-piles 
with a pile driver, cutting these to proper 
elevation, welding a plate with bolt holes 
on to these, then bolting on the uprights 
using shims to obtain proper plumb. 





Above: Final work in progress on Murray 
River Bridge. 



Left: Pile driver drives steel H-piles as supports 
for catenary poles. 



Right: Catenary 
erection progresses 
several miles east of 
the east portal of the 
Table Tunnel. 




The new spring anchor from Tirue Temper. 

It hates to walk. 



Over 12,000 lbs. 
holding power 



Channel shape 
cross-section design ' 



50% more 
tie-bearing area 



r ^^jfc^^ 



True Temper 
announces the first 
new spring anclior design 
in over a decade. 

The new patented Trueloc spring 
anchor features an exclusive channel 
shape cross-section design that resists 
"walking" while it has up to 50% moretie- 
bearingareathanotherspring anchors. 
More tie-bearing area means more hold- 
ing powercan betransmittedtotheties 
with less damage. 

New Trueloc spring anchors are 
made of channel shape, C-1080M steel 
which provides more uniform heat treat- 
ing for bettertempering and assurance 
of consistently high quality. And with over 
1 2,000 lbs. of holding power, they keep 



on holding even after numerous 
re-applications. 

Because Trueloc spring anchors 
weigh about apound-and-a-half each, 
they're less expensive to manufacture, 
easierto handle and cost less to ship. That 
means it costs you less to buy and use 
them. 

Getthe spring anchorthat hatesto 
walk. Trueloc from True Temper For more 
information, write or call TrueTemper 
Railway Appliances, Inc., Suite 1500, 
20800 Center Ridge Road, Cleveland, 
OH 44116. Telephone: 216/331-4656. 

TruMTmmpEr^ 

An Allegheny International Company 



Concrete Ties On Mexican Railways 

G. Rodriguez* 

Mr. President, A.R.E.A. members, and guests: 

Thank you for the opportunity to discuss concrete tie problems with you today. 

Forty years ago, the Mexican Railways were only using steam locomotives on standard 
wood-tie track. 

In the 1940's, we started to use the diesel locomotive, and in the 1960's the fleet was 
completed, at the same time as a very ambitious rehabilitation program considering the 
reconstruction of the track, building shops, terminals, etc. was being undertaken. 

With respect to the track, lightrail was removed and 100 and 1 15 lb/yard rail sections on 
wood ties installed. Sometimes it was impossible to obtain on time in the market the quantity of 
wood ties required, to solve this problem we decided to use concrete ties as a substitute for wood 
ties. Today we have installed approximately four million in the System with long welded rail 
between stations covering approximately 20% of the main line. Of course this was not very easy 
because at first we studied the different kinds in use and access to materials made totally in 
Mexico. 

We studied in laboratories and designed accordingly with the Research Institute of the 
National University of Mexico a prestressed concrete tie which was tested satisfactorily to fulfill 
the conditions of tests; later came the design of the fastenings and then we stopped because the 
time required for studies and tests was in excess, and we needed the renewal of the very old track 
in bad order with too many slow orders. 

Then we selected two types of concrete ties taking into account characteristics such as: 
strength, weight, acceptance to use different fastenings, manufacture facilities, and simplicity in 
design. Later we saw working "in situ" in different countries and compared the speed, axle load 
of locomotives and rolling stock, kind of fastenings; the selection was made: a two blocks RS and 
monolitic DW models. 

The Engineering Research Institute immediately programmed a fatigue test of the French 
model with application of dynamic load of 500 cycles per minute, which considered four times 
rail life as concrete tie life, in the laboratory using a steel frame and container box with ballast, 
crushed limestone, 1/2" to 1-3/4" size, was tested using the French design concrete tie with 40 
metric tons suffering an application of 32 million cycles. Only two of four bolts failed. The first at 
1 2 million and the second finishing the test. The fracture was about fatigue in the thread and head. 

The DW, B-58 German design, monolitic model was tested too, with more than 16 million 
cycles without failure. 

Then, to be definitely sure, a test "in situ" was projected and executed by the Research 
Institute of Engineering under our direction, on the selected main line was Mexico to Cd. Ju^ez. 
A branch line near Mexico City, was also selected with heavy traffic estimated at 20 million gross 
tons. 

Previously the laboratory instrumented ten pieces with 3 strain gages in the upper face and 3 
in the lower face. All the strain gages were calibrated to dynamic load in the frame with the 
pulsators and in the universal machine to static load for control of information that was checked 
after finishing the test. 

To get an idea of the pressure effects of rolling loads a hydraulic cell was designed with 
strain gages, in the railseat; the conclusions were as follows: 



' Chief Engineer, Ferrocarriles Nacionaies de Mexico 



323 



GENSTAR COSTAIN 

Prestressed Concrete Railroad Ties 

OF NORTH AMERICA 

COSTAIN CONCRETE 

OF THE UNITED KINGDOM 

Have participated in the Supply of Prestressed Concrete Ties To 

CP Rail Calgary LRT 

Chessie System New South Wales Railways, Australia 

FRA Fast Track Australian National Railways 

Norfolk & Western Ry. Co. Iranian State Railways 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Ry. Co. Spanish National Railways 

Southern Pacific Transportation Co. Hong Kong Government 

Union Pacific Railroad London Transport, U.K. 

Toronto Transit Commission 

And Are Supplying 

3.0 Million Ties to ON Rail 

500,000 Per Year to British Rail, To Whom Over 

14.0 IVIillion Ties Have Already Been Delivered 

For information call or write 





Prestressed Concrete Railroad Ties 

1000 Alberta Place 
1520—4 Street, S.W. 
Calgary, Alberta 
Phone (403) 264-1590 

U.K. Office Address Canadian Plant 

Constain Concrete Co. Ltd. 12707 - 170 Street 

Dolphin Square Edmonton 

London SWIV 3PR U.K. Alberta 

Phone 01 -834-31 72 Phone (403) 270-2025 



Address by G. Rodriguez 325 



1st. Each concrete tie takes 65% to 69% of the axle load, with separation of 24". 

2nd. The axle load was increased 0.%% per M.P.H. by impact after 50 Km./Hr. (31 MPH.) 

3rd. At 30 Km./Hr. (19 MPH) appeared heavy operational impacts caused by wheel 
defects, as bums, flats, unbalanced, etc. , equivalent to the impact at 120 Km./Hr. (75 
MPH) resulting as a non-recommendable critical speed for slow orders, or operation 
on heavy grades in mountain zones. 

4th. The load obtained to design or revise the stability of concrete tie was 21 .5 metric tons, 
per wheel 43 metric tons, (94,600 lb.) per axle applied on a concrete tie. 

5th. The specimens worked at bending limit conditions, considering 80,000 pounds per 
axle under heavy impacts, and 5 1 1 ,000 Kg/cm^ of elasticity modulus for a 28 days old 
concrete with rupture stress of 600 Kg/cm^; for the steel E = 2.1 million Kg/cm^. 

6th. The module for concrete was determined using dynamic "status" with ultrasonic 
attachment. 

7th. As the ballast depth was 8", we recommended 12". 

Up to date, we have installed nearly 4 million concrete ties on main line (250,000 a year 
average), and we take care in the manufacturing plant with our own inspectors to supervise all the 
following steps: 

1. - Selection of material. 

2. - Crushing operation. 

3. - Cribing at specific sizes, 1-1/2" as upper limit. 

4. - Stocking of dry aggregates, previously cleaned with water. 

5. - Transporting of mixed aggregates and water-cement. 

6. - Keeping molds clean. 

7. - Batching the concrete in the molds, 2 minutes. 

8. - Vibrations table with 11,000 vibrations per minute. 

9. - Removing steel molds. 

10. - Checking rail seats and RN fastening voids gages. 

11. - Forming concrete tie tongs. 

12. - Curing in steam room 8-9 hours. 

13. - Tonging concrete tie again. 

14. - Transporting crane to reinforce table, for each time. 

15. - Installing 2 reinforced steel bars 3/8" diameter bended in "U" shape 16,000 Kg/cm^ as last 

stresses, equivalent to 228, 5(X) lbs/in.^. 

16. - Driving 4 nuts in the bar ends. 

17. - Tightening nuts with torque controlled. 

18. - Recording the laboratory test, 600 Kg/cm^ at 28 days old. 

19. - Stocking in the yard. 

20. - Shipping abroad flat cars, 200-240 pieces each one. 

So important was the change-over to B-58 D.W. concrete ties, considered as a very 
important element for the modem track constmction, that we trained some well qualified 
engineers to supervise the manufacturer's process as clips, bolts and nuts, washers, rubber pads. 



326 Bulletin 693 — American Railway Engineering Association 



rubber cushions and especially take care of the rail mill, kind of ballast earth formation, bridges, 
culverts, tunnels and drainage. 

In the 1 967 AREA regional meeting held in Dallas, Tex. , we showed the RS concrete tie on 
the Chihuahua Pacific Ry. track construction. Today, the RS design has been modified like the 
SL model and installed by the Ministeries of Public Works and Communications and Transport- 
ation on the new line between Corondiro to Lizaro Cardenas in the Southwest part of the country in 
Michoacan State on the Pacific Ocean Coast, in service to move the steel production from this 
part to different routes. 

The steps for installing the D.W. concrete ties with a crane on a new formation are as 
follows: 

Leveling with automatic tamping. 

The double track ready. 

Distribution of D.W. concrete ties on one side of the way. 

Dismantle the old track. 

Preparing the master ties, keeping the gage to permit the machinery operation. 

Tie inserters working. 

Tightening the "T" bolts. 

Ballast discharged by the work train. 

Leveling with automatic tamping machine. 

Lining machine and levels, lines and tamps. 

Tandem with ballast regulator and compactor machine. 

The last machine compacts shoulders and boxes ballast, two ties each time. 

In consequence of the above steps, we have no buckling, sun kinks, line or levels disturbed 
due to temperature problems because we take care to work only if the ambient temperature is 15 
centigrade degrees as minimum to 35 as maximum, making the ballast discharge with the rail hot 
between 1 P.M. to 2 P.M. This manner also helps the ability of the track to resist movement for 
operational reasons; for instance, emergency brakes on the train going down in heavy grade or 
abuse of the dynamic brake. 

We recommended to work in tandem the machinery described as close as possible and in the 
working time there is no permission to run any train until the compactor machine finishes and the 
track even after that, without slow orders. This keeps in good service conditions for a long time. 

We used a sophisticated machinery set with 2 pieces of Secmafer equipment working in 
track rehabilitation. This equipment, rides on the new long welded rails which are positioned on 
the track shoulders (on wood blocks, made of second hand ties) spaced to give the special gage, 
and then takes up, with special movable frame, the old track in panels and loads them on flat cars. 
The equipment then places the concrete ties on the leveled roadbed to 24" spacing after which the 
new rails are shifted into position on the concrete ties. 

The Secmafer equipment is designed specially to be used in the reconstruction of the 
existing track, but it can also be used partially, and introduces a higher level of efficiency into our 
track rehabilitation, placing the ties at a perfect separation on a very good compacted and smooth 
bed. After that, it comes a similar tandem of: tamping, leveling, regulator with brush and 
compactor machines. 

In that moment, the track is free to the traffic without slow order. 

1. - We recommended the best ballast quality as granite, slag or basalt compacted by the 

machine described before. If the track is supported with the ballast in the soft state, it flows 
with the train traffic and the line and level are disturbed, and "sun kinks" or "buckling" will 
appear. 

2. - In order not to overioad the track, the tonnage per car was not increased. 






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328 Bulletin 693 — American Railway Engineering Association 

3. - Call attention to Mechanical Department to keep the wheel conicity and take care of brake 

shoe maintenance and replacement. 

4. - To the Operation Department, it should be recommended to indicate to their engineers not to 

use only the dynamic brake or emergency application to avoid rail slippage and elastic 
deformation of the track in front of the locomotive, producing a new longitudinal wave. 

About the rail, we suggested to consult the last 1980 RM & M of WA of an Annual 
Conference report. 

5. - The use of monoblock concrete tie as light as possible to have economical manufacture and 

handling. 

6. - Never move the track or any component if it is not possible to compact immediately to 

restore the initial conditions. 

Modem track, as we are considering, demands special attention with respect to welded 
joints or other defects on the rail running face, because they produce similar heavy impact as 
produced by the wheel surface in bad order and for that reason, the rail needs to be free of defects 
with as uniform hardness as possible and the steel wheel, free of defects also to avoid these 
impacts to protect the concrete ties from destruction or wave formation on the welded joint 
approaches. All the processes need to be carefully supervised. 

Thank you very much for your attention and patience. 



The Introduction of British Rail's 

Stoneblowing Technique as an 

Alternative to Tamping 



David M. Johnson* 



1.0 Introduction. 

This paper is intended to give a brief insight into the reasons why British Rail decided to 
develop a new method of track maintenance and how the process of stone blowing works. 

By American standards British Rail tracks carry relatively low tonnages of freight but a 
large number of passenger trains. Track standards are based on personal comfort levels which 
tend to require a smoother track top than that required for freight. This means that not only does 
British track have to be maintained more frequently than American track, but also, to prevent 
interference with timetabled passenger trains, it is desireable to reduce track occupancy to an 
absolute minimum. Any improvement to track maintenance methods must, therefore, either 
increase the operational speed of maintenance machines or increase the longevity of the track 
repair. 

It is difficult to forsee any great improvement in operational speed of tamping machines 
since current models can already surface substantial amounts of track in fairly short times. 

It was noticed that although the track quality after tamping was very good, this deteriorated 
very quickly under traffic. Tamping is also relatively unsuccessful in areas where the ballast is 
poor, for example wet spots and on short wavelength faults such as those which occur at joints. 

These observations prompted British Rail into developing a new method of maintenance 
which produced a more permanent repair. 

2.0 Measuring systems. 




' Senior Scientific Officer. British Railways Board 
Note: American units are used in the text of this paper Graphs and figures are. however, scaled in metric units. 

The following conversions can be used: 



1 MGT 
1 inch 
1 lb 



0.91 Million Gross Tonnes 
25.4 mm 
0.45 Kg 



329 








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Address by D.M. Johnson 



331 



The initial work included the designing and building of a measuring system that was 
capable of measuring the track accurately and speedily for the assessment of any maintenance 
process. The machine shown on the previous page measures the vertical profile of both rails 
under a 25 ton loaded axle. 

This vehicle has an optical target attached to the loaded axle, which is moved vertically 
relative to the track until it is aligned with the telescope. An electronic data collection system 
measures and records the distances between the target and the rails at every tie position and 
produces absolute track vertical profiles referenced to lineside monuments at frequent intervals. 

Such a system is preferable for maintenance machine assessment to measurements taken 
from geometry cars since the profiles produced are unfiltered. Because measurements are taken 
at every tie it is relatively easy to locate individual ties for assessment of settlements at those ties. 

The measurement vehicle shown is cabable of measuring about 300 ft per hour to an 
accuracy of approximately +/ — 0.004 inch. 

3.0 Assessment of tamping machines. 






The above graphs show typical results obtained when tamping machines were assessed. The 
loaded profiles are those measured by the vehicle shown in the previous photograph. 

The profiles shown are before maintenance, after maintenance and after 1 , 6 and 33 months. 

The maintenance performed consisted of a nominal 1 inch smoothing lift. It can be seen that 
the track was almost back to its original position after 6 months. 

The loading on this particular test track was around 7 MGT per year, so 6 months represents 
some 3.5 MGT of traffic. 

It can also be seen that the deterioration was most rapid under the first few axles. This effect 
has been found to be particularly pronounced at weld and joint positions. 



332 



Bulletin 693 — American Railway Engineering Association 



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LIFT NN 



This graph shows, by monitoring individual ties, how various lifts applied by the tamper 
have settled out after 0.5 MGT. Low lifts, associated typically with short wavelength faults, have 
completely dissappeared. High lifts, however, show only a moderate settlement. 

This does give some insight into the tamping mechanism. It would appear that at low lifts 
fresh stone cannot be squeezed under the tie, and the track structure is just "fluffed up" by the 
tamping tines. At higher lifts, where the lift applied is greater than the ballast size, it is possible to 
squeeze fresh stone under the tie. Whilst it is possible to put an overall lift on the track to 
minimize this effect, such a practice is expensive on ballast and can cause clearance problems. 




^ a 1 a 3 a a" 

LIFT GIVEN BY TAMPER - MM 



The above graph, after some 8 MGT of traffic, shows that there is now no residual lift 
remaining where the applied lift was smaller than the ballast size. High lifts show about 50% 
settlement of the applied lift. 



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334 



Bulletin 693 — American Railway Engineering Association 



This leads us to expect that tamping would be reasonably successful for long wavelength 
faults where high lifts are used but would be unlikely to permanently solve short wavelength 
problems such as those at rail joints. 

4.0 The stone blowing technique. 



(a) 



(b) 



(c) 



(d) 




(e) 



(f) 




The stone blowing technique is based on the old "measured shovel packing" or "trowelling" 
technique. Such techniques were relatively successful but had several drawbacks, notably that 
they were very labour intensive, slow and the added stone was small enough to percolate through 
the ballast structure. Consequently the stone blowing system is designed around machine 
operation using larger sized stone to minimize the drawbacks of the earlier methods. 

The level is restored by inserting fresh stone under the tie rather than rearranging the existing 
pre -consolidated ballast bed. 

The process shown in the previous photograph is as follows: 

The tie shown in (a) is lifted in (b) to create a gap between the tie and the ballast bed, purely 
to give a clear path for stone to be inserted. Unlike in tamping the lift is not applied to raise the 
track to the desired level, but is kept constant, at approximately 2 inches. This is large enough to 
allow stone to be placed under the tie but small enough to prevent crib ballast from falling in. 



Address by D. M. Johnson 



335 



In (c) the stone injection tubes are driven into the ballast in 4 positions, on either side of each 
rail. The tube is driven such that the bottom of the tube opening is 2 inches below the bottom of 
the tie or coincident with the level of the ballast bed. 

In (d) a measured quantity of stone, the amount proportional to the lift required by that tie, is 
dropped into a stream of high velocity compressed air. The relationship between stone quantity 
and lift will be discus.sed later. For ballast materials with a grading of between 0.5 - 2 inches, as is 
typical on British Rail, the stone injected will be around 0.75 inch, single size. This stone is small 
enough to flow through the system and large enough not to foul the ballast or percolate through 
the ballast structure. 



In (e) the tubes are removed, and in (f) the tie is dropped onto the newly inserted ballast 
layer. 

It should be reinforced that the applied lift is to create a path for the stone, rather than lifting 
the tie to the desired level, as in tamping. The required track level is obtained by injecting a 
pre-calculated amount of stone. 















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ADDED STONE - kg 



Examinations of stone blown track has shown that the stone injected spreads into an area 
approximately 18 inches by 9 inches under each rail seat position. There is, therefore, no danger 
of producing center-bound ties. 

After several years it has been found that there is no percolation of injected material through 
the ballast structure. 




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Address by D. M. Johnson 



337 




The above photograph shows an early, experimental, hand-held stone blowing system. The 
tube is driven into the ballast, down the side of the tie, by a lightweight pneumatic road breaker. It 
is shown here, in use, on typical British Railway track with concrete ties. The tube is driven so 
that there is a 2 inch gap between the bottom of the tube and the underside of the tie. It is relatively 
easy to assure this positioning with the constant depth of concrete ties, but care must be used 
when dealing with wooden ties where the depth is dependent on the state of wear. 

Air is provided for this injection tool by a standard, single tool compressor. 




This photograph shows the tube fully driven. At this point there is a clear path for the stone 
from the funnel to the underside of the tie. It can also be seen that the track has been lifted using 
pancake jacks, to create the gap under the tie. 



338 



Bulletin 693 — American Railway Engineering Association 



It will also be noted that there is a 2 inch gap in the tube above the tie. 



Xl 





As can be seen from this drawing, this is to prevent blockage of the complete tube, in the 
event of a stone blockage occurring under the tie. In this case stone will be ejected through this 
orifice rather than blocking back to the funnel, and, because of the open fronted nature of the 
tube, will cause the tube to clear itself when it is withdrawn. Further details of this system can be 
found in British patent documentation. 

Such a system was considered essential for mechanized operation, where a blockage could 
cause substantial delays in operation. 




In this photograph the stone is being injected beneath the tie. 



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340 



Bulletin 693 — American Railway Engineering Association 



PROFILES MEASURED BY THE CYCLC 



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KEY TO TIMES OF MEASUREMENT 



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The above graph shows measurements of the loaded profiles of track that has been stone 
blown. 

It can be seen that the track is still above the pre-maintenance level after 83 weeks, or 1 1 
MGT. 

It can also be seen that the track is initially high in the areas where treatment has been 
performed. This is a direct result of the injected stone consolidating under the first few trains. 

Although the effect completely disappears after the first week of traffic, the poor track 
quality inunediately after maintenance, although no worse than the pre-maintenance quality, was 
a cause for concern. Further work, as will be seen later, has now virtually eliminated this 
problem. 



V^EKS SMCE 
HMNTENANCE 
«0 150 




This graph is a better illustration of the track profiles. The high spots associated with dip 
maintenance can clearly be seen. The track is still of a better quality than before maintenance 
after 2.5 years, or 18 MGT. 



Address by D. M. Johnson 



341 




4 6 

Millions of Tons 



8 



10 



12 



This graph compares track qualities as produced by tamping and stone blowing after various 
gross tonnages. 

The track qualities are expressed as standard deviations where, as a guide, a standard 
deviation of 3 mm is considered fairly rough passenger track, and a standard deviation of 1 .25 
mm represents smooth, 125 mph track. 

As can be seen, tamping produces instant, good quality track, whereas, because of the 
consolidation effect discussed previously, stone blowing takes about 1 MGT to produce track of 
optimum quality. It is, however, of still significantly better quality than before maintenance. 

Track that has been stone blown takes about 3 times longer than track that has been tamped 
to return to its pre-maintenance quality. This is because, after the initial consolidation of the 
injected stone, there is no significant reconsolidation of the ballast bed, as in tamping, and 
settlement is associated purely with ballast degradation. 



5.0 The stone blowing vehicle. 



IMCHINE L J!Z __ , 




The above diagram shows a stone blowing vehicle designed around an obsolete tamping 
machine chassis. 




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Address by D. M. Johnson 



343 



The principal components are: 

A braking system to accurately position the blowing tubes in relation to the tie. This is more 
important than in tamping where the machine needs only to be positioned roughly over the tie. 
Sensors on the leading end, linked to a microprocessor, measure, and compensate for the effects 
of inaccurate tie spacing. 

A lifting system to raise the track to the level required to create the correct gap under the tie. 

An air compressor to provide sufficient air to power four tubes simultaneously. 

A stone handling and weighing system. 

The injection tubes which are similar to the hand held tubes shown earlier. 




This photograph shows the actual pre-prototype machine, built according to the previous 
diagram. 

Since construction the machine has been in constant use, and has confirmed the feasibility of 
the mechanized stone blowing process. 

This machine has been built for use in a design mode, where the track is pre-measured and 
an optimum track profile designed, however, it is possible to use the process in a one pass 
smoothing mode, as tamping machines currently do. 




In this photograph the stone handling system is shown in greater detail, particularly the 
stone hoppers, the conveyers and the tubes. The track lifting clamps can also be seen in the 
retracted position. 



344 



Bulletin 693 — American Railway Engineering Association 




This photograph shows a close up of the injection tubes, in the withdrawn position. They are 
attached to an arm which vibrates slightly, in the lateral plane, at the time the tubes are inserted 
into the ballast. This reduces the amount of force required to insert the tubes with a consequent 
reduction in the damage done to the ballast and the tubes. Measurement rollers which provide 
feedback as to the actual amount of lift applied to the tie being treated are also visible. 




With the track now raised, the injection tubes have now been inserted into the ballast. The 
gap in the front of the tube, above the tie, can be clearly seen. Flexible tubes that connect the 
stone feed between the injection tubes and the vehicle are now extended. 



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346 



Bulletin 693 — American Railway Engineering Association 




The above graph shows the latest results obtained from tests with the vehicle. The 
post-maintenance profile no longer exhibits the sharp gradients visible on earlier tests. After 1 
year, or 7 MGT the track is considerably better than before maintenance. It is also noticeable that 
the track quality immediately after maintenance represents an obvious improvement. 

Whilst the stone blowing technique, applied to a vehicle, represents a method of mech- 
anized maintenance which has been found to produce approximately a threefold increase in track 
durability over tamping, it should be pointed that there are several other ways that the technique 
can be applied to normal track maintenance. 

Using a hand held system, as described earlier in this paper, it is possible to repair track in 
the same manner as trowelling, but with much reduced manpower since it is not necessary to 
remove large quantities of ballast. 

Where track is on poor quality ballast it is possible to inject a layer of good quality stone into 
the important tie/ballast interface area, to reduce the effects of ballast failures, in areas where 
joints or welds are causing overloading of weak stone. 

6.0 References. 

Further background to this paper may be found from the following: - 

Pneumatic Stone Injection, A Means of Adjusting Track Level, J.M. Waters-Paper to Fourth 
International Rail Track and Sleeper Conference- Adelaide, 1981. 

Track-Bed Surfacing by Pneumatic Injection of Ballast Rail Engineering International, May- 
September, 1982. 

7.0 Acknowledgement. 

The author would like to thank the British Railways Board for permission to publish this 
paper. 



Crosslevel 
Safety Performance Index 

H. David Reed* 



BACKGROUND 

In April of 1979 at the 5th meeting of the AREA Ad-Hoc Committee on Performance 
Standards, researchers from the U.S. Department of Transportation's Transportation 
Systems Center (TSC) first introduced the idea of using the relative differences in 
crosslevel (left rail vs. right rail) and measuring the effect of this difference over a 
<»00 foot segment of track as the basis for isolating track that would induce harmonic 
rock-n-roll. This was suggested in preference to limits based on single crosslevel 
values which would not identify periodic , repeated crosslevel deviations . The analyses 
of FRA accident data had also identified the following: 

o Excessive crosslevel variations were the largest attributed accident cause 
for speeds above 10 mph (20%); 

o 95% of all reported crosslevel derailments were reported to have occurred 
at speeds above IOmp>h on class I, 2, 3 and 4 (bolted rail) and 65% of these 
were between 10 and 25 mph. (It was also noted that the second highest 
derailment cause reported in this speed range was side bearing failure.); 

o '♦8% of the crosslevel-caused derailments were associated with cars having 
35-'*5 foot truck center spacing; 

o 81% of the crosslevel derailments were associated with cars having, center 
of gravity (C.G.) heights over 70 inches; 

o Cars with C.G. heights above 90 inches had derailed twice as frequently 
(due to crosslevel) as the entire fleet average. 

Efforts were then focused on the high C.G. car and on developing an understanding of 
what combinations/conditions of crosslevel would be the most severe and how they 
could be characterized and measured. 

It is important to emphasize that this approach concentrated on the relative 
difference in crosslevel, not an absolute measure of left and right profile. Further, 
only closely spaced differences in elevation between the rails that excite the 
"harmonic response" of the car would be measured. Elevations encountered in spirals 
and curves, while representing an absolute difference, would occur over extended 
lengths and would not contribute to conditions of concern for harmonic crosslevel 
excitation . Thus, the method selected to measure crosslevel, would "overlook" 
intended long wave length changes in crosslevel (spirals) and intended constant 
differences in elevation (curves), and look only at those wavelengths that excite car 
body rocking. Typically, these would occur in the length of a 39 foot section of rail. 
Analyses had confirmed that single deviations (within reason) were not of concern, and 
that a critical speed was also required to induce harmonic rocking. A detailed 
simulation model was then developed to provide a tool for completing additional 
evaluations. 

APPROACH 

Field test data were also analyzed using FRA track geometry tapes as well as 
conducting specific field tests and tests at the Transportation Test Center to enhance 
the fidelity of the simulation model and to verify results. Subsequently, TSC 
introduced the results of the simulations which showed those conditions in crosslevel 
that were actually causing wheel lift and excessive roll angles. The roll angles were 
shown to build up in a harmonic fashion, and do so at a particular speed. This was 



* Chief. Track Safety Division, Transportation Systems Center 

347 




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349 



likened to the effect of out-of-balance automobile tires that might exhibit extreme 
vibrations at 50 mph, but not at speeds below or above this "critical single" speed. The 
data showed for the 100 Ton Hopper Car, that while a single 1 \/V deviation in 
crosslevel could be safely traveled without the harmonic response being encountered, 3 
paired low joints of this magnitude or 3 crosslevel deviations at 39 foot 1/2 stagger 
would finally excite an excessive harmonic response. In a similar sense, it would 
require i* paired deviations of 1 inch; and 6 paired deviations of 3/'t inch to create the 
same response while an infinite number of cycles could theoretically be sustained at or 
below 5/8 of an inch. These combinations, shown in Figure 1, by the circle (o) data 
points, represented a family of limiting conditions that could be related to speed and 
undesirable harmonics. 



2.5 J- 

UJ 

i 2.0 



1.5 



: 1.0 - 



0.5 



ACCEPTABLE 
ROLL ANGLE & 
WHEEL LIFT AT 
CRITICAL SPEED 




012345678 
NUMBER OF OCCURRENCES OF ALTERNATING (PAIRS) 
CROSSLEVEL DEVIATIONS AT 39 FOOT "1/2 STAGGER" 

FIG. 1. 100 Ton Hopper Car Response to Repeated Crosslevel Inputs 



As can be discerned from this figure, single value limits up to two inches would be 
unnecessarily restrictive, as the car response would be tolerable, and would not, 
according to these studies, result in wheel lift or excessive car body rock, regardless of 
speed. 

Conversely, however, repetitive one inch deviations (as determined under load) would 
permit situations to exist that test results had shown to be of extreme concern if 
encountered at the critical speed . 

The means of measuring deviations as they occur under live loads (equivalent to those 
induced by the loaded hopper) was then investigated. The heaviest available geometry 
cars, often utilizing 3 axle trucks and weighing only 60-85 tons, would give a maximum 
per wheel load of 5-7 tons vs. up to 20 tons per-wheel for a loaded hopper. Work 
completed by TSC at the Transportation Test Center, and in other field tests had 
confirmed that the vertical force need to maximize vertical rail deflection (bottom 
out) can vary significantly from tie to tie. It was decided to develop a means for 
measuring crosslevel directly off the axle of the hopper or a locomotive (GP-9 yields 
16 1/2 tons/wheel; GP '♦O = 15 tons/wheel) by mounting a rate gyro directly to the end 
cap of a locomotive axle. The design problems involved in this decision were not 
trivial but were solved. In parallel with this activity, a micro-computer based 
computation system was developed to convert the gyro information into a single index. 



350 



Bulletin 693 — American Railway Engineering Association 



This index was required to yield an output that: 

1. reflected the response of the loaded 100 Ton Hopper car in the sense of its 
critical roil angle and wheel lift; 

2. accounted for multiple occurrences of relative cross level deviations; 

3. would be insensitive to designated changes in elevations in spirals and 
curves. 



When these efforts were completed, a portable harmonic crosslevel monitoring system 
was assembled and used throughout the United States to test the practicality of using 
this index in the field. 

DISCUSSION 

It is, of course, possible to conduct. a curve fit analysis to find a simplified means of 
approximating the simulation results. If this is done, a formula for the curve shown 
previously in Figure 1 can be developed which is related to the square of the crosslevel 
deviations. Rock-n-roll harmonics result from an energy input being transmitted from 
the track to the vehicle. The input will be made up of both plus and minus values 
which, if simply averaged, would usually result in a mean or average value of zero. 
For example, a "saw tooth input" which represents an alternating pair of low joints is 
illustrated in Figure 2 below. 




DISTANCE (FEET) 
FIG. 2. Saw Tooth Input 



The calculation of the average value, or mean , of crosslevel, as measured at every 
eighth length of rail, would be zero as calculated by: 



* Ul) > (■.-2) t- M) -.• (0) ^- (-1) -h (-2) I- (-1) ^- = = 
9 9 



However, there is an "energy input" that is not oeing accounted for in this formulation. 
If, instead, the crosslevel measure were squared, added and then divided by the 
number of measurements taken, the result would be the (square) ROOT (of the) MEAN 
(of the) SQUARED (value), or RMS. 



¥ 



RMS = \ / q2 + (^1)2 ^ (.,2)2 > (^1)2 ^ (o)2 ^ (.1)2 ^ (,2)2 ^ (,i)2 ^ q2 = 1.15 



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352 



Bulletin 693 — American Railway Engineering Association 



This formulation was selected as a practical means of implementation as well as 
representing a best "fit" to the simulation results. Thus, it was determined that: 



RMS crosslevel 



RMS 



numtjer of measurements 
each 'fOO foot track segmt 




etc. 

taken in 
segment 



OR: 



400 



[X]^ dx 



where: each X is a vaJue ol mejisured crosslevel and wherein the WO foot 
measurement interval would envelop 10 rail lengths over which the harmonics could 
build up. 



ACCOUNTING FOR DESIGNATED ELEVATIONS IN SPIRALS AND CURVES 

Prior to computing a final index however, an -expression is added which takes into 
account elevations in spirals and curves. By calculating the algebraic average of the 
50 feet preceding and following each crosslevel measurement, a value for the average 
slope of the crosslevel over 100 feet can then be estimated. This value is then 
subtracted (REMOVED) from the crosslevel measurement taken in the middle oi that 
100 foot "window". 

Illustrated in Figure 3 is a 100 foot "spiral", rising in elevation steadily from to *♦ 
inches. 




50 

DISTANCE (FEET) 
FIG. 3. 100 Foot Spiral 

In any given distance, the average height - or algebraic mean (expressed as X), is 
calculated by: taking measurements at the beginning of the measurement interval, 
through its entirety, then adding each value and dividing by the number of 
measurements taken. Thus, referring to Figure 3, if 2 measurements (at and 30) are 
taken in the first 50 feet, the average is 1 inch: 



0+2=1 inch 
— 2~ 



For 2 measurements in 100 feet, the average is 2 inches; 
O" -t- 4" = 2 inches 



Address by H. D. Reed 



353 



For 3 measurements in 100 feet, the average is still 2 inches; 

0" + 2" + A" - 2 Inches 

3 

and for 5 measurements in the 100 foot section, the average is still: 
+ l" + 2" + 3" * I*" = 2 inches 



For this spiral then, if a series of crosslevel deviations were experienced over the 100 
foot spiral, they would then be superimposed as illustrated in Figui-e <*. 




20 



40 60 30 

DISTANCE (FEET) 



100 



FIG. 4. Crosslevel Deviations Superimposed on Spiral 

Each crosslevel measurement, Xj , X2 ,X3 ,Xn ,x^, will have included in it, a value 
above the zero point (ground level) , which is assumed to be the intended or designated 
amount of elevation of the spiral that must be subtracted to get the relative crosslevel 
deviation. Thus, before calculating the RMS, it must have ... THE 100 FOOT MEAN 
REMOVED 

In the simplified form, this is stated as: 



¥ 



RMS index =\ / The sum of; (each crosslevel value minus the local mean elevation) ^ 
number of measurements in 400 feet 



The definition of the crosslevel index then becomes: 



CROSSLEVEL LNDEX = CLI 




Z (Xjj-X)^ 



Where: Xnj is the crosslevel value just measured; 

y*is the MEAN crosslevel (intended local elevation); 
N is the number of measurements taken in 400 feet. 



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355 



In its written form, the index as defined in the track safety performance specification 
reads: 

"Where the crossievel index is defined as: the Root Mean Squared (RMS) 
deviation in loaded crossievel, with the 100 foot mean removed, taken over 
ifOO feet. 

This crossievel index (CLl) can be computed using crossievel data from any acceptable 
crossievel measuring system, and is used as an indicator to identify those WO foot (10- 
rail length) sections of track that can be expected to produce harmonic rock-n-roll. 
TSC lab and field tests have confirmed that a crossievel index value of 0.3 inches (on a 
scale from to 1) represents a limiting value sufficient to indicate potentially severe 
conditions. 

EXAMPLE ; 

The following numerical example, showing how these calculations are completed, has 
been simplified for ease of "manual" calculation. It can be seen from these cases how 
difficult, if not impossible, it is to calculate, by hand, the index at intervals of every 
3.125 feet which is what the Harmonic Crossievel Index Monitoring System does. 

As can be seen in the example, increasing the length of the measurement interval, that 
is, taking fewer and fewer measurements to "simplify" the calculations, the higher the 
error will be in attempting to "fit" the simulation results which have indicated a CLI 
of 0.3 inches as a representative threshold. Also included, in the following pages, is a 
derivation of a simplified form of the equation to demonstrate how the calculations 
can be reduced for multiple occurrences of identical crossievel errors, as they occur 
on alternating rails at 1/2 stagger locations. 



THE CALCULATION OF "100 FOOT MEAN, REMOVED" 

The simplified steps to determine the mean of X of a ramp as shown below consists of 
taking (in this case) 5 measurements of elevation (centered at the current crossievel 
measurement point) and dividing by 5. 

This is expressed by: 



For a simple ramp or "spiral" 
4 ^ 




25 50 75 

DISTANCE (FEET) 
_l I L 



2 3 4 

NUMBER OF MEASUREMENTS 



X = Q 1- 1 ■>• 2 f 3 >» = 2 inches 
5 



356 



Bulletin 693 — American Railway Engineering Association 



For a smooth spiral preceded by tangent track, followed by a curve: 

FIG. 6. 



5 ' 
5 2 






J L 



MEASUREMENT POINTS 



7i = Q-.-Qf042>» = 6/5 = 1.2" 



X2 = 0*0 ^2*1* * It = 10/5 = 2" 
5 

X3 = Q-^2■^^-^^»^^■^ = l't/5 = 2.8" 
5 

which then "levels" out at 'f inches superelevation in the main body of the curve. 

Xf^ = 18/5 = 3.6 inches 

45 = 20/5 = if.O inches 
X6 = 20/5 = i^.Q inches 
etc. 



NUMERICAL EXAMPLE OF CROSSLEVEL INDEX CALCULATIONS 

Shown in the following figure is a 100 foot section of "perfect" tangent track, followed 
by a 100 foot "perfect spiral" rising to 1 inch, followed by a 100 foot curve holding a 1 
inch superelevation. The spiral out of this curve is followed by a "crosslevel" condition 
which, for the sake of this example, appears as ramps and plateaus. All of this is then 
assumed to be followed by an infinitely long stretch of "perfect" tangent track. 

For this example, measurements are initiated at the O position and the steps that 
follow (below the figure) show how the sequence of measurements are taken and the 
calculations completed: 

step one: Calculate the 100 foot MEAN 

step two: Subtract or remove this MEAN from the individual crosslevel 

measurement 

step three: Square the resultant (MEAN REMOVED) value of crosslevel 

step four: Sum all such values in a WO foot interval 

step five: Divide this sum (from step four) by the number of calculations 

in 400 feet 

step six: Take the square root of the above yielding the ROOT of the 

MEAN value of crosslevel, SQUARED. 

step seven: Increment all measurements by one and repeat the above steps. 

The calculations are completed (shown in the table) for each additional data point, and 
when the continuous tangent section is reached, the RMS or CLI "damps out" to zero. 



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358 



Bulletin 693 — American Railway Engineering Association 




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359 



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^ S< C R ff Ix p Ix C |« Ix IX |x l>< |x 



362 Bulletin 693 — American Railway Engineering Association 



A DERIVATION OF A SIMPLIFIED FORM OF THE CLI EQUATION 



Consider the case of perfectly smooth, tangent track with a single crosslevel error of 
2 inches at the end of the 1st 100 feet of track 



DISTANCE 



\ 



100' 200' 300' 400' 
J I I L. 



^1 h h\ ^pMAX 
J 1—1 A,J 



V 




12 3 "32 64 96 128 

NUMBER OF MEASUREMENTS 
Recall the general expression for the RMS calculation: 



CLI - BMS 



Then, for the figure above where Xpmax = 2 inches and occurs only once, on one rail 
(at the 100 foot measurement point //32), the value of crosslevel at the first 
measurement point, Xj is equal to zero. Recall that the mean elevation, (as computed 
over a distance of 50 feet ahead of an X point and 50 feet after an X point) will first 
be "removed" (subtracted) before squaring the Xj value and "storing it" for addition to 
the remaining data points that must be accumulated over ^fOO feet (a total of 128 data 
points) before an index can be computed. For Xi there will be a mean value of zero to 
be subtracted which is calculated as shown below: 

^1 " p^l - 50' "^ ^1 - 46.9' "^ ^1-43.75 ... "^ ^1 + 3.125'--- ^1 + 50') [ 
L (100 - 3.125) J 

(Measurement interval of 3,125 feet selected as equivalent to the Harmonic Crosslevel 
System measurement interval) 

Note that all terms within the parentheses will be zero including the value of Xj itself, 
which, when it is encountered or measured, is at the midpoint of the calculations of 

the MEAN. 

Thus, for the first calculation of the term (X-X)2, we will get and this will be 
followed by 16 more calculations of zero until such time as the Xpmax is measured. 
This Xpmax first appears in the solution for the MEAN at the Xpmax-50 ft ?o\nX and 
will be in each of the next 31 successive measuring intervals untifthe 100 foot moving 
window of measurements no longer includes Xpmax- This means that there will be 31 
calculations of (X-X)2 where X^ is zero and X is 2/32. 



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364 Bulletin 693 — American Railway Engineering Association 

Thus, tiie first value of the terms to be summed will be: 

31 (0 - (-2/32))2 = 0.121 

And in between, there will be one calculation where X[si = Xpmax = 2 inches 
,2 



(1) |(2) - (-2/32)] = 3.759 



All the remaining terms in the WO foot interval will be zero such that the sum of 
values for the RMS becomes: 



r^ jo + 0.12] 



RMS = CLI =\/0 + 0.121 + 3.75'^ + = 0.17't 



2S 



In a generalized form, this can be written as: 



'^ 



CLI T\/ (32-A) (X/32)2 >A (X - X/32) 2 
12S 



Where: A is the number of successive equal deviations and 
X is the value of that deviation. 
This becomes: 

CLI^ - (32 - A) (X/32)^ + A (X-X/32)^ OR 



CLI^ - X^/32 - AX^/1024 + AX^ (1-1/32)^ 



128 

L024 
128 



As an approximation -AX^ will be negligible as will x2 and 



(1 - 1/32)2, will be close to one, such that we can write: 



CLI = x2/32 - AX2/102» > AX^ (1) or 
128 



AX2 = 128 CLl2 



Address by H. D. Reed 365 



Solving for CLI, we have the simplified form, for equal and repetitive values of low 
joints on a single rail equivalent to: 



CLI - (X)'Va 
11.31 



Solving for a single value of crosslevel (X): 
X = 11.31 (CLI) 

If the low joints were staggered, as would be expected, then we would have alternating 
"signs" of this repetitive low joint situation meaning that an identical 
analysis/derivation for the opposite rail would have to be added to our calculations. 
The derivation for this condition results in the final form being double that above or: 

CLI - (X) V B 
11.31 

Where B is now the number of "paired low joints". 

Thus, when the CLI equals 0.3 and, 

B= then X= 

1 (pair) 1.7 inches 

2 (pair) 1.2 inches 

3 (pair) 0.9X inches 
<f (pair) 0.85 inches 

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Maintenance Effects on Ballast Physical State 

Harry E. Stewart,' 

Ernest T. Selig^ 

and 

Donald R. McMahon^ 



Introduction 

The repetitive loading and unloading of track structures from the passage of train traffic 
causes changes in the physical state or condition of the ballast material. In addition, permanent 
track settlements develop. With continuing traffic, these deformations accumulate until the track 
has deteriorated to a state at which it can no longer f)erform at a desired service level. Then 
maintenance is necessary. A maintenance cycle generally consists of surfacing the track by 
raising it and tamping the ballast under the ties to re-establish the necessary profile. This 
maintenance operation also alters the physical state of the ballast. When traffic resumes after 
maintenance, the deformation process and changes in ballast physical state begin again. 

Four revenue service track locations and the experimental FAST track in Pueblo, Colorado 
were selected as test areas for evaluation of the changes in ballast physical state that result from 
track maintenance and traffic. The revenue service sites included three locations that contained 
concrete cross ties and a control section having wood cross ties. These were located in Leeds near 
Streator, Illinois, near Aberdeen, Maryland, and near Lorraine, Virginia. 

The wood tie test section at Leeds, Illinois is owned by the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe 
(ATSF) Railway. The ballast in this section is slag, and the ties are hardwood at 19.5 in. nominal 
center-to-center spacing. 

The Leeds concrete tie test section is contiguous to the wood tie section on the same track. 
This section contains granite ballast and ties spaced at 24 in. center-to-center. 

The Lorraine concrete tie test installation is owned by the Chessie System. The ballast is 
predominantly limestone and gneiss, and the ties are spaced at 25 in. center-to-center. 

The Aberdeen site is on AMTRAK's Boston to Washington "Northeast Corridor" main- 
line. The test section contains traprock ballast with concrete ties spaced at 24 in. center-to-center. 

At FAST, sections 3 and 22 were used. Section 3 had curved track with several types of 
granite ballast and wood ties. Section 22 was tangent track with both wood and concrete ties, and 
traprock ballast. The center-to-center tie spacings used at FAST were 19.5 in. and 24 in. for the 
wood and concrete ties, respectively. 

The field tests conducted at these revenue sites and FAST measured the insitu ballast density 
and stiffness, and the individual tie resistances to lateral loads. Their purpose was to assess the 
physical states of the ballast materials resulting from traffic prior to track maintenance (raising 
and tamping), and then determine the changes in the ballast properties that were caused by the 
track maintenance. 

Ballast Descriptions 

The most appropriate index tests for the specification of acceptable ballast materials are 
still being debated, although Gaskin and Raymond [1] have attempted to relate certain of the 
index properties to track performance. The most commonly used index tests were therefore 
f)erformed on the ballast materials recovered from beneath the ties at each of the revenue field 
sites (Table 1 ). The traprock in FAST section 22 (rebuilt) was the same as that in Table 1 for the 



' Assistant Professor of Civil Engineenng, University of South Carolina. 
' Professor. Department of Civil Engineering, University of Massachusetts. 
^ Geotechnical Engineer. Goldberg-Zoino Associates of New York. 

367 



368 Bulletin 693 — American Railway Engineering Association 



Aberdeen site. Index tests for the several granites in FAST section 22 were not available. 

The Leeds wood tie ballast was an industrial slag formed as a by-product of a furnace 
smelting operation. The ballast at the Leeds concrete tie section was a dull gray, medium-grained 
plagioclase gneiss. This material is commonly referred to as a granite ballast. 

The material found under the ties at Lorraine was basically a dark gray limestone. The crib 
material at Lorriane contained dark gray limestone and fine-grained gneisses. 

The Aberdeen under-tie material consisted of medium- to fine-grained gabbro. This 
material is commonly referred to as traprock. 

Sieve analyses showed that the crib materials at each site were coarser than the materials 
under the ties, due to either particle crushing under the high contact stresses or more thorough 
fouling of the under-tie materials. The FAST section 22 ballast was nominally the same material 
type and gradation as the Aberdeen ballast. Stockpile material used in FAST section 22 was 
similar to the Aberdeen crib material, both being classified as AREA 24 material. The crib 
materials at all other sites, and the under-tie materials at the Leeds concrete and Aberdeen sites, 
were classified as AREA 4. The under-tie materials at the Leeds wood tie section and the 
Lorraine site did not fall within any standard AREA classification. 

A comparison of the gradation curves for the under-tie material in the revenue service sites 
in Fig. 1 shows that the Leeds wood tie section ballast was much finer than the other ballasts. The 
Lorraine under-tie material was basically similar to the Leeds concrete and Aberdeen material for 
the coarser particles, say greater than y4-in., but contained more particles less than the y4-in. 
size. 

Physical State Tests 

In order to characterize the physical state or structure of the ballast at field test sites, a series 
of special field tests was performed before and after maintenance. The ballast density test (BDT) 
and the plate load test (PLT) were performed in the crib and under the tie near the rail seat. 
However, ballast density test results for FAST sections 3 and 22 were not available. The lateral 
tie push test (LTPT) was performed on selected individual ties. 

One month prior to the site visit, a track surfacing operation was performed at the Leeds 
concrete tie section. Thus, the pre-maintenance test series measurements could not be obtained 
for this site. The extent of track disturbance and height of raise given to the Leeds concrete tie 
track section in this unscheduled maintenance is unknown. 

Ballast Density Tests 

The ballast density test determines the in-situ density of the ballast materials. This test, 
described by Selig, et. al. [9] and Yoo, et al. [11], uses a water replacement technique to 
determine the volume of a membrane-lined, hand-excavated hole in the ballast. The volume of 
the hole along with the weight and moisture content of the excavated material is used to calculate 
the in-situ dry density, y^f. The field density measurements are used along with a laboratory 
reference density test to determine the relative compaction state in the field. 

The reference density test is done by compacting the ballast in a 12-in.-high by 
12-in. -diameter steel container, using a rubber-tipped impact-type compaction hammer. The 
maximum density that can be achieved using the reference density apparatus is referred to as the 
ultimate reference dry density, 7ui,. The ratio of the field density to the ultimate reference density is 
the relative compaction, R^, expressed in percent. The smooth steel walls of the reference density 
mold result in systematically lower ultimate reference densities than the field densities, although 
the actual densities may be similar. Relative compaction is more useful for comparing changes in 
ballast density at different sites than the actual density values, because it tends to compensate for 
differences in gradation and particle specific gravity. 

The results from the ballast field density tests under the ties at the rail seats and the 



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370 Bulletin 693 — American Railway Engineering Association 



laboratory ultimate reference density tests on samples from these locations are shown in Fig. 2. 
For reasons previously explained, the lab ultimate reference densities were all lower than the 
field measurements. The pre- and post-maintenance densities for the Aberdeen site were very 
close. The amount of track raise at Aberdeen was only 0. 1 in. , which results in less disturbance to 
the material under the tie than a large raise. The relative compaction of the ballast under the tie at 
Aberdeen was therefore not affected by the maintenance operation. In contrast to this, the 
Lorraine site exhibited the largest difference between pre- and post-maintenance densities and 
relative compaction under the ties. The Lorraine site also had the largest raise, about 2 in. , which 
would significantly disturb the ballast structure. A large change in relative compaction was also 
observed for the Leeds wood tie section, which was raised about 1.5 in. 

The pre- and post-maintenance densities and lab ultimate densities for the crib locations are 
shown in Fig. 3. The crib densities and relative compactions, both pre- and post-maintenance, 
were lower than the under-tie values for all of the field sites. The ultimate lab reference densities 
for the crib ballasts were also lower than the ultimate reference densities for the under-tie 
material. This may be due to differences in the crib and under-tie gradations, because the crib 
materials were consistently coarser and less fouled than the under-tie materials. 

The changes in relative compaction of the crib ballasts as a result of maintenance are also 
shown in Fig. 3. The largest change in crib relative compaction due to the maintenance operation 
occurred at Aberdeen. Even though the lift height was small for the Aberdeen site, the crib area 
would be disturbed by the insertion of the tamping tools, independent of the amount of raise. 
Little change in crib density occurred at Lorraine. The Lorraine site contained crib ballast which 
was very fouled. Thus it would not be expected to densify as much as the clean crib ballasts as a 
result of traffic vibrations. This may be the reason that the relative compaction change in the cribs 
due to maintenance at Lorraine was negligible. The ballast in the cribs at the Leeds wood tie 
section was also quite fouled and showed changes in relative compaction about half as large as the 
changes measured at Aberdeen. 

The standard deviations and 95% confidence intervals for the mean responses were also 
calculated. The 95% confidence intervals are shown as vertical lines on Figs. 2 and 3. The 
variability of the density measurements was largest for the tests done at the Aberdeen site. The 
reason is that the Aberdeen site generally contained the largest ballast particles, especially in the 
cribs. 

Plate Load Tests 

The plate load tests were conducted in the cribs and under the ties near the rail seats. 
Descriptions of the plate load test procedure and apparatus have been given by Panuccio, et al. 
[5,6]. The test consists of imposing a vertical load on a 5-in. -diameter steel plate which is seated 
on the ballast using gypsum gauging plaster. The plate contact pressure per unit deflection is the 
ballast bearing index, B^. This is a measure of vertical ballast stiffness. The Bj, values are 
calculated as follows: 



Bk = , (1) 

where P = applied vertical load, 

A = plate area, and 
8 = vertical deformation. 

A deformation level of 0. 1 in. was chosen as the reference, although relative comparisons could 
be made at any deformation value. 

The ballast bearing indices under the ties at the rail seats are shown in Fig. 4, along with the 
95% confidence intervals, for the revenue sites and FAST. The pre-maintenance values at 



Paper by H. E. Stewart, E. T. Selig and D.R. McMahon 371 



Lxjrraine were the highest, possibly because of the high degree of fouling. The largest decrease in 
plate bearing index was also at the Lorraine site. This site had the largest raise, about 2 in. , which 
would significantly disturb the ballast structure, particularly when the ballast is fouled. This was 
consistent with the observation that the Lx)rraine site also showed the largest decrease in relative 
compaction at the under-tie location. The Aberdeen site showed the smallest change in plate 
bearing index at the under-tie location as a result of the small raise, only 0.1 in. This again is 
consistent with the change in relative compaction at the Aberdeen site. 

The post-maintenance values of the under-tie plate bearing index were very similar for all of 
the sites (Fig. 4), with the exception of Aberdeen. The maintenance raises for the Leeds and 
Lorraine sites were on the order of 1 .5 to 2 in. The raises at FAST were also about 2 in. For all of 
the sites where significant trackbed disturbance under the ties resulted from raising and tamping, 
the plate load tests showed no significant change in ballast stiffness with ballast type. 

The plate bearing index measurements in the crib locations near the rail seats are shown in 
Fig. 5. The FAST wood tie section 22 showed the highest pre-maintenance plate bearing index in 
the crib. This value was approximately equal to that measured in the same section under the tie. 
The remainder of the test sites had pre-maintenance B^ values that were similar, all of which were 
lower than the B^ values measured under the tie for corresponding locations at these same sites. 
The reason, of course, is that traffic produces greater compaction under the tie than in the crib. 
The post-maintenance B^ values in the crib for all of the FAST and revenue sections were 
approximately equal, and generally much lower than the pre-maintenance values. In addition, 
the post-maintenance crib values were only slightly less than the post-maintenance under-tie 
measurements, except at Aberdeen where little ballast disturbance occurred under the tie. These 
results suggest that traffic compacts the crib ballast as well as the ballast under the tie, probably as 
a result of vibration. 

Lateral Tie Push Tests 

The lateral tie push test measures the resistance of a single tie to lateral displacement under 
unloaded track conditions. For the test, the rail fasteners are removed and then the tie pushed at 
one end after removing the shoulder ballast from that end. The resistance of the tie to lateral load 
is an indirect measure of the physical state and degree of compaction of the ballast. A variation on 
the single tie push test involves the use of a track panel containing a number of ties . A compilation 
of past research and test results of lateral track resistance tests has been given by Selig, etal. [8]. 

The lateral tie push test results for FAST and the revenue test sites are shown in Fig. 6, along 
with the 95% confidence intervals for the mean results. The lateral displacement level at which 
the results were taken was 2 mm. 

The lateral tie resistance for the Aberdeen site again showed the smallest change due to 
maintenance. The Leeds concrete tie section post-maintenance results are unexpectedly high 
relative to the values for the FAST, Leeds wood, and Lorraine sections. Unfortunately, 
pre-maintenance values for the Leeds concrete tie section were not available for comparison. 
With the exceptions of the Aberdeen and the Leeds concrete tie results, the post-maintenance tie 
push resistances were all very similar. These low values resulted from several factors such as 1 ) 
loosening of the ballast during maintenance, which relieved the ballast pressure on the sides of 
the tie, and 2) reduction in crib ballast depth caused by the raise. The consequence of these factors 
is the reduction of the contribution to tie lateral restraint provided by the crib. Visual observations 
of the ballast in the cribs at the Lorraine site showed unusually depleted cribs after maintenance, 
with a ballast depth of only a few inches above the bottom of the tie. 

The lateral resistance of the single ties after maintenance where the raise was large, say 1 .5 
to 2 in. , were close to the values of 0.5 kips at 2-mm displacement reported by the Polish Institute 
of Railway Research [4] for wood tie track sections. 



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Paper by H. E. Stewart, E. T. Selig and D. R. McMahon 373 



Lateral resistance of a track panel containing 7 wood ties spaced at 25.5 in. were measured 
by Klugar [2]. Attempts were made by Klugar [3] to directly relate raise height to lateral track 
resistance. In that study, lift heights of 0, 2 and 4 cm were applied to a track, followed by various 
combinations of tamping and crib and shoulder compaction. Figure 7 shows the results of that 
investigation, which indicate decreased lateral track resistance as raise height is increased. This 
figure also shows the benefits of crib and shoulder compaction following surfacing. No attempt 
was made to correlate lift heights with single tie resistances from the field sites in this present 
study, since the precise values of the raises were not available. 

The large effect of maintenance on the lateral resistance is not directly indicative of the 
lateral track resistance under load for at least two reasons: 1 ) the ties do not move independently, 
and 2) the f)ercent of total lateral resistance provided by the crib is much less for loaded ties than 
for unloaded ties. 

Maintenance Effects on Track Settlement 

One purpose of track maintenance is to improve the overall track surface, meaning to 
smooth out the differential track settlements. A larger amount of raise must be applied beneath 
the lowest ties to achieve a uniform surface. These variations in the actual raises applied beneath 
individual ties causes local variations in the amount of ballast disturbance , hence variations in the 
ballast physical state from one tie to another. 

The disturbance to the track caused by reworking the ballast during maintenance results in 
less stable initial ballast conditions. As traffic begins to accumulate over freshly surfaced track, 
the ballast begins to settle into a more compact, stable supporting medium. These settlements are 
seldom uniform along the track, but rather tend to be larger at some locations than others. These 
differential settlements are in part due to the differences in the initial ballast physical states 
between various track locations. 

Along with the differential settlements that are caused by traffic, overall settlements 
develop for a number of other reasons. Stewart and Selig [10] have discussed several of the 
factors that contribute to ballast settlements such as cyclic loadings, vibrations, ballast de- 
gradation and ballast recompaction. All of these contributing factors depend upon the ballast 
physical state. Since the ballast is loosened by maintenance, it will be recompacted by traffic. 
This was clearly shown to occur from the pre- and post-maintenance ballast density 
measurements. 

The measured changes in ballast density caused by the maintenace operations can be 
interpreted in terms of comparable strains or volumetric reductions resulting from one- 
dimensional compression as follows; 



^d— /do ^ ^ 



(2) 



7do 7do 1 -Cv 

where 7d is the ballast dry density at any time, 

7do is the initial ballast dry density after maintenance, and 

€v is the vertical strain in the ballast, assuming that the densification 
occurs with no horizontal strain. 

The settlement is then equal to the product of ev and the layer thickness, h. 

Using the pre- and post-maintenance ballast densities, particularly under the ties, the 
expected track settlements due to ballast recompaction alone can be estimated using Eq. 2. The 
Leeds concrete site pre-maintenance values were not available, as previously explained. The 
Aberdeen under-tie tests showed negligible changes in ballast density due to the maintenance 
operations. Thus, only the Leeds wood section and Lorraine results for the under-tie tests will be 
used to estimate the settlements expected due to recompaction. The results are given in Table 2. 



374 Bulletin 693 — American Railway Engineering Association 



Since the track maintenance does not disturb the full ballast depth, the zone over which the 
recompaction occurs, h, is taken to be only about 6 to 8 in. below the tie. 

The estimated settlement associated with ballast recompaction is 0.5 to 0.8 in. for the two 
sites. The measured actual track settlement at the Leeds wood tie section after about 25 MGT 
following maintenance was 0.4 to 0.6 in., which is the same as that estimated from ballast 
recompaction. The measured track settlement at the Lorraine site after about 65 MGT following 
maintenance was 1 .3 in. , or about twice that from ballast recompaction. The rates at which the 
recompaction settlements would be expected to develop were not determined, since only the pre- 
and post- maintenance values were known. Further information regarding track measurements at 
the revenue sites and FAST has been reported by Stewart and Selig [10]. The above values of 
settlement due to recompaction of the ballasts are of the order of magnitude as the field settlement 
measurements. Even though ballast recompaction is only one of the many mechanisms leading to 
track settlement, it is clear that it may be a major factor. 

Summary 

The effects of maintenance operations were measured by performing ballast density tests, 
plate load tests and single lateral tie push tests, both before and after a scheduled track surfacing 
operation. The maintenance was shown to disturb the ballast and result in lower ballast density, 
reduced ballast vertical stiffness, and decreased lateral tie resistance. In addition, the ballast 
structure was disturbed both in the cribs and under the ties. 

The amount of disturbance was related to the amount of raise. However, there may be an 
amount of raise above which a further increase in disturbance will not occur. For trackbeds 
subjected to a significant raise, say 1.5 to 2 in., the physical states of the ballasts immediately 
after the raise were roughly equivalent. 

The evidence that the ballast is loosened due to maintenance, resulting in lower ballast 
densities after surfacing than before, has been previously reported by Selig [7]. The concept that 
tamping does not compact the ballast, but produces just the opposite result, is not universally 
acknowledged in the railroad industry. In addition, the disturbed ballast is one direct cause of the 
track settlements that begin anew after a surfacing operation. Much of the settlement of track that 
develops after maintenance results from ballast recompaction, or simply the return of the ballast 
to the physical state that existed prior to the raising and tamping. 

These ballast physical state measurements clearly demonstrate that the current practice of 
tamping to correct imperfections in the track surface actually assists the track profile degradation 
process, and insures a relatively short track maintenance life cycle. Tamping loosens the ballast 
structure to non-uniform depths, thus increasing the susceptibility of the track to differential 
settlements. A need exists to develop an economical, effective means to recompact the ballast 
after tamping as part of the track surfacing program. Creation of a dense, stable ballast structure 
before resuming normal traffic operations could extend the life of the surfacing program. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

This research was partially sponsored by the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal 
Railroad Administration, under the Improved Track Structures Program and Office of Rail 
Safety Research. This work was conducted through a University of Massachusetts subcontract 
from Battelle-Columbus Laboratories. Howard G. Moody from the Federal Railroad Admin- 
istration served as Program Manager, and Harold D. Harrison was the Project Engineer for 
Battelle-Columbus Laboratories. 

Participating in various phases of the field work from the University of Massachusetts were 
R.F. Bukoski, D.C. Ho, C.L. Kuo, M.C. McVay, and T.J. Siller, former Graduate Research 




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376 Bulletin 693 — American Railway Engineering Association 



Assistants. In addition, K.J. Stewart, Staff Assistant, participated in the organization and 
administration of the work. 

The cooperation of the Transportation Test Center at FAST and the Atchison, Topeka and 
Santa Fe Railway, AMTRAK, and the Chessie System in permitting the ballast tests on their 
tracks is acknowledged. 



REFERENCES 



1. Gaskin, P.N. and Raymond, G.P., "Contributions to Selection of Railroad Ballast," 

Journal of the Transportation Engineering Division, American Society of Civil Engi- 
neers, Vol. 102, No. TE5, May, 1976, pp. 377-394. 

2. Klugar, K., "Influence of Mechanical Retamping on the Lateral Displacement 

Resistance ofTrack,^' Eisenbahntechnische Rundschau, No. 6, June, 1972, pp. 244-247. 

3. Klugar, K., "Influence of Lifting the Track on the Lateral Displacement Resist- 

ance," Eisenbahntechnische Rundschau, No. 11, November, 1972, pp. 446-449. 

4. "Methodology for Quantification and Means of Improvement of Track Structure 

Condition with a Particular Interest to Hetrogeneity," Polish People's Republic — 
Ministry of Transport, Institute of Railway Research, Warsaw, 1978. 

5. Panuccio, CM., Dorwart, B.C. and Selig, E.T., "Apparatus and Procedures for Railroad 

Ballast Plate Index Test," Geotechnical Testing Journal, American Society for Testing 
and Materials, Vol. 1, No. 4, December, 1978, pp. 223-227. 

6. Panuccio, CM., Wayne, R.C and Selig, E.T., "Investigation of a Plate Index Test 

for Railroad Ballast," Geotechnical Testing Journal, ASTM, Vol. 1, No. 4, December, 
1978, pp. 213-222. 

7. Selig, E.T., "Maintenance and Traffic Effects on Ballast," Ballast Research, 

American Railway Engineering Association, Bulletin 678, Proceedings, Vol. 81, June- 
July, 1980, pp. 504-520. 

8. Selig, E.T., Yoo, T.S. and Panuccio, CM., "Mechanics of Ballast Compaction, 

Vol . 1 : Technical Review of Ballast Compaction and Related Topics , " U . S . Department 
of Transportation, Federal Railroad Administration, Office of Research and Develop- 
ment, Report No. FRA/ORD-81/16.1, Washington, D.C, March, 1982. 

9. Selig, E.T., Yoo, T.S. and Panuccio, CM., "Mechanics of Ballast Compaction, 

Vol. 2: Field Methods for Ballast Physical State Measurements," U.S. DOT, FRA, 
OR&D, Report No. FRA/ORD-81/16.2, Washington, D.C, March, 1982. 

10. Stewart, H.E. and Selig, E.T., "Predictions and Evaluations of Track Settlement," 

U.S. DOT, FRA, OR&D, Report No. FRA/ORD-82/44.2, Washington, D.C, Sep- 
tember, 1982. 

11. Yoo, T.S., Chen, H.M. and Selig, E.T., "Railroad Ballast Density Measurement," 

Geotechnical Testing Journal, ASTM, Vol. 1, No. 1, March, 1978, pp. 41-54. 



Paper by H. E. Stewart. E. T. Selig and D. R. McMahon 



377 



TABLE 1 . Summary of Ballast Index Test Results from Field Sites 



Test 


Streator 

Wood 
Under-Tie 


Streator 
Concrete 
Under-Tie 


Lorraine 
Concrete 
Under-Tie 


Aberdeen 
Concrete 
Under-Tie 


Specific Gravity Bulk 


2.34 


2.78 


2.70 


2.87 


Apparent 


2.50 


2.81 


2.68 


2.90 


Absorption (%) 


2.25 


0.36 


0.33 


0.32 


Los Angeles 
Abrasion {%) 


29.22 


39.94 


19.25 


17.79 


Magnesium Sulfate 
Soundness, 5 Cycles (%) 


0.37 


0.05 


0.73 


0.00 


Flakiness Index (%) 


9.00 


16.00 


11.00 


17.00 


Sphericity 


0.67 


0.63 


0.61 


0.62 


Roundness 


0.28 


0.25 


0.22 


0.26 


Scratch Hardness, 
(%) Soft by Weight 


NA 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 



TABLE 2. Track Settlement Caused by Ballast Compaction 



Site 

Leeds, wood 
Lorraine 



0.094 
0.115 



0.086 
0.103 



h 


€v-h 


(in.) 


(in.) 


6 — 8 


0.52 — 0.69 


6 — 8 


0.62 — 0.82 



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CONSULTING ENGINEERS 



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POWER OIM 
CURVES 




Designed for quick, economical manual that interacts with the high torsion 



installation on existing AREA tie 
plates, the Pandrol brand Hook-In 
Shoulder can be installed in hard 
wear sections...adds dramatic grip- 
ping power, prevents rail roll-over. 

A self-locking, permanent installation 
featuring a unique geometric design 



forces of the Pandrol Clip. 



<i 



•"^^^ INCORPORATED 

P.O. Box 44, 505 Sharptown Road 
Bridgeport, NJ 08014 (609) 467-3227 



Paper by H. E. Stewart, E. T. Selig and D. R. McMahon 



379 



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That's because L. B. Foster Company 
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In fact, L. B. Foster is the country's 
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and pressure treated crossties. 

Beyond all this, we provide 
industrial users with a track inspec- 
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with users to maintain installations, 
then provide the know-how and the 
inventory to keep the railroad in 
working shape. 

And if there's a need for replace- 
ment or repair parts, they're available 



erything. 



fast from any of Foster's coast-to- 
coast stocking locations. 

If you're an industrial rail user, 
there's a lot more you ought to know 
about L. B. Foster Write for the 
latest information about rail and rail 
products and our track inspection 
program. 

Then you'll see we do supply 
everything. 

Write or call: L. B. Foster Company, 
Foster Building, 415 Holiday Drive, 
Pittsburgh, PA 15220 
(412)928-3400. 



FOSTER 



L.B.FOSTER 
COMPANY 



382 



Bulletin 693 — American Railway Engineering Association 



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Rail Signaling Contiol 
Systems ftom GRS, 
the full-line supplier. 



From basic relays to state-of-the-art microprocessor tech- 
nology; GRS is the rail industry leader in transportation con- 
trol systems and equipment. Equipment that we not only 
manufacture, but often design from the ground up to assure 
maximum safety and performance on the job. 



Here are a few 

• Automatic train control systems • 

• Computerized cTc and NX • 
interlocking • 

• Computerized car classification 

• Rapid transit control systems • 

• Cab signals and speed control • 

• Coded track signal control • 

• Automatic train operation 



examples: 

Rail-highway crossing warning 

Automatic block signaling 

Microprocessor cTc and NX 

interlocking 

Automatic vehicle identification 

Electronic track circuits 

Hot journal detection 



For more information about these and other signaling products, 
see your GRS sales engineer or write for Bulletin 200. 






GENERAL RAIL\A/AY SIGNAL 

A UNIT OF GEISienAI. SIC3IMAL 

PO BOX BOO 
ROCHESTER NEW YORK 14692 



Paper by H. E. Stewart, E. T. Selig and D. R. McMahon 



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^Wheeling 
WPiUsbupgh 

STEEL CORPORATION 



388 



Bulletin 693 — American Railway Engineering Association 



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LATERAL RESISTANCE AT 
2 MM DISPLACEMENT 



-LIFTING, TAMPING, CRIB 
a SHOULDER COMPACTION 




50 



RESISTANCE AT 
TIE BOTTOM 



AMOUNT OF LIFT (CM) 



FIG. 7. Effects of Track Raise During Maintenance [Klugar (3)] 



AAR Releases Report (WP-104) on 
Empirical Rail Wear Models 



The following briefly highlights this AAR research paper by I. A. Reiner* and D.E. 
Staplin**. The whole paper is being considered for AREA publication next year. 

Rail wear and fatigue are the primary reasons for rail replacement, and the ability to predict 
rail wear is important for both economic and planning purposes. 

This Rail Wear Model is an empirical tool for predicting standard carbon rail head wear 
from tonnage and wheel loads. Variations in annual tonnage density, track gradient and curvature 
are also taken into consideration. It is a modified version of one that was previously calibrated in 
Europe and later refined by the Chessie System. 

Variables taken into account are: 

annual traffic density (MGT/yr.); 

curvature (degrees); 

grade (percent); 

static wheel load and/or P^, equivalent to a wheel load spectra; 

atmospheric corrosion. 



The model's predictions for the wear of standard carbon rail in main line track compare 
favorably with published data, where the loading patterns were known. The model's general 
form is also believed to be valid for other rail chemistries, but relatively little rail wear data is 
available for calibration. 

Model calculations can be made on either a pocket or programmable calculator. The use of a 
larger computer would be desirable, if traffic information were available on a site-specific basis. 

The following cautionary points were mentioned by one reviewer regarding the appli- 
cability of this information: 

1. The model should be used with care since it has been calibrated only for a limited range 
of rail type, speed and superelevation conditions, and has not been calibrated for changes 
in such factors as lubrication or rail chemistry. 

2. Modifications to the Couard-Gant Model to convert it from "European" to "North 
American" conditions are specific to the Chessie System and therefore there are many 
parts of North America where the model, as formulated, cannot be directly applied. 

3. The model is a general purpose tool for making estimates of average rail head loss due to 
wear and should be treated as such. The model has no provision for looking at other rail 
degradation mechanisms which contribute to rail replacement such as flow, corrugation 
or fatigue, and there is no ability to predict the differential effects on high and low rails 
and at different rail locations. Dynamic interaction of wheels and rails are essentially 
ignored — there is no consideration of the effects of wheel and rail profiles. 



■ General Supervisor System Planning, Chessie System 

■ Director-Reporting and Planning Seaboard System Railroad. 



389 



B. C. HAMMOCK 
CONSTRUCTION CO. 

RAILROAD CONTRACTORS 

SPECIALISTS FOR OVER 1 5 YEARS 

• New Track Construction 

• Repairing Old Tracks 

• General Maintenance 

• Site Preparation & Excavation 



P.O. Box 577 

Gray, GA 31 032 

Phone: (912) 743-0470 



A AR releases report WP- 104 391 



4. While curvature and traffic density effects in the model are based upon field obser- 
vations, the axle load effect is not. It is. rather, based upon a rule of thumb, supported by 
early laboratory tests of shelling. In CP Rail experience, this loading severity would only 
be experienced where wear is predominantly plastic-flow-reiated, as in the low rail of 
sharp curves. 

Dr. Reiner commented that the model accepts dynamic wheel loads and is now being 
calibrated for low rail wear in curves. 



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PUBLISHED AS INFORMATION 



COMMITTEE 3 — TIES AND WOOD PRESERVATION 

Report of Subcommittee No. 6 
"Evaluation of Nail Plates as an Anti-Splitting Device for Timber Ties" 

1.0 Introduction 

A nail plate is used as an anti-splitting device at the end faces of timber ties. It is stamped 
from 18-gauge galvanized sheet steel and peiforated to form multiple nails of varying lengths. 

This test was started in December, 1962 at the T. J. Moss Company's tie treatment plant in 
Granville, Wisconsin. A total of 90 Grade 4 and 5 unseasoned ties were selected for the test. Nail 
plates were applied to 48 of these ties; the remaining 42 were left "as is" for control purposes. 

On January 29, 1964, an inspection was made of this group of 90 ties after they had been 
seasoned. Each tie was carefully examined for checks and splits on both ends, and, in general, no 
splits were found. Only 16 of the 48 nail-plated ties had checks, ranging from 1/32 to 1/8 inch in 
width. Mostof the control ties, however, had 1/32 to 1/8 inch wide checks; three of these ties had 
splits of this same small magnitude. It was also noted that, in general, where checks had started in 
the nail-plated ties, they had progressed from the surface to the edge of the nail-plated area, but 
did not extend into it. 

All of these 90 test ties were numbered with brass tags and arranged in an alternating order, 
e.g., nail-plated tie, control tie, nail-plated tie, etc. 




FIG. 1. View Looking West Along the Milwaukee RoadN Eastbound Main Track at 
Spaulding, Illinois, Showing the Test Tie Installation Site. 



393 



394 



Bulletin 693 — American Railway Engineering Association 




FIG. 2. South End of Tie Number 70, Showing the Typical Restraining Action of a Nail 
Plate in Arresting the Growth of a Check and Potential Split. 



The nail plates that were used in this test measured 5-5/8 x 7-3/4 inches, and were made of 
18-gauge galvanized steel with 200 nails on one side. They were applied to the end faces of each 
tie by impacts from a maul. 

These test ties were then transported to Spaulding, Illinois, approximately 25 miles west of 
Chicago, and installed in the Milwaukee Road's eastbound main track (Figure 1) during April 
and May of 1964. The rails at this location are 132 lb. RE and the track has gravel ballast. The ties 
were inserted in numerical order, with Number 1 at the west end and Number 90 at the east end of 
the test section. 

2.0 Conduct Of The Field Inspections 

Six inspections were made of these test ties at two and five year intervals, and one ten-year 
interval, over the 17 years of in-track service since 1964, noting the progress of the width of 
checks and splits at both ends of each tie. The team at each inspection usually consisted of 
Milwaukee Road Engineering and Track Department representatives, a manufacturer's or track 
supply company's representative and an AAR representative. The first inspection was made at 
the time of installation, and subsequent inspections were made in late 1964, 1966, 1971 and the 
last in 1981 . From the widths of the checks and splits recorded at each inspection, it could be 
readily seen how most of the checks and splits in the control ties progressed or increased in width, 
whereas in the nail-plated ties they generally remained at their original width or increased only 
slightly. 

3.0 Sixth Inspection Results 

The results from the measurements of test tie check and split widths during the sixth 
inspection in July, 1981 were used to evaluate the relative in-service performances of the 
nail-plated and control ties during the 17 year test period. Figures 2 through 5 illustrate typical tie 
conditions at the time of the sixth inspection and Figure 6 summarizes the results. 

As shown in Figure 6, 25% of the nail-plated ties had no checks or splits; 58.5% had only 1/8 
inch checks; 11 .5% had 1/4 inch checks and 5% had 3/8 inch checks. None of the nail-plated ties 
had splits. 

In contrast, only 7% of the control ties had no checks or splits; 44.5% had 1/8 inch checks 



Engineering and Experience 
Help Keep Abex No. 1 
in Specialty 
Trackwork 




Abex is the leader in supplying special trackwork 
to railroads, mines, and industry. Engineering and 
experience are important reasons why 

Abex engineering includes unmatched research 
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and a continuing program of improvement. Our ex- 
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experience in design and manufacturing. 

Together with coast-to-coast manufacturing 
facilities, this experience and engineering enables 
Abex to offer your industry's most comprehensive 
line of specialty trackwork: Frogs, switches, and 
crossings, as well as trackwork for paved areas, 
automatic switch stands, switch points and guards. 
Abex offers rail lubncators, tie pads, spike drivers, 
car retarders, and more. 

Ask your Abex representative for help in meeting 
your trackwork needs. 




A 



)CX 



CORPORATION 



Railroad Products Group valley road mahwah n j 07430 



?^^ 



396 



Bulletin 693 — American Railway Engineering Association 



(one with a split); 24% had 1/4 inch checks with one split; 12% had 3/8 inch checks; 1 1% had 1/2 
inch checks; 0.5% had 5/8 inch checks; 0.5% had 1 inch checks and 0.5% had 2- 1/4 inch checks, 
with one having a large split. 




FIG. 3. South End of Control Tie Number 7, Showing a Typical Split that was Only 1/16 
Inch Wide at the Time of Installation in 1964. 




FIG. 4. South Ends of Nail-Plated Tie Number 35 (Left), Control Tie Number 36 (Center), 
and Nail-Plated Tie Number 37 (Right), Showing a Split in the Control Tie and the 
Restraint to Splitting Caused by the Nail Plates. 



Published as Information 



397 




Continuous Welded Rail 



We will furnish everything for Cropping and Welding 
All we need is a level site and a pile of rail 



LEWIS RAIL SERVICE COMPANY 

44050 Russia Road Elyrla, OH 44035 
(216) 323-1277 



Published as Information 



399 



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400 Bulletin 693 — American Railway Engineering Association 



In summary, the results from the sixth inspection after 17 years of in-track service revealed 
the following: 

a. 14 control ties had checks enlarged to more than 1/4 inch; 

b. 27 control ties had checks enlarged to 1/4 inch or less; 

c. 3 control ties had splits that had enlarged, in one case from 1/8 inch to 2-1/4 inch; 

d. Of the nail-plated ties that had checks, none were larger than 3/8 inch; 

e. Of special interest was the fact that for all of the checks in the nail-plated ties, the check 
apjjeared to stop at the edge of the plate area and did not progress beyond. In the case of 
Tie No. 70 (Figure 2), the nail plates appears to have halted the progress of a potential split; 

f. In general, all of the nail plates had not rusted or deteriorated in 17 years, even though 
they had all been embedded in dirt and ballast throughout the test period. 

g. All of the ties, both nail-plated and control, appeared to be in sound condition. None of 
the ties had failed or been removed by the time of this sixth inspection. 

4.0 Conclusions 

a. This field test has shown that the nail plate appears to be an effective timber tie 
anti-splitting device; 

b. Nail plates, when applied to new green ties (before seasoning and treating) held the 
subsequent checking and splitting to a minimum; 

c. The nail plates showed no significant deterioration after 17 years of in-track service. 



COMMITTEE 5 — TRACK 

Report of Subcommittee No. 8 

"Criteria for Track Geometry Design" 

W.B. Dwinnell (Chairman-Subcommittee), H.B. Christianson, D.E. Grouser, 
E.R. English, G.W. Martyn, W.B. O'Sullivan, B. Post, H. Storey, A.F. Ubaldi, W.J. 
Wanamaker, M.E. Wilson. 

(a) Study minimum tangent length required between reverse curves with spiral and superelevation. 

Work on this assignment was completed. A letter ballot has been submitted to the full 
Committee 5 membership and approved. Since the proposed revision has been approved, it is 
being forwarded for inclusion in a bulletin as this assignment is complete. 

(b) Review present manual superelevation data as it relates to operation of equipment with high 
centers of gravity. 

The Subcommittee has reviewed information on this subject and has decided to submit the 
following as information during its review of the subject. 

This is a republishing of a report by Subcommittee 8 that appeared in Volume 70. The 
republished text contains a new caution on wheel creep and deletes the six inch overbalance 
line. 

FREIGHT TRAINS 

The primary considerations in establishing the amount of elevation and permissible speed 




13 



JACKSON 

TAMPERS 

MODELS 

900 6500 
2400 6000 
2600 7000 

and Hand Tampers • Tie Inserters • Automatic Switch Tampers 

JORDAN 

DITCHERS 
SPREADERS SNOWPLOWS 

We sell, lease, rent, rebuild 

JACKSON JORDAN. INC. 



P.O. Box 95036, 1699 East Woodfield Road • Schaumburg, IL 60195 
(312) 843-3995 Cable JAKTAMP 



402 



Bulletin 693 — American Railway Engineering Association 



on curves for freight trains are to avoid derailments and to minimize wear on the track 
components. It is desirable to have the resultant force from the freight car come as close as 
practical to the center line of track. Generally, traffic of various tonnages and types of service do 
not permit this ideal condition to be realized. Accordingly, the establishment of permissible 
speed and the extent to which the resultant force may be permitted to fall outside the center line of 
track is a matter of engineering judgement and experience. 

The position at which the resultant will intersect the plane of the top of rail with respect to the 
track center line depends upon: ( 1 ) the play between the wheel gage and track gage, and between 
the various component parts of the car, (2) the height above the top of rail of the center of gravity 
of the car ,( 3 ) the tilting of the car on its springs as related to the unbalanced elevation , and (4) the 
dynamic roll or oscillation of the car body on its springs due to normal track irregularities in line 
and surface. 

Calculations have been made based on extensive tests with freight cars having center-of- 
gravity heights of 71, 85 and 99 in. with 3-11/16 in. travel springs and conventional snubbing. 
The maximum position at which the resultant would be expected to vary from the center line of 
the track for different amounts of unbalance and heights of center of gravity of car are shown in 
Fig. 1 for speeds both above and below equilibrium speed, not considering excessive roll action 
that may be induced at critical speed by a succession of staggered low joints. The data shown in 
this figure will be helpful in establishing the elevation for curves and maximum permissible 
speeds for the operation of freight trains. 




Caution: 



NOTE, Denotes Extrapolation No Experimental Data Available 

Fig. I - Calculated position of resultant force in inches from center line of track. 



A curve's outer rail is longer than its inner rail. Wheel tread conicity rarely 
matches this difference; one wheel tread of an axle creeps. A three-piece freight car truck 
parallelograms, increasing the lead wheel's angle of attack. The inner wheel tread may 
creep forward and it always creeps inward — tending to spread the rails. Increasing 
friction at the wheeltread — railtop contact increases the creep force. As spreading forces 
increase, the outer wheel overclimbs the rail or the inner wheel drops in. At speeds under 15 
mph on curves over 3° with dry rail and elevation over 4 inches, the derailing forces may 
become critical for a high center of gravity car. 



Published as Information 403 



COMMITTEE 6 — BUILDINGS 

Report of Subcommittee No. 3 
"Design Criteria for Locomotive Load Test Facilities' 



FOREWORD 



1.1 Under the authority of the Moise Control Act of 1972, the 
Environmental Protection Agency has adopted standards for 
noise emissions from sites identified as "Locomotive Load 
Cell Test Stands." 

Because "Locomotive Load Cell Test Stands" as defined in the 
regulations may include auxiliary equipment such as forced 
air cooled electrical resistor load banks, noise emissions 
from the locomotive under test and from the test equipment in 
combination could exceed the standard established by regula- 
tion. The control of these emissions is the subject of this 
report. 

1.2. Total enclosure of the locomotive or locomotives under 
test seems an obvious solution to the problem of controlling 
noise emissions. This solution presents many difficult prob- 
lems to the designer, some of wnich may not oe soluble at an 
acceptable level of capital investment. 

1.3. Load test facilities generally may be required wherever 
major engine overhauls are done. 

1.4. When diesel-electr ic locomotive engines are overhauled, 
the rebuilt engines are operated under load both for "break- 
in" and -o verify power output. The diesel engine is 
generally operated at a test stand with instrumentation re- 
quired by the Mechanical Department for varying periods of 
time at various throttle settings. Because the electrical 
energy produced cannot- be used in the traction motors, it is 
usually shunted to electrical resistor load banks. These 
load banks convert the electrical energy into heat which is 
then dissipated into the atmosphere by forced air ventila- 
tion. These load banks may be located remotely. With appro- 
priately equipped locomotives, this power can be shunted to 
the brake grids at the top of the engine hood. In this case, 
all energy is converted to heat at the locomotive. 

1.5. Noise levels produced during testing may adversely 
affect adjacent properties. >Joise control is required by 
federal regulation and may be further imposed by local ordi- 
nance. All locomotives manufactured after December 31, 1976, 
are required to comply with EPA noise regulations cased on 
sound pressure levels measured at 100 foot distance from the 
source. When bacxground noise levels are low, however, noise 
reduction systems meeting these standards may not 
sufficiently reduce noise interference with nearby activi- 
ties . 

1.6. It should be further understood that it is possible to 
conform to existing EPA noise emission standards and still 
receive complaint?; from adjacent property owners. That laws 



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Published as Information 405 



are not being violated may not reduce the effect of negative 
publicity. Successful attempts to pass local ordinances 
could seriously inhibit the operation of the railroad shop. 
In cases where measures discussed in this report are taken, 
and neighboring dissatisfaction continues, greater public 
relations activity and if necessary rescheduling of testing 
are two alternatives which may reduce conflict short of 
eliminatng this activity at the facility. 

This report is not intended to be a recommendation that load 
test noise control construction be undertaken. It is intended 
to be a guide to the problems which must be solved if such 
construction is proposed. The designer must investigate the 
noise suppression requirements at his particular location and 
evaluate the various methods available to him in order to 
achieve satisfactory and economical results. 

LOCATION 

2.1. When a particular location is being evaluated for the 
establishment of a load testing facility, the possibility of 
unacceptable noise impact should be considered. Careful 
analysis of the construction and location alternatives is 
vital both to the success of the proposed facility and to the 
avoidance of adverse effect on the local environment. 

2.2. Because received sound pressure levels decrease as a 
function of the distance from the source, the primary method 
of reducing the impact of noise emissions from any noise 
producing activity is to locate that activity away from noise 
sensitive locations. In addition, the use of natural bar- 
riers or existing buildings which can shield these operations 
from receiving property lines will further contribute to 
noise reduction. 

2.3. Locomotive load test facilities should be separated 
from particular buildings to minimize noise impact upon em- 
ployees not involved in the testing program. In selecting a 
location within a railroad maintenance facility, however, 
consideration must also be given to travel distance from 
employee facilities, repair shops which support corrective 
work discovered during testing, and supervisory offices. 

2.4. Site circulation and movement of locomotives may have a 
bearing upon the location of this facility. Capital commit- 
ment considerations are likely to suggest that isolation of 
the test facility from property lines will be the most cost 
effective measure even if switching operations are less effi- 
cient as a result. 

2.5. Load test positions may be arranged singly, or in 
multiple bays. They may be adjacent to each other on 
parallel trackage or in tandem on through track. In any 

multiple arrangement, each position should be an independent 
unit with all necessary services so that engine load testing 
can be conducted independently at adjacent positions. The 
necessarily enclosed office and control room spaces should be 
located to serve more than one position. 

CRITERIA FOR BARRIER CONSTRUCTION 

3.1. If a testing location providing adequate noise attenua- 



406 Bulletin 693 — American Railway Engineering Association 



tion (reduction) through distance or due to natural barriers 
is unavailable or where local conditions dictate additional 
noise control measures, barrier walls may be erected adjacent 
to the test position. Alternatively, a load test compartment 
to house both locomotive and test equipment may be construc- 
ted. For reasons which follow, the use of barrier walls 
should be carefully analyzed before considering the construc- 
tion of an enclosed test compartment. 

3.2. Sound attenuation due to distance alone is calculable 
within a reasonable tolerance using the following formula: 

Lr= Ls - 20 log {.3048r ) - 8 dB(A) 

Where Lr = Sound power level at listeners location in dB (A) 

Ls = Sound power level at source 

r = Distance from listener to source in feet 

The effect of this formula is that for each doubling of 
distance from the source there is a 6 dB attenuation in the 
level of sound. For each 10 fold increase in distance there 
is a 20 dB attenuation. This means that if L^i is 70 dB(A) 
at 100 foot distance, Lr2 will be about 64 dB (A) at 200 feet 
and 50 dB(A) at 1,000 feet. Because of local conditions at 
the site under consideration the designer should not simply 
subtract the attenuation due to distance from the sound level 
at the locomotive (which will likely be on the order of 100 
dB (A) or a little more) and assume that the actual result 
will be the one anticipated. If reasonable latitude (say 
plus or minus 10 dB(A) between predicted and required atte- 
nuation is allowed, however, this formula should be usable. 

3.3. In cases, where the attenuation due to distance is 
insufficient and the test facility cannot be moved further 
from the receiving property line, a barrier may be erected 
between the test location and the property line. Such a 
barrier need only weigh 4 pounds per square foot in order to 
provide 5 dB attenuation in addition to that due to distance 
alone. Such a barrier must not allow line of sight between 
the test locomotive or locomotives and the critical observer. 
In addition, height above the locomotive is also useful. 
There is a marked increase in calculated effectiveness bet- 
ween a 22 foot and a 24 foot high barrier erected within 12 
feet of the locomotive at listening distances beyond 50 feet. 

3.4. Because predictability of results is vital to any 
construction commitment, it is recommended that expert 
professional acoustical advice be sought for the detail de- 
sign of such a barrier. Where such detail design is used, 
barrier attenuation may reach 10 dB or more. 

CRITERIA FOR LOAD TEST ENCLOSURE CONSTRUCTION 

The following paragraphs describe the design parameters which 
must be addressed if an enclosure is to be properly construc- 
ted. A load test compartment should be at least 90 feet long 
by 24 feet wide and 24 feet high both to accommodate the 
locomotive and to provide sufficient access and ventilation 
space. 




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KOPPERS 

Architectural and 
Construction Materials 



408 Bulletin 693 — American Railway Engineering Association 



4.1 Acoustical Considerations 

4.1.1. The required acoustical performance of walls, 
partitions, and roof structures for a complete enclosure 
will vary with the degree of noise level reduction that 
local conditions dictate. When building walls have 
sealed surface pores, the sound transmission loss is 
related to the density (mass) of the wall. When the 
pores are sealed, the wall tends to transmit sound by 
acting as a diaphragm reducing the levels of sound 
passing through it. Because of this, a heavier wall 
tends to reduce the transmission of sound more than a 
light wall. Obviously, any openings such as windows or 
ventilating ports can seriously affect the sound reduc- 
tion capacity of a wall. Where wall openings are re- 
quired for ventilation, they should be baffled with 
additional wall construction. Attention given to sound 
absorbtive surfaces within these baffled spaces may 
further reduce noise emissions from the facility. 

4.1.2 It should be carefully noted that assumptions 
made regarding the sound attenuating properties of va- 
rious materials may not be proven out when construction 
is completed. Noise generated by stationary locomotives 
under load does not conform to the characteristics of 
noise for which most standards relative to construction 
materials are addressed. Specifically, ASTM E413-73 
"Determination of Sound Transmission Class", 
specifically excludes "...Exterior walls for buildings, 
for which noise problems are most likely to involve 
motor vehicles or aircraft." 

This does not mean that a material with a particular 
sound transmission class will not reduce noise. It is 
suggested that an investigation be made of the specific 
materials under consideration involving careful analysis 
by acoustical experts. 

4.1.3. It is highly likely that even though STC Classi- 
fications do not accurately predict barrier noise reduc- 
tion performance for noise of this character, other 
factors will contribute more significantly to noise 
leakage. The largest contribution to reduced barrier 
effectiveness would be the necessary ventilation ope- 
nings. 

4.1.4 Although improving the sound absorption proper- 
ties of interior surfaces will reduce sound pressure 
levels near these surfaces, noise levels adjacent to the 
locomotive under test may not be significantly affected. 
This is because of the continuous nature and magnitude 
of the locomotive noise sources during testing. Fur- 
thermore, generally accepted sound absorbing surface 
treatments are difficult to maintain in a facility of 
this type due to the housekeeping problems associated 
with this service. In any case, the intensity of noise 
within the compartment will require that employees wear 
ear protection devices while tests are in progress. 

4.2 Ventilation Considerations 

4.2.1. The complete enclosure of a locomotive within a 



Published as Information 409 



load test compartment during operation at full test 
power for an extended period of time demands extensive 
measures for heat control and exhaust removal. Without 
complete segregation of supply and exhaust air removal 
flows, the higher horsepower diesel locomotives may shut 
down after even a short period of operation due to short 
circuiting of radiator and exhaust air. 

4.2.2 Radiated heat must be continuously removed in 
order to avoid a build-up that would adversely affect 
the testing. Locomotives are designed to reduce throt- 
tle whenever radiator water temperature exceeds 215 
degrees Fahrenheit. This may occur when cooling air 
temperatures exceed 120 degrees Fahrenheit. Ventilation 
system design must minimize the occurence of such tempe- 
ratures consistent with outside ambient air temperatures 
and proposed schedules of testing. 

4.2.3 The magnitude of this problem becomes much 
greater when heat from self loading diesel locomotives 
must be removed from the enclosure. This is because 
such locomotives are tested by shunting all of the 
electrical power to brake grids on top of the locomotive 
body rather than to remotely located load cells. 

4.2.4. In addition, an enclosed structure which lacks 
adequate forced ventilation may allow nonstandard opera- 
ting conditions for the locomotive under full load tes- 
ting and thus compromise some element of the test it- 
self. Such nonstandard conditions include improper 
combustion and cooling air quantities and higher than 
allowable exhaust system back pressure levels. 




4.2.6. The complexity of the ventilation system which 
would be required for a totally enclosed facility can be 
reduced if total enclosure is not mandatory. By dis- 
charging the engine exhaust and radiator cooling fan air 
directly to the atmosphere through openings in the roof, 
discharge-side mechanical equipment becomes unnecessary. 

5. LOAD BANK ENCLOSURE 

5.1. Many types of load banks are utilized in the railroad 
industry but the most commonly used are dynamic brake grids 
and fans salvaged from retired locomotives. These fans em- 
ploy propellers with high tip speeds producing high frequency 
noise. This noise generally is of similar magnitude to the 
noise of the locomotive testing itself. If such propellers 
are employed, consideration may be given to the selection of 
fans with irregular blade spacing. Properly done, this sig- 
nificantly reduces the generation of high frequency noise. 



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Published as Information 411 



Load banks should be located so that the heat they dissipate 
will not contaminate the ventilation air for the locomotive 
under test. 

5.2. If load testing is conducted on a continuous basis 
consideration can be given to converting the electrical ener- 
gy to hot water which may be used for building utility ser- 
vice. 

6. OFFICE AND CONTROL ROOM 

6.1. An office and control room should be provided for 
employees assigned to load testing so that they may observe 
the tests isolated from the noise generated by the testing. 
If a diagnostic testing system is used, the equipment for 
this testing may also be installed in this room. 

6.2. The location of the control room should permit person- 
nel to observe the testing through windows and to have ready 
access to the locomotives for adjustments and gauge 
monitoring. The office and control room may be either at 
track level or elevated with ready access to walkway plat- 
forms along each side of the locomotive. 

6.3. The office space should be sized for the required 

furniture and file space. An adjacent toilet and drinking 
fountain might be appropriate. The office area should be 
adjacent to but separate from the control room. 

6.4. Office and control room snould be ventilated with 
positive pressure to prevent incursion of engine exhaust 
fumes. Supply air sources should be located so as to avoid 
recirculating exhaust from either -he testing or adjacent 
locomotives . 

6.5. Walls, ceilings, windows and doors should be insulated 
for sound transmission reduction as well as heat gain or 
loss . 

7. SUMMARY 

7.1. In summary, the complexity, expense, and uncertainty of 
successful noise control varies greatly among the design 
alternatives available to a railroad considering the instal- 
lation of a locomotive load test facility. 

The more complete the enclosure of the locomotive under test, 
the more sophisticated and extensive must be the acoustical 
and ventilation system design. 

Consequently, the series in which design decisions should be 
made is as follows: 

a) Can the environmental (noise) concern be addressed accep- 
tably by location alone? 

b) If not, will the construction of a barrier solve the 
problem? 

c) If not, are the capital resources available and can the 
necessary acoustical and engineering work be done to assure a 
successful enclosed facility? 



412 



Bulletin 693 — American Railway Engineering Association 



REFERENCES: 



Beranek, Leo; "Noise and Vibration Control", McGraw-Hill, 
1971 

Harris, Cyril M ; "Handbook of Noise Control", Second Edi- 
tion, McGraw-Hill, 1979. 

Environmental Protection Agency; "Title 40-Pr otection of 
Environment; Subchapter G-Noise Abatement Programs; Part 201- 
Noise Emission Standards for Transportation Equipment; Inter- 
state Rail Carriers" as per 45 FR 1263, Jan. 4, 1980 effec- 
tive January 15, 1984. 



COMMITTEE 6 — BUILDINGS 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

OF 

PUBLISHED REPORTS AND PRESENTATIONS 

1965-1983 



— A — 

Architectural Design Competition 

Vol. 77, 1976, p 342-350 (D.A. Bessey) 
Published as information 

Architectural Design Competition 

Vol. 77, 1976, p 493-498 (D.A. Bessey) 
Presentation at Annual Conference 

Architectural Design Competition 

Vol. 78, 1977, p 373-381 (D.A. Bessey) 
Published as information 

Architectural Design Competition 

Vol. 82, 1981, p 456-459 (D.A. Bessey) 
Presentation at Annual Conference 

Automobile Handling Terminals, Facilities for 
Vol. 68, 1967, p 294-298 (O.C. Denz) 
Published as information 

— C — 

Caulkings, Joint, and Sealants, Evaluation of 
Vol. 84, 1983, p 116-123 
Published as information 

Ceiling Systems for Air Supply and Sound Control 
Vol. 69, 1968, p 286-287 (A.W. Charvat) 
Published as information 

Chairman's Report 

Vol. 66, 1965, p 187-188 (J.W. Hayes) 
Vol. 67, 1966, p 315-316 (J.W. Hayes) 
Vol. 68, 1967, p 293-294 (J.W. Hayes) 
Vol. 69, 1968, p 385-386 (W.C. Humphreys) 
Vol. 70, 1969, p 601-602 (W.C. Humphreys) 
Vol. 71, 1970, p 515-516 (W.C. Humphreys) 



Vol. 72, 
Vol. 73, 
Vol. 74, 
Vol. 75, 
Vol. 76, 
Vol. 77, 
Vol. 78, 
Vol. 79, 
Vol. 80, 
Vol. 81, 
Vol. 82, 
Vol. 83, 



1971, 
1972, 
1973, 
1974, 
1975, 
1976, 
1977, 
1978, 
1979, 
1980, 
1981, 
1982, 



p419- 
p493 
p275- 
p539- 
p299- 
p341 
p371- 
p281- 
p271- 
p227- 
p210- 
p278- 



420 (D.A. Bessey) 
494 (D.A. Bessey) 
276 (D.A. Bessey) 
540 (F.D. Day) 
300 (W.C. Sturm) 
(W.C. Sturm) 
372 (W.C. Sturm) 
282 (T.H. Seep) 
272 (E.P. Bohn) 
228 (E.P. Bohn) 
211 (T.H. Seep) 
279 (T.H. Seep) 



Computer Room Design 

Vol. 76, 1975, p 310-314 (R. Hale) 
Published as information 

Computer uses for Railway Building Design 
Vol. 69, 1968, p 894-895 (J. A. Penner) 
Presented at Annual Conference 

Computer uses for Railway Building Design 

Vol. 70, 1969, p 964-965 (J.A. Penner) 

Presented at Annual Conference 
Concrete, Prestressed, for Railway Buildings 

Vol. 66, 1963, p 202-210 (W.R. Hyma) 

Published as information 

Container-on-Flat Car Facilities, Design Criteria for 
Vol. 74, 1973, p 106-114 (G.J. Chamraz) 
Manual Recommendation, Part 5 

Conveyor Systems, in floor 

Vol. 75, 1974, p 540-546 (D.F. Logan) 
I*ublished as information 

Crew Housing, Portable 

Vol. 76, 1975, p 301-310 (J.A. Comeau) 
Published as information 



FROM MARMON TRANSMOTIVE 
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414 



Bulletin 693 — American Railway Engineering Association 



Critical Path Method for Architects and 
Engineers in the Railway Field 

Vol. 67, 1966, p 333-334 (l.G. Forbes) 
Published as information 

Critical Path Method for Railway Engineering 
Vol. 66, 1965, p 721-742 (F.J. Raskopf) 
Special feature at Annual Conference 

Curtain- Wall Construction for Railway Buildings 
Vol. 67, 1966, p 325-332 (R.J. Martens) 
I*ublished as information 



D 



Diesel Service and Repair Shops, Design Criteria for 
Vol. 75, 1974, p 209-231 (A.R. Gualtieri) 
Manual Recommendation, Part 4 

— E — 

Elevated Yard Office Buildings, Design Criteria for 
Vol. 77, 1976, p 172-180 (W.C. Humphreys) 
Manual Recommendation, Part 10 

— F — 

Fixed Obsolesence, Designing Railway Buildings for 
Vol. 68, 1967, p 298-301 (F.D. Day) 
Published as information 

Freight and Passenger Stations, Large 

Vol. 68, 1967, p 302-305 (D.A. Bessey) 
Published as information 

Freight Forwarding Facilities, Design Criteria for 
Vol. 81, 1980, p 94-110 (S.D. Amdt) 
Published as information 

Freight Forwarding Facilities 

Vol. 83, 1982, p 168-180 (S.D. Amdt) 
Manual Recommendation, Part 13 

— H — 

Heating, Infra- Red 

Vol. 66, 1965, p 222-223 (D.A. Bessey) 
Published as information 

— I — 

In-Floor Conveyor Systems 

Vol. 75, 1974, p 540-546 (D.F. Logan) 
Published as information 

Infra-Red Heating 

Vol. 66, 1965, p 222-223 (D.A. Bessey) 
Published as information 

Inspection of Railway Buildings 

Vol. 82, 1981, p 91-103 (J.N. Michel) 
Published as information 

— J — 

Joint Caulkings and Sealants, Evaluation of 
Vol. 84, 1983, p 116-123 
Published as information 



— L — 

Locomotive Sanding Facilities 

Vol. 76, 1975, p 169-178 (T.H. Seep) 
Manual Recommendation, Part 6 

Locomotive Washing Facility, Design Criteria for 
Vo. 79, 1978, p 283-289 
Manual Recommendation, Part 12 



M 



Manual, Revision of 

Vol. 69, 1%8, p 890-892 (W.C. Sturm) 
Presented at Annual Conference 

Manual, Revision of 

Vol. 70, 1969, p 963-964 (W.C. Sturm) 
Presented at Annual Conference 

Maintenance of Way Equipment Repair Shops, 
Design Criteria for 

Vol. 77, 1976, p 162-171 (J.C. Robertson) 
Manual Reconmiendation, Part 9 

Metal Buildings, Pre-Engineered 

Vol. 76, 1975, p 178-184 (T.H. Seep) 
Manual Recommendation, Part 7 



O 



Obsolescence, Fixed, Designing Railway Buildings for 
Vol. 68, 1967, p 298-301 (F.D. Day) 
Published as information 

Office Buildings, Design Criteria for Railroad 
Vol. 72, 1971, p 120-135 (W.C. Sturm) 
Manual Recommendation, Part 2 

Office Buildings, Design Criteria for 

Vol. 76, 1975, p 167-168 (T.H. Seep) 
Manual Recommendation, Part 2 

Office Planning, Design Criteria for Railway 
Vol. 70, 1969, p 602-609 (R.J. Martens) 
Published as information 



Paint and Coating Products, New Advantages 
Vol. 66, 1965, p 199-202 (A.F. Langmeyer) 
Published as information 

Passenger and Freight Stations, Large 

Vol. 68, 1967, p 302-305 (D.A. Bessey) 
Published as information 

Passenger Stations 

Vol. 66, 1965, p 18 
Revision to manual 



-191 (W.G. Harding) 



Passenger Station, Design Criteria for 

Vol. 76, 1975, p 185-204 (T.H. Seep) 
Manual Recommendation, Part 8 

Piggyback-Its Development and Its Future 
Vol. 67, 1966, p 701-714 
Panel discussion at Annual Conference 

Piggyback Terminals, Facilities for 

Vol. 69, 1968, p 892-894 (C.R. Madeley) 
Presented at Annual Conference 



Published as Information 



415 



Piggyback Terminals, Facilities for 

Vol. 71, 1970, p 516-523 (C.R. Madeley) 
Published as information 

Plastic Materials in Railway Buildings, use of 
Vol. 66, 1965, p 210-221 (H.R. Helker) 
Published as information 

Pneumatic Tube Systems 

Vol. 75, 1974, p 547-556 (H.R. Helker) 
Published as information 

Portable Crew Housing 

Vol. 76, 1975. p 301-310 (J. A. Comeau) 
Published as information 

Portable Prefabricated Buildings 

Vol. 74, 1973, p 276-286 (P.W. Peterson) 
Published as information 

Portable Prefabricated Buildings 

Vol. 78, 1977, p 97-101 (T.H. Seep) 
Manual Recommendation, Part 1 1 

Portable Station Buildings 

Vol. 66, 1965. p 191-194 (C.R. Madeley) 
Published as information 

Pre-Engineered Metal Buildings 

Vol. 76, 1975, p 179-184 (T.H. Seep) 
Manual Recommendation, Part 7 

Prefabricated Buildings, Portable 

Vol. 74, 1973, p 276-286 (P.W. Peterson) 
Published as information 

Prefabricated Buildings, Portable 

Vol. 78, 1977, p 97-101 (T.H. Seep) 
Manual Recommendation, Part 1 1 

Prestressed Concrete for Railway Buildings 
Vol. 66, 1965, p 202-210 (W.R. Hyma) 
Published as information 

— R — 

Relocateable Structures 

Vol. 68, 1967, p 588-592 (T.R. Arnold) 
Special Feature at Annual Conference 

Roofing Systems, Selection and Maintenance of 
Vol. 83, 1982, p 180-191 (K.N. Keams) 
Manual Recommendation, Part 14 

— S — 

Sanding Facilities, Locomotive 

Vol. 76, 1975, p 169-178 (T.H. Seep) 
Manual Recommendation. Part 6 



Sealants. Joint Caulkings and. Evaluation of 
Vol. 84, 1983, p 116-123 
Published as information 

Specifications for Buildings for Railway Purposes 
Vol. 70, 1969. p 200-218 (W.C. Sturm) 
Manual Recommendation, Part 1 

Specifications for Railway Buildings (Portable Station 
Buildings) 

Vol. 66, 1965, p 191-194 (C.R. Madeley) 
Published as information 

Sf)Ot Car Repair Facilities, Design Criteria for 
Vol. 74, 1973, p 115-125 (T.H. Seep) 
Manual Recommendation, Part 3 

Station Buildings, Portable 

Vol. 66, 1965, p 191-194 (C.R. Madeley) 
Published as information 

Stations, Freight and Passenger, Large 

Vol. 68, 1967, p 302-305 (D.A. Bessey) 
Published as information 

Stations, Passenger 

Vol. 66, 1965, p 188-191 (W.C. Harding) 
Revision to Manual 

Stations, Passenger, Design Criteria for 
Vol. 76, 1975, p 185-204 (T.H. Seep) 
Manual Recommendation, Part 8 

Synthetic Resins for Adhesives, Use of 

Vol. 66, 1965, p 195-198 (HA. Shannon) 
Published as information 

— T — 

Trailer-on-Flat-Car Facilities, Design Criteria for 
Vol. 74, 1973, p 106-114 (G.J. Chamraz) 
Manual Recommendation, Part 5 



U 



Unit Costs for Various Types of Railway Buildings 
Vol. 67, 1966, p 316-324 (T.S. Williams) 
Published as information 

— Y — 

Yard Office Buildings, Elevated, Design Criteria for 
Vol. 77, 1976. p 172-180 (W.C. Humphreys) 
Manual Recommendation, Part 10 



I hope t'hell 
it's a PARKCO crossing! 



It sure is, pardner! . . . the smoothest 
crossing in the West! Don't worry about 
bouncing across and losing your wheel 
'cause PARKCO's patented design elim- 
inates "spike rise"— it doesn't use spikes— 
lag bolts either! And don't worry about 
sliding across 'cause raised traffic bearing 
surfaces divert moisture without losing 
traction. 

No other design available today has 
more features that protect subgrade, 
maintain rail stability and provide a 
smooth crossing than a PARKCO system 
... it consists of durable, synthetic rubber 
traffic pads firmly secured in place by ten- 
sioned steel cables passing longitudinally 



through channels cast within each pad. 
A moisture-resistant, tight fit is achieved 
through tongue-in-groove joining of all 
pad units. 

You'll probably come to a passel of 
crossings before the chase is over, but if 
you see the white PARKCO name on the 
pads, give the horses their full head— it's 
a smooth crossing! And it'll stay that 
way— for a long time to come. 

When you get to the relay station, 
give us a call— we'll fill you in on hoW 
PARKCO can help you outrun those 
arrows plus important information on 
Federal funding. 

Transportation Products Division 

Park Rubber Company 

80 Genesee Street, Lake Zurich, IL 60047 
(312) 438-8222 • Chicago (312) 774-3770 




Published as Information 417 



COMMITTEE 14 — YARDS AND TERMINALS 

Report of Subcommittee No. I 

"Fire Prevention in Yards" 

Part 1 — Halon Fire Protection For Railroad Computer, Communication, and Signal 
Systems 

M. C. Walbrun. (Chairman. Subcommittee), M. J. Anderson, J, M. Beime, J. R. 
Blanchfield, H. E. Buchman. M. K. Clark. D. V. Clayton. G. W. DuBois. R. D. Dykman, J. P. 
Forkner. M. R. Gruber. Jr.. D. L. Hatcher. H. L. Keeler. C. J. Lapinski, T. B, Levine, S. J. 
Levy, R. W. McKnight. J. C. Pinkston, H. C. Schrader. N. C. Smittle. P. E. Van Cleve, D. N. 

Witt. Jr. 

This Subcommittee was established to identify the latest innovations in fire protection 
equipment and fire prevention techniques for yards and terminals. This report is Part I in a series; 
future reports will be: 

2. Building Fire Protection 

3. Rolling Stock Fire Prevention 

4. Yard Surface Fire Prevention 

Consider the effect on your railroad's operation if your main etc center were suddenly 
destroyed overnight; if a vital railroad-telephone switching center were unusable for months; if 
your mainframe computer suddenly ceased to exist. Quite a devastating prospect but hardly 
inconceivable if fire were to strike. Due to the large amount of electrical equipment in these 
centers, they are potential candidates for fire, especially the PVC coated wires. Unfortunately, 
the consequences of pouring water into these areas isjustasbad. if not worse, than the fire itself. 
The result has been a general practice of not protecting these installations with fire suppression 
equipment — a prudent practice until just recently. 

A recent product; of interest to railroad computer, communications, and signal departments; 
is available to extinguish fires in electronic equipment without damaging the equipment or the 
personnel, and in some instances, even allows uninterrupted operations during a fire. The fire 
fighting system uses a gas known as Halon 1 301 . When smoke or heat detectors are triggered an 
alarm is sounded to alert personnel. If the alarm is not disabled within a set time frame, say 30 
seconds, the gas is discharged into the affected area. Within seconds Halon 1301 (bromo- 
trifluoromethane — CBrF,): a generally noncorrosive, odorless, colorless, nonconductive gas; 
spreads throughout the room chemically eliminating the fire even in areas where water could 
never reach and. unlike carbon dioxide, when used in recommended quantities it is safe for 
human beings, although personnel should leave the area until some normal ventilation is 
available. The entire process takes only seconds and leaves no residue. There is no clean up 
required and operations can continue almost immediately. A delayed action smoke evacuation 
system is not required, but is advisable for protection of equipment from corrosive gases and 
earlier occupation of the area. 

An inventory of items in such areas quickly shows what can bum; printed circuit boards, 
coatings on electrical components, plastic tape reels, printer paper, air conditioning apparatus, 
fans, and especially PVC coated wire. PVC has been used for years as a wire covering because it 
is flexible and an excellent insulator. Unfortunately, if lit it bums fiercely and emits large 
quantities of hydrogen chloride gas. This gas mixes with moisture in the air becoming hydro- 
chloric acid which immediately attacks solder terminals and other circuit functions. Along with 



418 Bulletin 693 — American Railway Engineering Association 



hydrogen chloride many other lethal gases are released posing a severe hazard to personnel still in 
the area. Computers are particularly susceptible to heat damage. Temperatures of only 150° can 
cause data loss and 300° can render most equipment useless. A very small fire can easily produce 
these temperatures. 

One major Halon supplier has reported over one fire a week nationally in its Halon protected 
areas. No failures of the system have occurred to date. Approximately 10,000 Halon systems had 
been installed in the U.S. by 1977, and its installations are still growing. The U.S. Census 
Bureau recently recovered from a multimillion dollar water sprinkler accident in 1979 that 
destroyed four main-frame computers and many peripherals. "The damage could have been 
completely eliminated if the center had used Halon 1301 instead of water," was the comment 
made by Colonel Kenneth Smiley Jr., Head of the Halon installation group for Air Force 
facilities, to the Census Bureau. GTE began a project to reduce its fire susceptibility after two 
major losses. The company states: "The most startling lesson learned from our experience was 
that a fire in a comparatively small area could have such widespread catastrophic effects on all 
equipment exposed to the contamination given off from burning polyvinyl chloride insulation. 
After much field testing, it was determined that in a comparison of protection systems: (1) 
Modular Halon systems are much easier to install than water sprinkler systems. (2) There is no 
service interruption in the event of accidental discharge. Although municipal electrical con- 
struction codes may require shutdowns of some equipment in the event of a fire. (3) Halon does 
not contribute to damage in extinguishing fire in telephone exchange environments. (4) Halon 
vapor can get to sources of fire in equipment that water cannot reach. (5) There is no residual after 
discharge of the agent such as exists with water. Halon would be of particular value in multiple 
story equipment buildings where water could damage equipment on several lower floors. (6) The 
systems are cost competitive. 

Local fire codes may have specific installation guidelines, but generally the systems consist 
of a main and reserve Halon reservoir, dispensing plumbing, a control center linked to regular 
ventilation equipment, manual and automatic activation devices, and fire dampers for all ducts. 

Halon 1301 systems are manufactured by many companies and approved for use by the 
National Fire Protection Association's Standard 1 2A against Class A, B, & C fires. As in any fire 
protection system, the cost versus the benefits must be addressed and a decision based on the 
probability of fire and the effect on the company of a fire. 

Following is a sample specification for a Halon protection system: 
1.0 Halon Suppression System 

A. The Contractor shall furnish and install a fire detection and Halon suppression system as 
shown on the drawings and specified herein. 

B. The suppression system shall be an automatic fixed fire suppression system using Halon 
1301 as the extinguishing agent. 

C. The detection system shall be a "cross zoned" system using smoke detectors. A cross 
zoned system has two detector zones within an area. The first zone actuation is 
pre-alarm and the second zone actuation is Halon release. 

D. The system operation shall be such that: 

1 . The actuation of a single smoke detector form any Halon zone shall simultaneously: 

a. Signal Alarm System (presignal). 

b. Illuminate zone indicating light on Halon control panel. 

c. Illuminate indicating light on detector locator graphic panel. 

d. Shut down HVAC motors close air dampers associated with Halon zone. 



» 



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IN EACH APPLICATION 



420 Bulletin 693 — American Railway Engineering Association 



e. Release all door magnetic closures. 

f. Start timer to retard Halon release for 30 seconds (to insure all fans have 
stopped freewheeling). 

2. The actuation of a complement cross-zoned smoke detectors shall simultaneously: 

a. Signal Fire Alarm System (Evacuation). 

b. Shut down all computer power within zone with release of Halon (circuit breaker 
shunt trip). 

c. Release Halon within zone after 30-second timer in presignal functions has timed 
out. 

3. Actuation of a manual "Halon Abort" station shall simultaneously: 

a. Prevent release of Halon and prevent shutdown of computer power. 

b. Illuminate "abort" annunciator light at Halon control panel. 

c. Sound local alarm at Halon control panel. 

d. Start air handling units. 

The abort command shall not prevent the operation of any alarms or annunciation, 
only prevent the release of Halon and computer shutdown. 

4. Actuation of "Manual Release" Button shall simultaneously: 

a. Override all Halon abort commands. 

b. Signal fire alarm system (evacuation). 

c. Shut down all HVAC motors and close air dampers associated with Halon zone. 

d. Illuminate manual release indicating light on Halon panel. 

e. Release Halon and shut down computer panels after 30-second timer. 

f . The manual release command shall not prevent the operation of any alarms or 
annunciation. 

E. Smoke detectors shall be ionization type in one zone and photo electric in the other zone. 
The detectors shall be spaced and located in accordance with its UL Listing and 
manufacturer's recommendations. 

1. The ionization products-of-combustion smoke detectors shall be a dual chamber 
type, and shall be UL listed and compatible with the control unit furnished. 

a. The smoke detector shall consist of a detector head and a twist lock base. The 
detector shall have a vandal-resistant, security locking feature. The locking feature 
shall be field removable when not required. 

b. The smoke detector shall have a flashing status indicating Light Emitting Diode 
(LED) for visual supervision. When the detector is actuated, the flashing LED 
shall latch on steady and at full brilliance. The detector shall be resettable by 
actuating the control unit reset switch. 

c. Each detector base shall have an auxiliary single-pole, double-throw relay and 
wire leads for a remote LED alarm indicator. 

d. The sensitivity of the detector shall be monitored without removal of the detector 



Published as Information 421 



head. Metering test points shall be accessible on the exterior of the detector head. 
Field adjustment of the sensitivity shall be possible when conditions require a 
change. 

e. It shall be possible to perform a functional test of the detector without the need of 
generating smoke. The test method must stimulate effects of products-of com- 
bustion in the chamber to ensure testing of all detector circuits. 

f. The detector shall employ voltage and RF transient suppression techniques to 
minimize false alarm potential. A gated alarm output shall be used for additional 
detector stability. 

g. The detector shall be nonpolarized. By using a manufacturer furnished wire 
jumper, it shall be possible to check circuit loop continuity prior to installing the 
detector head. 

2. The photoelectric smoke detector shall be UL listed and compatible with the control 
unit furnished. 

a. The smoke detector shall consist of a detector head and a twist lock base. The 
detector shall have a vandal-resistant security locking feature. The locking feature 
shall be field removable when not required. 

b. The photoelectric smoke detector shall have a flashing status indicating LED for 
visual supervision. When the detector is actuated, the flashing LED shall latch on 
steady and at full brilliance. The detector shall be resettable by actuating the 
control unit reset switch. 

c. Each detector base shall have an auxiliary single-pole, double throw relay and wire 
leads for remote LED alarm indication. 

d. It shall be possible to perform a functional test of the detector without the need for 
generating smoke. The test method must stimulate effects of products of com- 
bustion in the chamber to ensure testing of all detector circuits. 

e. The detector shall employ voltage and RF transient suppression techniques to 
minimize false alarm potential. A smoke signal verification feature shall be used 
for additional detector stability. 

f. The detector shall be nonpolarized. By using a manufacturer furnished jumper 
wire, it shall be possible to check circuit loop continuity prior to installing the 
detector head. 

The system shall be a total flooding Halon 1301 extinguishing system designed to 
provide a uniform concentration of 5% Halon 1301. The amount of Halon 1301 to be 
provided shall be the amount required to obtain a uniform 5% minimum concentration 
for ten (10) minutes. The contractor shall take into consideration building leakages, 
"run-down" time of fans, time required for dampers to close (and requirements for any 
additional dampers), and any other features of the facility that could affect con- 
centration. The fire suppression system shall discharge the extinguishing agent in not 
more than 10 seconds. The system shall meet the performance parameters of this 
specification and National Fire Protection Association Standard 12A. Each extinguish- 
ing sub-system shall include the following components: 

Agent Storage Container 

Discharge Nozzle 

Nozzle Deflector 

Initiator Assembly 



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Mounting Bracket 
Haion 1301 

1 . Agent Storage Container shall be refillable container constructed of high strength 
alloy steel. It shall include: a safety plug, a cable assembly, a mounting assembly, a 
0-600 psig pressure gauge and a lifting ring. The container shall conform to all 
applicable specifications as promulgated by the Department of Transportation. 
Container sizes shall accommodate agent charge weights from 10 to 196 lbs. The 
container shall automatically relieve between 850 and 10(X) psi in the event of 
excessive pressure buildup. Filled containers shall be superpressurized with dry 
nitrogen to 360 psig at 70°F to aid in rapid agent distribution, particularly at lower 
temperatures. Container design shall permit on-site reconditioning and refilling 
when required. The burst disc type valve assembly shall be an integral part of the 
agent storage container. It shall be operated by applying electrical current to an 
initiator assembly which thereby provides, on demand, the required path for release 
and discharge of the agent. The discharge end of the valve shall be provided with a 
female 1-1/2" pipe thread. Devices and connecting electrical leads shall be com- 
pletely supervised. The power for the storage containers valve operations shall be 
derived from the Halon control panel. 

2. Discharge Nozzles shall be used to distribute the agent in the protected room. A 
series of one piece, non-clogging, spiral nozzles shall be installed for this purpose. 
Size selection shall be determined by the size of the container to be used and the 
geometry of the room to be protected. The nozzles shall be either threaded directly 
into this discharge valve or connected through a reducer and/or elbow and piping. 
Nozzles shall be chrome plated brass of 303 stainless steel. The nozzle discharge 
pattern shall be 120 degree full cone for all sizes. 

3. Nozzle Deflector shall be required to direct the flow of agent as it is discharged from 
the nozzle away from floor and ceiling tiles. The deflector shall be of cast aluminum 
and attached directly to the nozzle. 

4. The initiator shall be an electro-explosive device which shall operate the burst disc 
type valve. It shall have a nominal bridge resistance of 0.5 ohms and a minimum 
tiring current of 1.5 amperes. 

5. Mounting Bracket shall be designed for installation on a wall or other rigid vertical 
surface and serve as support for the spherical agent storage container. It shall be 
capable of withstanding a thrust of 1000 pounds for 5 .seconds in any direction. 

6. The Extinguishing Agent shall be Halon 1301 (CBrF,)- NFPA Standard 12A 
specifies an average concentration of 5 percent minimum by volume of Halon 1301 , 
as required for extinguishment of fires. 

G. Manual Pull Stations for "Halon Aboit" and "Manual Release," shall be contained 
within a semi-flush cast metal housing having dual action release configuration to 
prevent accidental system discharge, i.e. discharge lever shall be protected by a lift 
cover. The housing shall incorporate a tamperproof screw to prevent unauthorized 
access to reset procedures. The device shall have an operating voltage of 24 volts DC. It 
will mount on a 4-inch standard junction box. The unit shall be listed by UL as a release 
device. Each device shall be provided with a nameplate. 

H. The Halon Control Panel shall be capable of operating from smoke detectors, pull 
stations (singly or in combination) to provide pre-alarm or release of agent as required. 
It shall also provide the power to operate the extinguishing sub-system and perform such 



424 Bulletin 693 — American Railway Engineering Association 



other secondary functions as may be required. The unit shall have the following 
capabilities. 

1 . The control unit shall be housed in a wall mounted, sheet metal enclosure suitable for 
protecting electrical circuits. It shall be of NEMA 1 codegauge, metal cabinet with 
hinged, locked doors. Knockouts shall be provided for external wiring in accordance 
with standard electrical practices. The enclosure (rough-in box) shall be available for 
wall mounting prior to installation of control electrical components and doors . A trim- 
plate shall be available to provide a uniform finish between wall and control unit 
enclosure. 

2. The control unit shall be capable of operation with either a powered or an unpowered 
detector either singly or in combination. Upon operation of the detector, the unit 
shall provide power for operation of the extinguisher sub-system; cause an audible 
and visual local alarm to actuate and energize auxiliary relays for remote alarm or 
equipment shutdown. The unit shall be capable of providing supervision of the 
following functions; 

Input Power 

Detection Circuits (Contact Type, Ionization Detectors) 

Manual Pull Station Circuits 

Initiator (Firing) Circuits 

Time Delay Relays 

Battery Fuse and Battery Lead & Charger 

Connections 

Trouble and Alarm Silence Switch Positions 

Module Position and Critical Connections 

Halon Abort and Manual Release 

In the event of a loss of rectified power or discontinuity in the monitored circuits, 
visual and audible trouble signals shall be activated. A ring back circuit will permit 
silencing of the audible trouble alarm. The necessary indicator lamps and control 
switches shall be mounted on a panel which is visible but located behind a locked, 
glass-paneled door. The indicator/control panel shall be of a dead front configuration 
in compliance with OSHA regulations; the back plate behind the terminal boards 
shall be painted orange to signify "live" conditions in this area. 

3. The control unit shall be solid state electronics employing plug-in circuit modules for 
detector and initiator (firing) circuits. The unit shall operate on 208/120 volts AC, 3 
wire, 60 hertz. Power consumption shall be 10 watts steady state with a peak of 200 
watts. Provisions should be made for operation from a self-contained built-in 
rechargeable nickle-cadmium standby batteries of 24 hour capacity. All battery 
recharging and power leads shall be designed for ease of installation with no special 
tools required. It shall be constructed to permit maintenance by qualified electricians 
without special tools or training. The control unit shall be UL listed and FM 
approved. 

I. The Halon Control Panel shall include a modular type annunciator which shall be as 
follows: 

1 . Annunciator shall be back lighted, dead front, modular type. No. annunciation point 
shall show except those in alarm condition. 



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426 Bulletin 693 — American Railway Engineering Association 



2. Annunciator construction shall be tamper-proof. 

3. Power to the annunciator panel shall be supplied from the Halon control panel and 
shall be 24 volts DC. 

4. Each annunciator point shall have two lamps. 

5. Annunciator points shall be provided as follows: 

a. One point for each alarm initiating zone circuit as indicated on the drawing. 

b. One point to indicate annunciator power on. 

c. Spare points as required to complete a standard module. 

6. Each annunciator point when illuminated shall show brightly illuminated black 
characters on a red background. 

7. Annunciator point characters shall be block type with a 1/8" minimum height. 

8. Annunciator shall have a push-to-test push button to simultaneously test all lamps. 

J. The Halon Control Panel shall include a graphic panel with a floor plan view background 
etched to a back plate. Miniature lamps shall be located in relative locations to match 
actual location of monitored product of combustion detector. Different color lamps shall 
indicate above or below raised floor locations. Provide lamp push-to-test push button to 
simultaneously test all lamps. 

K. The Halon control panel shall be provided with key operated zone "Halon Abort" and 
"Halon Manual Release" switches and pilot lights for all rooms protected. These 
switches shall operate the same as paragraph F-2 and F-3 of this section, except for the 
smaller physical area for Halon Abort or Halon Release. Nameplates shall be provided 
identifying each device. 

L. The Halon system shall be guaranteed against false discharges for a period of one year 
after acceptance by the Owner. In the event of false discharge of the Halon system 
during this period, the defect shall be corrected and the Halon recharged at no expense to 
the Owner. 

M. The Contractor shall submit the following, the reproducible form to the Engineer for 
approval . 

1 . A complete panel front layout for the Halon control panel, including all nameplate 
designations for all lamps, switches etc., prior to ordering the panel. 

2. A complete front layout for modular type annunciator section, including the 
designations for all annunciator points, prior to ordering the panels. 

3. A complete layout of the Halon containers. 

N . The Contractor shall furnish the following information and services relative to the Halon 
Suppression Systems: 

1 . The Contractor shall furnish complete wiring diagrams and container/nozzle loca- 
tions for all system components to the Engineer. These wiring diagrams and locations 
shall be furnished not later than two (2) weeks before the equipment order is 
placed. 

2. The Contractor shall mark all wiring information for inter-connecting all system 
components on a set of fire alarm reproducible drawings. Copies of these drawings 
shall be included in the "operating and maintenance manuals." 

3. The Contractor shall supervise the final connections to the panel. 



F^iblished as Information 427 



4. The Contractor shall check and test the complete system after it has been installed. 

5. The Contractor shall furnish the Owner with a one ( 1 ) year service contract, at no 
additional charge. The contract shall start on the date of acceptance of the system by 
the Owner and shall include a minimum of two system checkouts during the contract 
year. Any labor required during the contract year shall be furnished at no charge to 
the Owner. 

6. The Contractor shall have a service department that can respond within 24 hours with 
trained personnel and a parts stock to insure proper operation and maintenance of the 
system in the event of an emergency. 

7. The Contractor shall provide to the Owner's representatives a minimum of one day 
of instruction by a representative of the manufacturers for operation and main- 
tenance of the system. The instruction period shall be held after installation, testing 
and acceptance by the Owner and at a time scheduled and approved by the Owner. 

An acceptance test providing evidence that specified concentrations have been met and 
that the installation meets or exceeds the requirements of this specification shall be 
provided. The contractor shall submit for approval by the owner a "Test Plan" which 
shall describe in writing the acceptance test to be performed. This shall include a 
step-by-step description of all tests and shall indicate type and location of test apparatus 
to be employed. All tests shall be conducted in the presence of the owner, the authority 
having jurisdiction, and shall not be conducted until the "Test Plan" is approved. 

1. Tests shall demonstrate that the entire control system functions as intended. All 
circuits shall be tested; automatic discharge, manual discharge, equipment shut- 
down, alarm devices and storage container pressure. In addition, sujjervision of each 
circuit shall be tested. 

2. Discharge tests shall be conducted for each area; each area shall be tested separately. 
Tests shall be conducted by the contractor, Halon equipment manufacturer and 
Halon manufacturer's representative. Such tests shall be made only after the control 
system has tested satisfactorily. Halon 122 shall be used as the test gas. The 
contractor shall provide means for exhausting the test gas from the protected areas. 
The Halon containers shall be filled with Halon 122 to 82% of the rated weight of 
Halon 1301. Manufacturer's recommendations for performance testing of total 
flooding systems shall be followed as it relates to the use of Halon 122. 

3. The specified concentration of Halon shall be maintained throughout the protected 
areas for at least 10 minutes. The contractor shall provide all necessary test apparatus 
and instrumentation, including test gas to be expended. Thermal con- 
ductivity gas analyzers capable of automatically monitoring three (3) sampling 
points simultaneously shall be provided. Concentration measurements shall be 
recorded every 5 seconds on separate strip charts and shall operate for a 30 minute 
period. 

4. If test results indicate that the specified concentration was not achieved and/or 
holding time was not maintained, the contractor shall determine and correct cause of 
failure. The contractor shall then conduct a second discharge test at no additional 
cost to the owner or engineers. 

5. Before acceptance by the owner, the complete system shall be reconditioned, 
containers refilled and replaced and the systems placed in operation within a 
twenty-four (24) hour period. The contractor shall provide written certification that 
all containers have been refilled as required. 




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P. The contractor shall provide technicians to inspect the complete installation and to 
pertomi the perfomiance and acceptance test. During the perU)rmance test, gas con- 
centration samples shall be taken at multiple points (subject to Owner's approval). The 
time for the acceptance test will be detemiined by the mutual agreement between 
Contractor and Owner. The Contractor shall furnish three copies of the test report. The 
contractor shall provide Halon 1 22 required for the test and Halon 1 30 1 for recharge of 
the storage containers after the test. 

Q. Three complete reports of the test, listing all parameters of the test, and copies of the 
recordings shall be turned over to Owner by the Contractor at the completion of test. 

R. Throughout the installation of the piping and testing the Contractor will be responsible 
for any damages to surfaces of walls, floors, and ceilings. 



COMMITTEE 32— SYSTEMS ENGINEERING 

Report of Subcommittee No. 1 — Administrative Systems 

"Applications of Fixed Plant Data Bases" 
A.E. Fazio and F.T. Anbari 

I. Introduction 

Sub Committee 1 (Administrative Systems) of AREA Committee 32 (Systems 
Engineering) is tasked to: 

"Disseminate information pertinent to design and implementation, including 
.specific applications of techniques within the scope of railroad engineer- 
ing .. . (of) Inventory Systems — roadway equipment, track elements, 
structures." 

The Committee reported on some general approaches to the design, construction and 
maintenance of fixed facilities data bases in AREA Bulletin 68.S, of November — 
December, 1981(2). This report represents a more detailed investigation into the appli- 
cations of data bases in a variety of railway engineering problems. 

An understanding of potential applications of a fixed plant data base is important for 
two reasons: 

1 . The initial expense required to construct a data base can be justified if the benefits 
which accrue from the intended applications can be identified and, if possible, 
quantified. 

2. The design of a data base is highly dependent on its proposed applications. The 
quantity and the level of detail of the information included in a data base would 
not be the same for all applications. This report illustrates this point through the 
sample application of a data base to drive two track maintenance planning 
models. 

II. Results of Committee 32 Survey 

Prior to investigating specific data ba.se applications and how these applications attect 
data base design. Committee 32 conducted a survey of American railroads regarding the 
retention of physical characteristics data. 



430 Bulletin 693 — American Railway Engineering Association 



The purpose of the survey was to determine the extent to which track information is 
available on Class I railroads and the form in which it is available. The survey was designed 
to provide a measure of the emphasis American railroads place on various types of track 
data and more importantly, the extent to which railroads have made the conversion to 
computer-based information systems. 

Thirty railroads responded to this survey. The results are included as an appendix to 
this report. A number of conclusions were drawn from the survey: 

1 . There already exists widespread machine (computer) record keeping for certain 
physical characteristics including rail, ties, curves, gradients and grade cross- 
ings. These data often include maintenance histories for rail, ties, surfacing and 
other components, as well as roadway quality records (rail flaws/defects and 
track geometry). There is also a large number of railroads which maintain 
machine records of the plant utilization (train and traffic density and accumulated 
tonnage) and of safety related items (derailments and accidents). 

On an overall basis, 25% of the respondents maintained the five categories 
indicated below on the computer. 

a. FACILITY RECORDS 

The following percentage of respondents indicated that they keep the speci- 
fied characteristics on a computer system; 

GRADE CROSSINGS (OTHER) — 43% 

RAIL — 40% 

CURVES — 37% 

GRADE — 33% 

BRIDGES — 30% 

GRADE CROSSINGS (RAILROADS) — 30% 

DIVISION BOUNDARIES — 30% 

TIES — 27% 

DIMENSIONAL CLEARANCE DATA — 27% 

CLASS OF TRACK — 23% 

TURNOUTS — 20% 

SIDINGS — 17% 

OTHER BOUNDARIES — 17% 

JOINT FACILITIES — 17% 

TRACK CHARTS/PROFILE — 17% 

BALLAST — 6% 

On an aggregate basis, 27% of the railroads maintained computer records of 
their facilities. 

b. MAINTENANCE RECORDS 

On an aggregate basis, 22% of the railroads maintained computer records of 
their maintenance work. 

c. ROADWAY QUALITY 

On an aggregate basis, 21% of the railroads maintained computer records of 
roadway quality. 

d. TRAFFIC RECORDS 

On an aggregate basis, 29% of the railroads maintained traffic records data on 
the computer. 



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432 Bulletin 693 — American Railway Engineering Association 



e. SAFETY RECORDS 

On an aggregate basis, 43% of the railroads maintained safety records data on 
the computer. 

2. There is considerable opportunity for further mechanization of system records. 
Even for characteristics where a high percentage of railroads maintained com- 
puterized records, such as rail data, a large number of railroads maintain system 
records o//'the computer. 

On an overall basis, 62% of the respondents maintained the five categories of 
data indicated in the previous section ojf the computer. 

On an overall basis, 13